Peter J de Jong

Peter J de Jong
University of Groningen | RUG · Department of Psychology

PhD

About

426
Publications
96,459
Reads
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13,127
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2011 - present
University of Amsterdam
January 2009 - December 2011
University of Groningen
Position
  • Universitair Medisch Centrum Groningen
January 2007 - December 2011
Utrecht University

Publications

Publications (426)
Article
Full-text available
Sex and disgust seem like strange bedfellows. The premise of this review is that disgust-based mechanisms nevertheless hold great promise for improving our understanding of sexual behavior, including dysfunctions. Disgust is a defensive emotion that protects the organism from contamination. Accordingly, disgust is focused on the border of the self,...
Article
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Some people show slower extinction of UCS expectancies than other people. Little is known about what predicts such delayed extinction. Extinction requires that people deduce the logical implication of corrective experiences challenging the previously learned CS-UCS contingency. "A strong habitual tendency to confirm beliefs" may therefore be a powe...
Article
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Maladaptive disgust responses are tenacious and resistant to exposure-based interventions. In a similar vein, laboratory studies have shown that conditioned disgust is relatively insensitive to Conditioned Stimulus (CS)-only extinction procedures. The relatively strong resistance to extinction might be explained by disgust's adaptive function to mo...
Article
Background and objectives: Research shows that people tend to consider believable conclusions as valid and unbelievable conclusions as invalid (belief bias). When applied to anxiogenic beliefs, this belief bias could well hinder the correction of dysfunctional convictions. Previous work has shown that high socially anxious students indeed display...
Article
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Background Attentional bias for substance-relevant cues has been found to contribute to the persistence of addiction. Attentional bias modification (ABM) interventions might, therefore, increase positive treatment outcome and reduce relapse rates. The current study investigated the effectiveness of a newly developed home-delivered, multi-session, i...
Article
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Background: A substantial proportion of clinical World War Two survivor offspring reports intrusions about war events they did not experience themselves. Objective: To help identify factors that contribute to the development of such indirect intrusions (i.e. intrusions about non-self-experienced traumatic events), we examined the personal character...
Article
Individuals with an eating disorder (ED) often report to be disgusted by their body. Body‐related self‐disgust could play an important role in the development and maintenance of EDs. We investigated if women with relatively high ED symptom scores indeed respond with disgust upon exposure to their body as indexed by facial electromyography (fEMG) of...
Article
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Background and objectives Romantic relationship breakups can lead to severe emotional disturbances including major depression. Anxious attachment and desired attachment with the ex-partner are hypothesized to elicit repetitive thought about the breakup and the former partner and attempts to reunite with (i.e. approach) the ex-partner, which fuel br...
Article
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Background and objectives Facial expression recognition has been studied extensively, including in relation to social anxiety. Nonetheless, a limited number of studies examined recognition of disgust expressions. Results suggest that disgust is perceived as more threatening than anger, and thus may invite more extreme responses. However, few studie...
Preprint
Autobiographical memories involving the own body are likely an important factor in defining people’s body images. People with a negative body image may not only be more likely to recall negative/repulsive memories of their body, but also be motivated to avoid retrieving specific memories to prevent triggering aversive emotions (e.g., disgust). Such...
Article
The prevalence of a negative body image among women is high. Because of its serious consequences for individuals’ mental health, there is an urgent need to improve current body image interventions. Recent studies using evaluative conditioning to strengthen the association between women’s body and positive (social) stimuli have shown promising resul...
Article
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Objective: Cross-sectional research provides robust evidence that individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) report higher punishment sensitivity (PS) than individuals without an eating disorder (ED). High PS might interfere with treatment motivation and the ability to learn from experience. The current study took a longitudinal approach to test predi...
Article
A negative body image and appraisals of disgust with one’s (physical) self reflect schematic representations of one’s body, which we classified under the term repulsive body image (RBI). We propose that an RBI biases autobiographical memory processing towards schema (=RBI)-congruent and over-general memories. Women with high (H RBI ; n = 61) and lo...
Article
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Objective: Satisfaction with normative life domains has been proposed as an important factor in the persistence of anorexia nervosa (AN). Initial evidence from a cross-sectional study indicated that individuals with AN reported lower satisfaction with normative life domains than individuals without an eating disorder. As an important next step in...
Article
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Cognitive theories of eating disorders implicate Attentional Bias (AB) towards food-related information in the development and maintenance of eating disorders. Empirical evidence for this proposal, however, has been inconsistent, and the measures used to examine AB to food-related stimuli typically showed poor reliability. The aim of the current st...
Chapter
Full-text available
Sex and sexual behaviour are a core part of life; aside from reproduction, sex can be pleasurable, healthy, and beneficial for developing intimacy. Alongside these desirable features, however, sex also has the clear downside of increasing the chances for contracting infectious diseases. The inherent contagious nature of sexual (by)products and sexu...
Article
The term Repulsive Body Image (RBI) refers to a schematic construct combining body-directed self-disgust and other negative body image features, that is assumed to bias information processing, including autobiographical memory retrieval. When specific memories about the own body are retrieved, intense self-disgust may arise and trigger urges to esc...
Article
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The term ‘hangry’ is colloquially used to describe being “bad tempered or irritable as a result of hunger,” but remarkably few studies have examined the effect of hunger on emotions. Yet, women attempting to restrict their food intake may be at risk of becoming entangled in a vicious cycle of hunger and negative emotions. That is, hunger may lead t...
Article
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Introduction: Victims of bullying often show interpersonal problems, such as having less high-quality interpersonal relationships compared to non-involved individuals. Research suggests that interpersonal struggles are associated with diminished emotional intelligence and competence and can lead to mental health problems such as depression. Therefo...
Article
The Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA; Nbaseline=2981) is an ongoing longitudinal, multi-site, naturalistic, cohort study examining the etiology, course, and consequences of depression and anxiety. In this article we synthesize and evaluate fifteen years of NESDA research on prominent psychological risk factors for the onset, persi...
Article
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A substantial proportion of youth with anxiety disorders shows comorbid behavioral (anger) problems. Such comorbid profile is associated with low treatment effectiveness and negative (longterm) outcomes. This study was therefore designed to examine trait factors that may promote anger responding in adolescents. By presenting participants (N = 158,...
Article
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Background The current study set out to improve our understanding of the characteristics of individuals who are motivated to restrict their food intake yet who nevertheless fail to do so. We examined whether punishment sensitivity (PS) was related to restrained eating, and reward sensitivity (RS) to perceived dieting success. Additionally, it was e...
Preprint
Full-text available
Cognitive theories of eating disorders implicate Attentional Bias (AB) towards food-related information in the development and maintenance of eating disorders. Empirical evidence for this proposal, however, has been inconsistent and the measures used to examine AB to food-related stimuli typically showed poor reliability. The aim of the current stu...
Article
CBT for anxious youth usually combines anxiety management strategies (AMS) with exposure, with exposure assumed to be critical for treatment success. To limit therapy time while retaining effectiveness, one might optimize CBT by restricting treatment to necessary components. This study tested whether devoting all sessions to exposure is more effect...
Article
Full-text available
We developed and examined the construct validity of the Disgust Avoidance Questionnaire (DAQ) as a measure of people’s inclination to prevent experiencing disgust (disgust prevention) and to escape from the experience of disgust (disgust escape). In a stepwise item-reduction (Study 1; N = 417) using Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) based on a 4-su...
Preprint
The term Repulsive Body Image (RBI) refers to a schematic construct combining body-directed self-disgust and other negative body image features. As a self-schema, the RBI is assumed to bias information processing, including autobiographical memory retrieval. When specific memories about the own body are retrieved in a direct (automatic) fashion, in...
Article
In this article we present a theoretical model that points to disgust-induced avoidance as a mechanism that can help explain the persistent and excessive food restriction in individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN). Disgust is characterized by intense negative feelings of revulsion and an overwhelming and irresistible urge to avoid potential disgust...
Article
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Amnesia is a core diagnostic criterion for Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID), however previous research has indicated memory transfer. As DID has been conceptualised as being a disorder of distinct identities, in this experiment, behavioral tasks were used to assess the nature of amnesia for episodic 1) self-referential and 2) autobiographical m...
Article
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Background: Although previous studies have shown an inverse relation between life meaning and eating disorder symptoms, the correlational nature of this evidence precludes causal inferences. Therefore, this study used an experimental approach to test the causal impact of life meaning on individuals' weight and shape concerns. Methods: Female studen...
Article
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Attentional bias (AB) has been suggested to contribute to the persistence of substance use behavior. However, the empirical evidence for its proposed role in addiction is inconsistent. This might be due to the inability of commonly used measures to differentiate between attentional engagement and attentional disengagement. Attesting to the importan...
Article
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Current cognitive models of addiction imply that speeded detection and increased distraction from substance cues might both independently contribute to the persistence of addictive behavior. Speeded detection might lower the threshold for experiencing craving, whereas increased distraction might further increase the probability of entering a bias-c...
Article
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Objective Low satisfaction with normative life domains might be an important factor in the persistence of anorexia nervosa (AN). Initial evidence in non‐clinical samples showed that lower satisfaction with normative life domains was related to more intense eating disorder symptoms. As a critical next step, the current study examined satisfaction wi...
Article
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Sexual response occurs when sexual excitatory factors outweigh inhibitory factors. Problems with sexual arousal may occur when sexual excitation is too low and/or inhibitory influences such as feelings of disgust are too strong. To explore interventions that may help overcome decreased sexual responding, we examined if sexual responding could be am...
Article
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Anxiety and depressive disorders are characterized by high rates of recurrence, substantially contributing to the high burden associated with these disorders. It is therefore crucial to identify factors related to recurrence, as they may provide viable targets for preventative intervention. Previous studies have observed a link between low self-est...
Article
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Because of inconsistencies in the field of attentional bias to food cues in eating behavior, this study aimed to re-examine the assumption that hungry healthy weight individuals have an attentional bias to food cues, but satiated healthy weight individuals do not. Since attentional engagement and attentional disengagement have been proposed to play...
Article
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Introduction Current information-processing models of sexual arousal imply that both controlled and automatic affective-motivational processes are critically involved in sexual responding and suggest that dysfunctional automatic processes may be involved in the development and persistence of sexual dysfunctions. Because (dysfunctional) automatic pr...
Article
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Recent theoretical accounts point to disgust as an important factor in the development and persistence of sexual dysfunctions. This study tested if (i) contingent disgust experiences can render initially sexually arousing stimuli disgusting, and (ii) such acquired disgust responses could be best neutralized via a CS-only extinction or a countercond...
Chapter
A critical feature of sexual aversion, according to the authors of this chapter, is that “sex is experienced as inherently disgusting.” While historically classified as a sexual desire disorder, present diagnostic nosology has subsumed sexual aversion into the category of genito-pelvic pain/penetration disorder (DSM-5), or a sexual pain/penetration...
Preprint
The repulsive body image (RBI) describes a schematic representation of the own body marked by body-directed self-disgust and other body image concerns. This RBI may bias autobiographical memory processing towards RBI-congruent memories, which would be expected to be overgeneral, because disgust may promote the avoidance of specific memories. In the...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Sleep disorders are a risk factor for developing a variety of mental disorders, have a negative impact on their remission rates and increase the risk of relapse. Early identification and treatment of sleep disorders is therefore of paramount importance. Unfortunately, in mental health care sleep disorders are often poorly recognized an...
Preprint
Full-text available
We developed and examined the construct validity of the Disgust Avoidance Questionnaire (DAQ) as a measure of people’s inclination to prevent experiencing disgust (disgust prevention) and to escape from the experience of disgust (disgust escape). In a stepwise item-reduction (sample 1; n = 417) using Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) based on a 4-s...
Article
Full-text available
Heightened reward sensitivity has been proposed as a risk factor for developing behavioral disorders whereas heightened punishment sensitivity has been related to the development of anxiety disorders in youth. Combining a cross-sectional (n = 696, mean age = 16.14) and prospective (n = 598, mean age = 20.20) approach, this study tested the hypothes...
Article
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Introduction Although there is consensus that exposure is the key ingredient in treating childhood anxiety disorders, several studies in the USA suggest exposure to be underused in clinical practice. Previous research pointed to therapists’ beliefs about exposure, their age, experience, caseload, training and theoretical orientation, as well as the...
Article
Previously, adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN) showed reduced attentional engagement with food cues compared to adolescents without eating disorder (Jonker, Glashouwer, Hoekzema, Ostafin, & De Jong, 2019). This study tested whether (i) improvement in eating disorder symptoms and BMI are related to an increase in attentional engagement with food...
Article
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This study examined whether adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN) are more sensitive to punishment and less sensitive to reward than a non-eating disorder comparison group. Both self-report and performance measures were used to index reward and punishment sensitivity. Participants were adolescents with AN (n = 69) and an individually matched compa...
Article
Negative events may not only linger on in the form of intrusive memories in the minds of those directly exposed but also in those who are only indirectly confronted with these events. The aim of the present study was to investigate if intrusions referring to indirectly experienced traumatic events do indeed occur, and to compare their frequency and...
Article
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Objectives: Despite the gains made by current first-line interventions for major depressive disorder (MDD), modest rates of treatment response and high relapse indicate the need to augment existing interventions. Following theory and initial research indicating the promise of mindful yoga interventions (MYIs), this study examines mindful yoga as a...
Article
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Cognitive models emphasise the importance of attentional bias in addiction. However, many attentional bias tasks have been criticised for questionable psychometric properties and inability to differentiate between engagement and disengagement processes. This study therefore examined the suitability of two alternative tasks for assessing attentional...
Chapter
Unrealistic, negative expectations are a core feature of psychopathology and may contribute to the development and chronicity of mental disorders. Although the exact content and characteristics of expectancy bias varies across disorders, a striking feature that all expectancy biases share is their apparent insensitivity to corrective information. T...
Article
Background and objectives: Drive for thinness is considered an important factor in the onset and maintenance of negative body image and can be conceptualized as a motivational approach tendency towards thin bodies. The goal of this study was to test whether training thinness-related approach-avoidance tendencies is effective in improving body sati...
Article
Anecdotal evidence suggests that sexual attraction is flexible, and that high levels of sexual arousal can promote sexual willingness and approach tendencies toward a priori low attractive mates. This experimental study tested whether heightened sexual arousal can lower the threshold for sexual willingness and automatic approach tendencies toward p...
Article
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Although it has been proposed that obese and healthy weight individuals might differ in their reward and punishment sensitivity, the literature shows diverse and inconsistent findings. The current study was set out to examine the role of reward and punishment sensitivity in adolescent obesity by differentiating between reward responsivity and rewar...
Article
Body image disturbance is an important feature of Anorexia Nervosa (AN). Some researchers have argued that body image disturbance is not just a symptom of AN, but plays a causal role in the development, persistence, and relapse of AN. Our aim was to systematically review the existing empirical evidence concerning the role of the cognitive-affective...
Article
Cognitive -motivational models point to attention bias (AB) as an important factor in the persistence of problematic drinking behavior. Unfortunately, the measures that have been used to examine AB in addiction typically showed poor psychometric properties. To bring research on AB a critical step further it would be crucial to develop tasks with ac...
Article
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Sexual encounters imply exposure to stimuli that in other contexts typically elicit disgust-induced avoidance. To explain why people nevertheless tend to show sexual approach, it has been proposed that heightened sexual arousal may temporarily inhibit disgust. In line with this, studies have found that sexually aroused individuals showed heightened...
Article
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Exposure to war and violence has major consequences for society at large, detrimental impact on people’s individual lives, and may also have intergenerational consequences. To gain more insight into these intergenerational consequences, research addressing the impact of the Holocaust on offspring is an important source of information. The aim of th...
Article
The aim was to investigate whether a computer-based evaluative conditioning (EC) procedure using positive social feedback is effective in enhancing body satisfaction. Prior findings in three small-scale studies were mixed showing positive effects in pre-clinical samples, but not in a clinical sample of eating disorder patients. Therefore, our main...
Article
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This study tested the capacity of a modified Bouncing Image Training Task (BITT) to enhance unsuccessful dieters' attentional disengagement from food cues. Unsuccessful dieters were assigned to a training group performing daily BITT sessions for one week (n = 57) or a waitlist control group (n = 56). Change in attention was assessed using a visual...
Article
Background and objectives: Anorexia Nervosa (AN) patients are characterized by an excessive restriction of their food-intake. Prior research using an Affective Simon Task (AST) with food as a task-irrelevant feature, provided evidence for the view that AN patients' ability to refrain from food is facilitated by reduced automatic approach tendencie...
Article
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[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0213059.].
Article
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This study examined differences in food-related Attentional Bias (AB) between patients with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) and adolescents without an eating disorder. AB was assessed with an Attentional Response to Distal versus Proximal Emotional Information (ARDPEI) task that was specifically designed to differentiate between attentional engagement with a...
Article
Previous research showed that individuals who were remitted from a depressive disorder displayed heightened attention towards negative adjectives (e.g., worthless). We tested if this attentional bias (AB) is predictive of future recurrence of depressive episodes and/or having depressive symptoms at 2- and 4-year follow-up. We used a longitudinal ap...