Peter Kevan

Peter Kevan
University of Guelph | UOGuelph · School of Environmental Sciences

B. Sc. (McGill U), Ph. D. (U of A), FRSC, FRES, FRSB, FLS

About

398
Publications
249,143
Reads
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13,596
Citations
Introduction
Now: Univerity Prof. Emeritus. I was Scientific Director of the Canadian Pollination Initiative (NSERC-CANPOLIN). Research is on pollinator use to vector biocontrol agents against insect pests and plant pathogens in agriculture , bumblebee behaviour (learning), community ecology of pollinators and pollination, and aspects of colour vision in pollinators (bees). My general interest is in applied and interdisciplinary ecology in terrestrial environments from High Arctic to the tropics..
Additional affiliations
July 2020 - July 2020
University of Guelph
Position
  • Professor Emeritus
Description
  • I am still active in research while in retirement. My focus has been in terrestrial and applied ecology from the High Arctic to the Tropics. My major interest has been in pollination biology from both zoological and botanical perspectives. More recently, my attention has been on the micrometeorological relations within plant parts (flowers, fruits and stems) that effect growth, maturation and reproduction.
December 2013 - present
Universidade Federal da Bahia
Position
  • Visiting lecturer
Description
  • Helping deliver the course in Pollination Ecology each year.
October 2008 - January 2014
University of Guelph
Position
  • Peter G. Kevan
Description
  • National Strategic Network for Pollination across Canada
Education
September 1965 - May 1970
University of Alberta
Field of study
September 1961 - May 1965
McGill University
Field of study
  • Zoology

Publications

Publications (398)
Article
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Inter-relations of plants, arthropods and fungi in Devonian time
Article
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This is a series of short articles on apivectoring out of and into honeybee hives for crop and colony protection
Article
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This article is about a successful new device that permits the dispensing of beneficial materials in powder form (biocontrol agents, medicaments) into honeybee hives for pest and disease control within the colony
Article
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This article is about the use of a device for the dissemination of beneficial powders (biocontrol agents, botanicals, medicaments) by honeybee into their own colonies for suppression of diseases and parasites
Article
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This article is about the use of bumblebee to deliver biocontrol agents against insect pest (thrips) in greenhouse production and protection of strawberries
Article
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This srticle is about "apivectoring", the use of managed pollinators to disseminate biological control agents for protection of crops against pests and diseases
Article
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This article is about the issue of measuring "ecosystem health" in a objective way by use of accepted ecological principles
Article
Understanding the dinamics of filtration of pollen and spores by plant canopies is crucial to the in the modelling of their dispersal, yet few studies have quantified filtration. Here, we examine the decline in the density of flour particles descending through a 40 m-tall tropical canopy on a windless day at Caxiuanã National Forest, Pará, Brazil....
Article
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Near-ground temperatures strongly influence Arctic plant growth, reproduction, maturation and phenological relations with pollinators and herbivores. Those temperatures become further elevated within plant parts through passive solar heating, e.g. dish-shaped blossoms that focus insolation and heat-trapping pubescent structures. Other Arctic plants...
Chapter
The ability of commercial bumblebees to transfer Clonostachys rosea spores as a biocontrol agent (BVT-CR7 strain) from the hive to sunflower heads for the control of Sclerotinia head rot was studied during 2016 and 2017 in field trials. The bumblebee hives were placed in isolation cages before flowering and allowed to adapt to the new environment....
Chapter
Ecological intensification refers to the practical management for amelioration of biodiversity and ecosystem management in productivity and sustainability for the benefit of human livelihoods. Pest management is critical for agricultural and forestry production systems and for human health. Chemical pesticides have become increasingly sophisticated...
Chapter
This paper reports on the implementation of the Apivectoring Technology for the first time in an experimental strawberry crop (Fragaria x ananassa) in Colombia. Honey bees (Apis mellifera) were used as vector of the bio-pesticide Trichoderma harzianum for the control of Botrytis cinerea in an experimental plot of strawberry, in which 6 treatments w...
Chapter
The fungus gnats, Bradysia impatiens (larvae and adults), were either separately or concurrently exposed for 6 h to growing spores of Fusarium oxysporum and Pythium aphanidermatum, and a powder formulation of Clonostachys rosea on leaf discs of strawberry to determine their capacity in laboratory trials for vectoring these three microbes. We determ...
Chapter
Losses caused by the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) have been decreasing coffee production. This pest causes annual losses over U.S. $500 million. The chemical insecticides have been used to Coffee berry borer control. Due to their effects of pesticides on human and environmental health, some countries decided to ban the use of e...
Book
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The book “Atlas of pollen and plants used by bees” was prepared with great care with the data of researchers from Argentina, Brazil, Canada, and Colombia, who are collaborators of RCPol - Online Pollen Catalogs Network. RCPol was conducted during the development of the project entitled “Study of bee flora and pollen grains for the insertion of data...
Article
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This essay is about Acer negundo, Manitoba maple, in support of its value in arboriculture
Book
This book examines entomovectoring, which employs crop pollinators to spread biocontrol protections against plant pathogens. The book describes research and development of the process, also known as apivectoring and beevectoring, for use both in pollination and in the delivery of biocontrol agents against crop and pollinator diseases, pests, and pa...
Article
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Earth's surface is rising, much to the consternation of the world. Terrestrial life, including human, is almost all restricted to a biofilm of few tens of metres above and below the surface. That life-supporting film, the biosphere, has, by comparison with the atmosphere, lithosphere and hydro-sphere, the greatest historical, seasonal and daily var...
Article
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Background: Obtaining an optimal flower temperature can be crucial for plant reproduction because temperature mediates flower growth and development, pollen and ovule viability, and influences pollinator visitation. The thermal ecology of flowers is an exciting, yet understudied field of plant biology. Scope: This review focuses on several attri...
Article
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Microthermic regimes within hollow stems of herbaceous plants
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Temperature regimes within�􀃀�􀁒� � 􀁇� � � 􀁒� � � 􀁒􀁏� 􀁒� 􀀋�􀁒􀁏� 􀀌� � � 􀁏� � � flo wers and stems show that insol ation (sol ar) warming results in temperature excesses above the ambient air. The add itional heat is important for develo pment of reprod uctive organs (sporophyll s) and presumably for the growth of stems. We review studies on temperature...
Chapter
Pest management is critical for agricultural and forestry production systems and for human health. Chemical pesticides have become increasingly sophisticated as standard control measures. Other approaches, such as biological control, are also advocated as viable options. Biological control agents are living organisms (or parts thereof) that interfe...
Article
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Although there have been studies of the temperature regimes within flowers, micrometeorology within stems seems to have been overlooked. We present ideas, hypotheses, and a diagrammatic model on the biophysical and thermodynamic processes that interact in complex ways to result in elevated temperature regimes within hollow stems of herbaceous plant...
Article
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Background: Flower coloration is a key enabler for pollinator attraction. Floral visual signals comprise several components that are generated by specific anatomical structures and pigmentation, and often have different functions in pollinator attraction. Anatomical studies have advanced our understanding of the optical properties of flowers, and...
Article
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RESUMEN La Tecnología Apivector, representa una alternativa sostenible para el manejo preventivo de plagas y enfermedades en cultivos agrícolas, basada en el conocimiento de las relaciones multitrópicas desarrolladas por miles de años entre poli-nizadores, plantas y patógenos; utiliza un innovador método de control: la inoculación de abejas con bio...
Chapter
Pest management is a critical component of both agricultural and forestry production systems and for human health. In the 20th century, chemical pesticides became increasingly sophisticated as the standard control measures. However, other approaches, such as biological control, were also developed and in the 21st century more and more advocated as...
Article
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Erigeron lemmonii A. Gray is extremely rare, but not endangered. There are fewer than 1000 individuals, but they compose an apparently stable, heterozygotic, diploid (2n = 18) population. The plants are perennial and endemic to one small location (about 0.5 km²) in Scheelite Canyon, Huachuca Mountains (Cochise County), Fort Huachuca Army Base, part...
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Article
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In comparing the incidence of dioecy in North American floras, we report a strong, positive correlation with increasing latitude. Dioecy in the High Arctic is highly correlated with woodiness, as elsewhere. It is significantly correlated with fleshy, zoochorous, fruits, as well documented elsewhere. Correlation with floral inconspicuousness, which...
Article
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Many pollinating insects acquire their entire nutrition from visiting flowers, and they must therefore be efficient both at detecting flowers and at recognizing familiar rewarding flower types. A crucial first step in recognition is the identification of edges and the segmentation of the visual field into areas that belong together. Honeybees and b...
Chapter
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Technical Report
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Most of the world’s wild flowering plants (87.5%) are pollinated by insects and other animals (established but incomplete), more than three quarters of the leading types of global food crops can benefit, at least in part, from animal pollination (well established) and it is estimated that about one-third of global food volume produced similarly ben...
Data
Explosive pollen release from staminate plant of Boehmeria caudata recorded during this study. Readers are directed to Figure 11 in Poinar et al. (2016) of amber-fossilized freeze-frame explosive pollen release from a staminate flower of Ekrixanthera ehecatli. At the left, a series of 5 - 6 almost simultaneous, and very rapid, explosions occur with...
Article
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The first fossil flowers of Neotropical Urticaceae (Boehmerieae) are described from the Dominican Republic and Mexico as belonging to a new genus, Ekrixanthera. Ekrixanthera hispaniolae sp. nov. from Dominican amber has pentamerous staminate flowers on short pedicels with a pilose pistillode and heteromorphic pilose tepals: two are clavate and thre...
Article
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Male flowers of the wind-pollinated, dioecious shrub Boehmeria caudata release pollen explosively possibly stimulated by anther dehydration in response to temporarily dry conditions and coupled with hydrostatic pressure in the filament. In the Brazilian Atlantic rain forest, the daily frequency of male flower anthesis peaked between 10:00-12:00 h (...
Chapter
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In this paper, we present a general discrete-continuous modeling framework to study the effect of swarming on the dynamics of a honeybee colony infested with varroa mite and Acute Bee Paralysis Virus (ABPV) . Two scenarios are studied under which swarming takes place i.e., swarming due to overcrowding and swarming at fixed time intervals. For this...
Article
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A quarter millennium of the changing face of pollination biology from 18th Century discovery (thesis) to 21st Century crisis is presented in six overlapping, interdigitating facets. Pollination biology was not regarded as serious science at its onset, but acceptance of the Darwinian theory of evolution has shown its biological value. Disciplinary i...
Article
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Ecological partnerships, or mutualisms, are globally widespread, sustaining agriculture and biodiversity. Mutualisms evolve through the matching of functional traits between partners, such as tongue length of pollinators and flower tube depth of plants. Long-tongued pollinators specialize on flowers with deep corolla tubes, whereas shorter-tongued...
Article
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A mathematical model for the honeybee-varroa mite-ABPV system is proposed in terms of four differential equations for the: infected and uninfected bees in the colony, number of mites overall, and of mites carrying the virus. To account for seasonal variability, all parameters are time periodic. We obtain linearized stability conditions for the dise...
Article
Diptera are important flower visitors and pollinators for many plant species and in a variety of habitats. Although Diptera are not as well studied as other groups of pollinators, there is a growing literature that we review here about the ecology of their foraging behaviour and their effectiveness as pollinators. We consider (1) how their foraging...
Article
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Animals react to salient stimuli via unconditioned responses, Pavlovian conditioning, conditioned manipulation of objects in simple and complex ways (instrumental/operant learning and tool use) and insight learning. Bumblebees are known to learn to manipulate natural and artificial complex flowers to obtain rewards. Even though those tasks involve...
Article
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We trained worker bumblebees to discriminate arrays of artificial nectaries (one, two, and three microcentrifuge tubes inserted into artificial flowers) from which they could forage in association with their location in a three-compartmental maze. Additionally, we challenged bees to learn to accomplish three different tasks in a fixed sequence duri...
Article
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NORWAYMAPLE Invasive alien species, such as Norway maple (Acer platanoides), are a threat to the improvement and even the long-term survival of sugar maple (Acer saccharum).
Article
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Bumblebees move about their environments by flying and by walking. Most experimental studies have addressed navigation during foraging flights, but we presented our experimental bees with the challenge of learning to navigate while walking as they must do in nature within topographically complex spaces containing their nests. We trained bumblebee w...
Article
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With the recent discoveries of treatment-resistant AFB and varroa, the face of disease and pest control in apiculture has changed. Control must now enter the realm of integrated pest management (IPM) by which traditional chemical controls are combined with ‘softer’ approaches and with genetic and cultural methods. IPM is needed to reduce the occurr...
Article
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The authors are part of NSERC-CANPOLIN, School of Environmental Sciences, Edmund C. Bovey Building, University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada. The Canadian Pollination Initiative (NSERC-CANPOLIN) is a five-year, $5 million research network that has been investigating the complex issues of pollinator declines and sustainable pollination since it was lau...
Article
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Mobility of flowers in the wind has been proposed to affect the performances of pollinators in landing on flowers, nectar extraction, and pollen dispersal. Our study examined the preferences of worker Bombus impatiens Cresson (Hymenoptera: Apidae) for landing on and feeding from immobile or mobile artificial flower. Mobile flowers moved at varied f...
Article
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Coffee is the second most traded commodity, after petroleum, in the world. Vast areas of tropical landscapes are devoted to coffee production. A coffee bean starts its journey to our table as a flower on a shrub. Flowers require pollination for seeds and fruits to form, but for coffee it is widely believed that either self-pollination or pollinatio...
Article
Full-text available
Diptera are important flower visitors and pollinators for many plant species and in a variety of habitats. Although Diptera are not as well studied as other groups of pollinators, there is a growing literature that we review here about the ecology of their foraging behaviour and their effectiveness as pollinators. We consider (1) how their foraging...
Article
Full-text available
Dichlorvos is an insecticide used in slow-release plastic strips for controlling chalcid wasp parasites, such as Pteromalus venustus Walker, in incubators used to raise alfalfa leafcutting bees (Megachile rotundata F.). Beekeepers need a practical method to detect dichlorvos in air and verify that it has dissipated to levels acceptable for worker r...
Article
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node versus internode, need for a rooting hormone application or not, and timing of application-phenology. Once the air-layers are applied to the twigs, the roots will start to show 5 to 12 weeks later (Figure 3). Once roots appear the air-layer can be cut from the tree and the twig with its roots is transplanted into a pot for over-wintering. Do n...
Article
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Article
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Abstract: Understanding the dinamics of filtration of pollen and spores by plant canopies is crucial to the in the modelling of their dispersal, yet few studies have quantified filtration. Here, we examine the decline in the density of flour particles descending through a 40 m-tall tropical canopy on a windless day at Caxiuanã National Forest, Pará...
Patent
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A tray for positioning in an exit path of a beehive comprises a base, a bee entrance end, and a bee exit end. Spaced apart side walls extend upwardly from the base. The sidewalls extend generally lengthwise between the bee entrance end and bee exit end. A plurality of posts extend upwardly from the base and are positioned between the bee entrance e...
Article
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Premise of research. Angiosperms possess pollen dispersal units (PDUs) of varying size, from monads (single grains) to aggregates containing thousands of grains. It has been suggested that the degree of aggregation is related to the dispersal agent (in particular, animals vs. wind), but aggregation has rarely been measured, and its correlation with...
Article
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The value of pollination to human society is not limited to agricultural production, but also in the sustainability of ecosystems and the services that they provide. Seed set can be used as a comparative measure of pollination effectiveness, with minimum variability expected when other resources are not limiting. Six species of self-incompatible fa...
Article
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Ascalapha odorata (Linnaeus) (Black Witch) is one of the largest members of the superfamily Noctuoidea in North America. Although it has been collected from Canada to Argentina and even from Hawaii (Quinn 2008–2014*) (Figure 1), the natural breeding range of A. odorata is thought to be limited to Central America and the southernmost United States,...
Article
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During foraging, worker bumblebees are challenged by simple to complex tasks. Our goal was to determine whether bumblebees could successfully accomplish tasks that are more complex than those they would naturally encounter. Once the initial training to successfully manipulate a simple, artificial flower was completed, the bees were either challenge...
Article
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Plant breeders have con-tributed marvellously to yield increases in agriculture. Cultivars bred for greater productivity in seed and fruit crops are a main-stay of modern farming. One trait that breeders have incorporated into many modern crop varieties is self-compatibility. The flowers on self-compatible plants can fer-tilize themselves, getting...