Peter Jenniskens

Peter Jenniskens
SETI Institute

About

632
Publications
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8,155
Citations

Publications

Publications (632)
Article
Asteroid 2008 TC3 impacted the Earth's atmosphere with a known shape and orientation. Over 600 meteorites were recovered at recorded locations, including meteorites of nonureilite type. From where in the asteroid did these stones originate? Here, we reconstruct the meteor lightcurve and study the breakup dynamics of asteroid 2008 TC3 in 3‐D hydrody...
Article
Buckminsterfullerene, C 60 , is the largest molecule observed to date in interstellar and circumstellar environments. The mechanism of formation of this molecule is actively debated. Despite targeted searches in primitive carbonaceous chondrites, no unambiguous detection of C 60 in a meteorite has been reported to date. Here we report the first fir...
Preprint
Full-text available
We report on simultaneous 30 - 60 MHz LOFAR / AARTFAAC12 radio observations and CAMS low-light video observations of +4 to -10 magnitude meteors at the peak of the Perseid meteor shower on August 12/13, 2020. 204 meteor trains were imaged in both the radio and optical domain. Aside from scattered artificial radio sources, we identify broadband radi...
Preprint
Full-text available
The Desert Fireball Network observed a significant outburst of fireballs belonging to the Southern Taurid Complex of meteor showers between October 27 and November 17, 2015. At the same time, the Cameras for Allsky Meteor Surveillance project detected a distinct population of smaller meteors belonging to the irregular IAU shower #628, the s-Taurids...
Article
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The IAU Working Group on Meteor Shower Nomenclature was established in 2006 to regulate the nomenclature of meteor showers reported in the scientific literature. One year later the International Astronomical Union Meteor Data Center shower database was implemented (IAU MDC). The database does not contain all information about the meteor showers. It...
Article
The Almahata Sitta (AhS) meteorite is a unique polymict ureilite. Recently, carbonaceous chondritic lithologies were identified in AhS. Organic matter (OM) is ubiquitously found in primitive carbonaceous chondrites. The molecular and isotopic characteristics of this OM reflect its origin and parent body processes, and are particularly sensitive to...
Preprint
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The recovery of freshly fallen meteorites from tracked and triangulated meteors is critical to determining their source asteroid families. However, locating meteorite fragments in strewn fields remains a challenge with very few meteorites being recovered from the meteors triangulated in past and ongoing meteor camera networks. We examined if locati...
Article
The recovery of freshly fallen meteorites from tracked and triangulated meteors is critical to determining their source asteroid families. Even though our ability to locate meteorite falls continues to improve, the recovery of meteorites remains a challenge due to large search areas with terrain and vegetation obscuration. To improve the efficiency...
Preprint
Full-text available
The June 2, 2018, impact of asteroid 2018 LA over Botswana is only the second asteroid detected in space prior to impacting over land. Here, we report on the successful recovery of meteorites. Additional astrometric data refine the approach orbit and define the spin period and shape of the asteroid. Video observations of the fireball constrain the...
Article
What long-period comets with orbital periods >250 years cause detectable meteor showers on Earth? Low-light video cameras are used to track the motion of +4 to −5 magnitude meteors in our atmosphere by triangulation and calculate the meteoroid orbit in space. In recent years, the CAMS (Cameras for Allsky Meteor Surveillance) low-light video camera...
Article
The June 2, 2018 impact of asteroid 2018 LA over Botswana is only the second asteroid detected in space prior to impacting over land. Here, we report on the successful recovery of meteorites. Additional astrometric data refine the approach orbit and define the spin period and shape of the asteroid. Video observations of the fireball constrain the a...
Preprint
The Sari\c{c}i\c{c}ek howardite meteorite shower consisting of 343 documented stones occurred on 2 September 2015 in Turkey and is the first documented howardite fall. Cosmogenic isotopes show that Sari\c{c}i\c{c}ek experienced a complex cosmic ray exposure history, exposed during ~12-14 Ma in a regolith near the surface of a parent asteroid, and t...
Article
Full-text available
The advancement in the acquisition of spectral data from meteors, as well as the capability to analyze meteoritic entries in ground testing facilities, requires the assessment of the performance of software tools for the simulation of spectra for different species. The Plasma Radiation Database, PARADE, is a line‐by‐line emission calculation tool....
Article
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Nucleosynthetic isotope anomalies show that the first few million years of solar system history were characterized by two distinct cosmochemical reservoirs, CC (carbonaceous chondrites and related differentiated meteorites) and NC (the terrestrial planets and all other groups of chondrites and differentiated meteorites), widely interpreted to corre...
Article
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The thermal history of carbon phases, including graphite and diamond, in the ureilite meteorites has implications for the formation, igneous evolution, and impact disruption of their parent body early in the history of the Solar System. Geothermometry data were obtained by micro-Raman spectroscopy on graphite in Almahata Sitta (AhS) ureilites AhS 7...
Article
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The Hamburg meteorite fell on January 16, 2018, near Hamburg, Michigan, after a fireball event widely observed in the U.S. Midwest and in Ontario, Canada. Several fragments fell onto frozen surfaces of lakes and, thanks to weather radar data, were recovered days after the fall. The studied rock fragments show no or little signs of terrestrial weath...
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The origin of diamonds in ureilite meteorites is a timely topic in planetary geology as recent studies have proposed their formation at static pressures >20 GPa in a large planetary body, like diamonds formed deep within Earth's mantle. We investigated fragments of three diamond-bearing ureilites (two from the Almahata Sitta poly-mict ureilite and...
Article
The world's meteorite collections contain a very rich picture of what the early Solar System would have been made of, however the lack of spatial context with respect to their parent population for these samples is an issue. The asteroid population is equally as rich in surface mineralogies, and mapping these two populations (meteorites and asteroi...
Article
We present a comparison of radar and optical meteor shower radiant distributions with the Southern Argentina Agile Meteor Radar-Orbital System (SAAMER-OS) and the Cameras for Allsky Meteor Surveillance (CAMS). This study comprise seven years of meteor radar surveillance with SAAMER-OS and over eight years of the CAMS video meteor data. In total, ov...
Article
The CAMS New Zealand meteor shower survey detected a brief outburst of delta Pavonids (IAU shower 120, code DPA) with a compact radiant on March 31, 2019. This is the first instrumental detection of a shower long suspected to exist by visual observers monitoring the theoretical radiant of parent comet C/1907 G1 (Grigg-Mellish), despite it being lis...
Article
Our planet experiences falls of meteorites with different airburst and ground impact risk. Some of these meteors can survive after the atmospheric passage and fall into the ground. Although there are claims that people were hit and killed by meteorites in history, the historical records do not prove this fact so far. This issue might be due to the...
Preprint
The meteorite collections contain a very rich picture of what the early Solar System would have been made of, however the lack of spatial context with respect to their parent population for these samples is an issue. The asteroid population is equally as rich in surface mineralogies, and mapping these two populations (meteorites and asteroids) toge...
Article
The trajectory and orbit of the LL7 ordinary chondrite Dishchii'bikoh are derived from low‐light video observations of a fireball first detected at 10:56:26 UTC on June 2, 2016. Results show a relatively steep ~21° inclined orbit and a short 1.13 AU semimajor axis. Following entry in Earth's atmosphere, the meteor luminosity oscillated correspondin...
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Active asteroids are those that show evidence of ongoing mass loss. We report repeated instances of particle ejection from the surface of (101955) Bennu, demonstrating that it is an active asteroid. The ejection events were imaged by the OSIRIS-REx (Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, and Security-Regolith Explorer) spacecraf...
Article
The purpose of the IAU Working List of Meteor Showers is to keep the literature transparent by assigning a unique name, number and three-letter code to each newly reported meteor shower. Here, a report is given on newly adopted procedures for the removal of showers from the Working List. Entries that are shown to be duplicates or statistically insi...
Article
The CAMS BeNeLux and UAE Astronomical Camera Network meteor shower surveys detected a FWHM = 1.8-h wide outburst of 15-Bootids on April 21/22, 2019. Both networks had clear skies throughout the night, but only between 21h28m and 00h13m UTC were meteors from this shower detected. The measured orbit is that of a Halley-type or Long-Period comet. If t...
Article
Almahata Sitta (AhS), an anomalous polymict ureilite, is the first meteorite observed to originate from a spectrally classified asteroid (2008 TC3). However, correlating properties of the meteorite with those of the asteroid is not straightforward because the AhS stones are diverse types. Of those studied prior to this work, 70–80% are ureilites (a...
Article
The airburst events at Chelyabinsk and Tunguska in Russia are the best-documented asteroid impacts of recent times. Models that assess the potential danger from such events rely on an accurate picture of their aftermath. Here, we re-examine the most critical eyewitness accounts of the Tunguska airburst, namely those that describe injuries and casua...
Article
A carbonaceous chondrite was recovered immediately after the fall near the village of Diepenveen in the Netherlands on October 27, 1873, but came to light only in 2012. Analysis of sodium and poly-aromatic hydrocarbon content suggests little contamination from handling. Diepenveen is a regolith breccia with an overall petrology consistent with a CM...
Article
Full-text available
The Sariçiçek howardite meteorite shower consisting of 343 documented stones occurred on September 2, 2015 in Turkey and is the first documented howardite fall. Cosmogenic isotopes show that Sariçiçek experienced a complex cosmic‐ray exposure history, exposed during ~12–14 Ma in a regolith near the surface of a parent asteroid, and that an ~1 m siz...
Article
Predicted shock-layer emission signatures during the reentry of the Japanese Hayabusa capsule are presented and compared with flight measurements conducted during an airborne observation mission in NASA’s DC-8 Airborne Laboratory. For selected altitudes at 11 points along the flight trajectory of the capsule, lines of sight were extracted from flow...
Article
It has been proposed that all L chondrites resulted from an ongoing collisional cascade of fragments that originated from the formation of the ~500 Ma old asteroid family Gefion, located near the 5:2 mean‐motion resonance with Jupiter in the middle Main Belt. If so, L chondrite pre‐atmospheric orbits should be distributed as expected for that sourc...
Article
Motivated by the hypothesis that ‘Oumuamua could conceivably be an interstellar probe, we used the Allen Telescope Array to search for radio transmissions that would indicate a non-natural origin for this object. Observations were made at radio frequencies between 1 and 10 GHz using the Array's correlator receiver with a channel bandwidth of 100 kH...
Preprint
Motivated by the hypothesis that 'Oumuamua could conceivably be an interstellar probe, we used the Allen Telescope Array to search for radio transmissions that would indicate a non-natural origin for this object. Observations were made at radio frequencies between 1-10 GHz using the Array's correlator receiver with a channel bandwidth of 100 kHz. I...
Article
The materials of large asteroids and asteroid families are sampled by meteorites that fall to Earth. The cosmic ray exposure age of the meteorite identifies the collision event from which that meteorite originated. The inclination of the orbit on which the meteoroid impacted Earth measures the inclination of the source region, while the semi-major...
Article
Bolides are detected by the Geostationary Lightning Mapper onboard the GOES‐16 weather satellite, which takes images of Earth at a rate of 500 Hz in a 1.1 nm wide pass band centered on 777.4 nm wavelength. Ten case studies are discussed. These initial results were obtained using the Level 0 data received during the nonoperational in‐orbit postlaunc...
Article
The ∼20-m sized asteroid that entered the Earth's atmosphere at 19 km/s over the Chelyabinsk Region of Russia on February 15, 2013, broke and deposited ∼500 kt of kinetic energy at 45–25 km altitude, causing an airburst strong enough to create widespread glass damage. The shockwave hit a densely populated area. More than a thousand people asked for...
Article
Earth's atmosphere offers little protection against comet impacts, because many comets are bigger than 1 km. Fewer comets hit Earth than asteroids of the same size, except perhaps for sizes larger than 10 km. Comets release copious amounts of solid debris called meteoroids, and these meteoroids disperse to form meteoroid streams, some of which caus...
Article
The Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX) onboard the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer mission orbited the Moon from 2013 October to 2014 April and detected impact ejecta generated by the continual bombardment of meteoroids to the lunar surface. While the Moon transited the Geminid meteoroid stream, LDEX observed a large enhancement in the lun...
Article
Results are presented from a video-based meteoroid orbit survey conducted in New Zealand between Sept. 2014 and Dec. 2016, which netted 24,906 orbits from +5 to −5 magnitude meteors. 44 new southern hemisphere meteor showers are identified after combining this data with that of other video-based networks. Results are compared to showers reported fr...
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Full-text available
P. Jenniskens, SETI Institute and NASA Ames Research Center; and M. Odeh, International Astronomical Center, Abu Dhabi, report that the United Arab Emirates Astronomical Camera Network detected a brief episode of meteor- shower activity from the alpha Monocerotids (IAU shower 246) around Nov. 21d21h35m UTC. Between Nov. 21d18h30m and 22d02h UT, a t...
Article
The impact of asteroid 2008 TC3 was an unprecedented event—the first ever predicted impact of a near-Earth object. When it was first detected about 20 hours before impact, 2008 TC3 was still farther away than the Moon. Once it was recognized as an impactor and announced as such, 2008 TC3 began to receive considerable attention from astronomical obs...
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The rich diversity and complexity of organic matter found in meteorites is rapidly expanding our knowledge and understanding of extreme environments from which the early solar system emerged and evolved. Here, we report the discovery of a hitherto unknown chemical class, dihydroxymagnesium carboxylates [(OH)2MgO2CR](-), in meteoritic soluble organi...
Article
Recent work on meteor showers is reviewed. New data is presented on the long duration showers that wander in sun-centered ecliptic coordinates. Since the early days of meteor photography, much progress has been made in mapping visual meteor showers, using low-light video cameras instead. Now, some 820,000 meteoroid orbits have been measured by four...
Article
Asteroid 2008 TC3 was characterized in a unique manner prior to impacting Earth's atmosphere, making its October 7, 2008, impact a suitable field test for or validating the application of high-fidelity re-entry modeling to asteroid entry. The accurate modeling of the behavior of 2008 TC3 during its entry in Earth's atmosphere requires detailed info...
Article
Meteorites have been found on the small Misfits Flat dry lakebed near Stagecoach, Nevada (119.382W, +39.348N). Since the first find on Sept. 22, 2013, a total of 58 stones of weathering stage W2/3 with a combined mass of 339 g have been collected in 19 visits to the area. This small (3.3 × 3.6 km) lakebed is now a newly designated dense collection...
Article
The Cameras for Allsky Meteor Surveillance (CAMS) video-based meteoroid orbit survey adds 60 newly identified showers to the IAU Working List of Meteor Showers (numbers 427, 445–446, 506–507, and part of 643–750). 28 of these are also detected in the independent SonotaCo survey. In total, 230 meteor showers and shower components are identified in C...
Article
From preliminary 2010–2011 results of the Cameras for Allsky Meteor Surveillance (CAMS) meteoroid orbit survey, which were combined with published 2007–2009 SonotaCo video meteor network data, 55 new meteor showers (##448–502) were identified and added to the IAU Working List on Meteor Showers in 2012. These showers were identified based on an auto...
Article
In this work we propose the Amor-type asteroid 2009 WN25 as the likely progenitor of the November i-Draconids (NID, IAU#392), a recently detected weak annual meteoroid stream. We first describe our recovery and follow-up effort to obtain timely ground based astrometry with large aperture telescopes, and ensure that 2009 WN25 would not become lost....
Article
Orbital elements are presented for 70 of the 95 meteor showers considered "established" by the International Astronomical Union. From 2010 October 21 until 2013 March 31, the low-light-video based Cameras for Allsky Meteor Surveillance project (CAMS) measured a total of 110,367 meteoroid trajectories and pre-atmospheric orbits from mostly -2 to +4...
Article
Leading up to the 2015 IAU General Assembly, the International Astronomical Union's Working List of Meteor Showers included 486 unconfirmed showers, showers that are not certain to exist. If confirmed, each shower would provide a record of past comet or asteroid activity. Now, we report that 41 of these are detected in the Cameras for Allsky Meteor...
Article
Some main-belt asteroids evolve into near-Earth objects. They can then experience the same meteoroid-producing phenomena as active asteroids in the main belt. If so, they would produce meteoroid streams, some of which evolve to intersect Earth's orbit and produce meteor showers at Earth. Only few of those are known. Meteoroid streams that move in o...
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Commission 22 (Meteors, Meteorites and Interplanetary Dust) was established at the first IAU General Assembly held in Rome in 1922, with William Frederick Denning as its first President. Denning was an accountant by profession, but as an amateur astronomer he contributed extensively to meteor science. Commission 22 thus established a pattern that h...
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Sealing a small asteroid within an enclosure enables innovative approaches to the Asteroid Redirect Mission concept that pave the way for future in situ asteroid resource utilization. A sealed enclosure would make it possible to use an introduced atmosphere of xenon gas to detumble and despin the asteroid, and then to push the asteroid by using a s...
Article
The IAU Meteor Shower Working List contains 369 showers, of which only 64 are considered established (per February 28, 2012). In this invited review, we will give an overview of international efforts to validate the remaining showers. We report on the showers that were validated in this triennium and proposed to receive the predicate ``established"...
Article
This study characterizes carbon and nitrogen abundances and isotopic compositions in ureilitic fragments of Almahata Sitta. Ureilites are carbon-rich (containing up to 7 wt% C) and were formed early in solar system history, thus the origin of carbon in ureilites has significance for the origin of solar system carbon. These samples were collected so...
Article
Full-text available
On 8 October 2011, the Draconid meteor shower (IAU \(\#8\) , DRA) was predicted to cause two brief outbursts of meteors, visible from locations in Europe. For the first time, a European airborne meteor observation campaign was organized, supported by ground-based observations. Two aircraft were deployed from Kiruna, Sweden, carrying six scientists,...
Article
On 8 October 2011, the Draconid meteor shower (IAU, DRA) was predicted to cause two brief outbursts of meteors, visible from locations in Europe. For the first time, a European airborne meteor observation campaign was organized, supported by ground-based observations. Two aircraft were deployed from Kiruna, Sweden, carrying six scientists, 19 camer...
Chapter
In the last decade, considerable progress has been made in charting meteoroid streams at Earth and in understanding the mechanisms of meteoroid stream formation and evolution that ultimately result in the formation of the zodiacal cloud. This has led to the realization that episodic disruption plays a key role in the decay of comets and primitive a...
Article
Full-text available
The business meeting of commission 22 was held at the room 403 on 24 th August 2012 (14:00-15:30) in the China National Convention Center in Beijing. Nineteen people attended at this meeting: G.Consolmagno, D.Green, P. Jenniskens, J. Watanabe, J. Zhu, T. Jopek, K. Meech, D. Kinoshita, S. Abe, D. Boice, H. Yano, I. Sato, C. Smith, K. Churymov, J.C....
Article
Based upon our characterization of three separate stones by electron and X-ray beam analyses, computed X-ray microtomography, Raman microspectrometry, and visible-IR spectrometry, Sutter's Mill is a unique regolith breccia consisting mainly of various CM lithologies. Most samples resemble existing available CM2 chondrites, consisting of chondrules...
Article
The orbit of the Chelyabinsk object is calculated, applying the least-squares method directly to astrometric positions. The dynamical evolution of this object in the past is studied by integrating equations of motion for particles with orbits from the confidence region. It is found that the majority of the Chelyabinsk clones reach the near-Sun stat...
Article
Synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy are applied with submicrometer spatial resolution to multiple grains of Sutter's Mill meteorite, a regolith breccia with CM1 and CM2 lithologies. The Raman and infrared active functional groups reveal the nature and distribution of organic and mineral components and co...