Peter J. Hotez

Peter J. Hotez
Baylor College of Medicine | BCM · National School of Tropical Medicine

MD, PhD

About

905
Publications
344,225
Reads
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100,240
Citations
Additional affiliations
August 2011 - present
Sabin Vaccine Institute and Texas Children's Hospital Center for Vaccine Development
Position
  • Texas Children's Hospital Endowed Chair in Tropical Pediatrics
July 2011 - present
Baylor College of Medicine
Position
  • Head of Faculty
July 2011 - present
Baylor College of Medicine
Position
  • Professor (Full)
Education
July 1980 - June 1987
The Rockefeller University
Field of study
  • Biochemical Parasitology
July 1980 - June 1987
Weill Cornell Medical College
Field of study
  • Medical Sciences
August 1976 - July 1980
Yale University
Field of study
  • Molecular Biophysics

Publications

Publications (905)
Article
About 6.5 million people worldwide are afflicted by Chagas disease, which is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. The development of a therapeutic vaccine to prevent the progression of Chagasic cardiomyopathy has been proposed as an alternative for antiparasitic chemotherapy. Bioinformatics tools can predict MHC class I CD8 + epitope...
Article
Full-text available
Metabolomics provides a powerful tool to study physiological changes in response to various perturbations such as vaccination. We explored whether metabolomic changes could be seen after vaccination in a phase I trial where Gabonese adults living either in rural or semi-urban areas received the subunit hookworm vaccine candidates ( Na -GST-1 and Na...
Article
In the time of the COVID-19 pandemic, anti-vaccine activism in the USA accelerated, amplified and formed an alliance with political groups and even extremists. An organized, well-funded and empowered anti-science movement now threatens to spill over and threaten all childhood immunizations in the USA and globally.
Article
Introduction: Chronic infection with the protozoal parasite Trypanosoma cruzi leads to a progressive cardiac disease, known as chronic Chagasic cardiomyopathy (CCC). A new therapeutic Chagas disease vaccine is in development to augment existing antiparasitic chemotherapy drugs. Areas covered: We report on our current understanding of the underly...
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Full-text available
We conducted preclinical studies in mice using a yeast-produced SARS-CoV-2 RBD subunit vaccine candidate formulated with aluminum hydroxide (alum) and CpG deoxynucleotides. This formulation is equivalent to the CorbevaxTM vaccine that recently received emergency use authorization by the Drugs Controller General of India. We compared the immune resp...
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Human onchocerciasis is a devastating neglected tropical disease caused by infection of the filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus. The infection can cause irreversible visual impairment or blindness and stigmatizing dermatitis. More than 32 million people were estimated to be infected with O. volvulus in Africa, and 385,000 suffered from blindness....
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Background Face mask wearing has been an important part of the response to the COVID-19 pandemic. As vaccination coverage progresses in countries, relaxation of such practices is increasing. Subsequent COVID-19 surges have raised the questions of whether face masks should be encouraged or required and for how long. Here, we aim to assess the value...
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Tropical diseases cause significant morbidity among the world’s poorest populations. Although more common in low- and middle-income countries, tropical diseases are also found among underserved populations living in high-income countries such as the United States. The National School of Tropical Medicine at Baylor College of Medicine and the Harris...
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Trichuriasis is one of the most common neglected tropical diseases of the world's poorest people. A recombinant vaccine composed of Tm-WAP49, an immunodominant antigen secreted by adult Trichuris stichocytes into the mucosa of the cecum to which the parasite attaches, is under development. The prototype is being evaluated in a mouse model of Trichu...
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Background The fourth wave of COVID-19 pandemic peaked in the US at 160,000 daily cases, concentrated primarily in southern states. As the Delta variant has continued to spread, we evaluated the impact of accelerated vaccination on reducing hospitalization and deaths across northeastern and southern regions of the US census divisions. Methods We u...
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Control of human ascariasis, the most prevalent neglected tropical disease globally affecting 450 million people, mostly relies on mass drug administration of anthelmintics. However, chemotherapy alone is not efficient due to the high re-infection rate for people who live in the endemic area. The development of a vaccine that reduces the intensity...
Article
Full-text available
Global deployment of vaccines that can provide protection across several age groups is still urgently needed to end the COVID-19 pandemic, especially in low-and middle-income countries. Although vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 based on mRNA and adenoviral-vector technologies have been rapidly developed, additional practical and scalable SARS-CoV-2 vacc...
Article
The major soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) that infect humans are the roundworms, whipworms and hookworms. STH infections rank among the most important neglected tropical diseases in terms of morbidity, and almost one billion people are still infected with at least one species. While anthelmintic drugs are available, they do not offer long term pr...
Article
Since the first case of COVID-19 was identified in the USA in January, 2020, over 46 million people in the country have tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Several COVID-19 vaccines have received emergency use authorisations from the US Food and Drug Administration, with the Pfizer–BioNTech vaccine receiving full approval on Aug 23, 2021. Whe...
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Full-text available
SARS-CoV-2 protein subunit vaccines are currently being evaluated by multiple manufacturers to address the global vaccine equity gap, and need for low-cost, easy to scale, safe, and effective COVID-19 vaccines. In this paper, we report on the generation of the receptor-binding domain RBD203-N1 yeast expression construct, which produces a recombinan...
Article
The rapid development and deployment of mRNA and adenovirus-vectored vaccines against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continue to astound the global scientific community, but these vaccine platforms and production approaches have still not achieved global COVID-19 vaccine equity. Immunizing the billions of people at risk for COVID-19 in the wor...
Article
Although causes and etiology of epilepsy are mostly obscure, some zoonotic parasites, such as Toxocara species, have been proposed as a risk factor for this disease. Here, we conducted an age-matched case-control study to evaluate whether there is an association between epilepsy and the presence of serum antibodies to Toxocara in incident cases. We...
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Full-text available
Two hookworm vaccine candidates, Na-GST-1 and Na-APR-1, formulated with Glucopyranosyl Lipid A (GLA-AF) adjuvant, have been shown to be safe, well tolerated, and to induce antibody responses in a Phase 1 clinical trial (Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02126462) conducted in Gabon. Here, we characterized T cell responses in 24 Gabonese volunteers randomized t...
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We undertook a comprehensive, systematic review of observational studies to estimate respective seroprevalences of latent and acute Toxoplasma gondii infections in HIV+ people at the global, regional and country levels; related seroprevalence to socio-economic variables and CD4+ cell counts; and assessed temporal changes in prevalence and risk fact...
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Peter Figueroa and co-authors advocate for equity in the worldwide provision of COVID-19 vaccines.
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Tc24-C4, a modified recombinant flagellar calcium-binding protein of Trypanosoma cruzi , is under development as a therapeutic subunit vaccine candidate to prevent or delay progression of chronic Chagasic cardiomyopathy. When combined with Toll-like receptor agonists, Tc24-C4 immunization reduces parasitemia, parasites in cardiac tissue, and cardia...
Article
Full-text available
Antigen identification is an important step in the vaccine development process. Computational approaches including deep learning systems can play an important role in the identification of vaccine targets using genomic and proteomic information. Here, we present a new computational system to discover and analyse novel vaccine targets leading to the...
Article
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A Lancet Commission for COVID-19 task force is shaping recommendations to achieve vaccine and therapeutics access, justice, and equity. This includes ensuring safety and effectiveness harmonized through robust systems of global pharmacovigilance and surveillance. Global production requires expanding support for development, manufacture, testing, an...
Article
Background With limited vaccine supplies, an informed position on the status of SARS-CoV-2 infection in people can assist the prioritization of vaccine deployment. Objective Here, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the global and regional SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalences around the world. Data sources We systematically searc...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: SARS-CoV-2 protein subunit vaccines are being evaluated by multiple manufacturers to fill the need for low-cost, easy to scale, safe, and effective COVID-19 vaccines for global access. Vaccine candidates relying on the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein have been the focus of our development program. In this p...
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Full-text available
Chronic Chagasic cardiomyopathy (CCC) is a severe clinical manifestation that develops in 30%–40% of individuals chronically infected with the protozoal parasite Trypanosoma cruzi and is thus an important public health problem. Parasite persistence during chronic infection drives pathologic changes in the heart, including myocardial inflammation an...
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When it emerged in late 2019, COVID-19 was carried via travelers to Germany, France and Italy, where freedom of movement accelerated its transmission throughout Europe. However, effective non-pharmaceutical interventions introduced by European governments led to containment of the rapid increase in cases within European nations. Electronic searches...
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Ongoing SARS-CoV-2 vaccine development is focused on identifying stable, cost-effective, and accessible candidates for global use, specifically in low and middle-income countries. Here, we report the efficacy of a rapidly scalable, novel yeast expressed SARS-CoV-2 specific receptor-binding domain (RBD) based vaccine in rhesus macaques. We formulate...
Preprint
Full-text available
Global deployment of vaccines that can provide protection across several age groups is still urgently needed to end the COVID-19 pandemic especially for low- and middle-income countries. While vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 based on mRNA and adenoviral-vector technologies have been rapidly developed, additional practical and scalable SARS-CoV-2 vaccin...
Article
Full-text available
The eradication of the vector Rhodnius prolixus from Central America was heralded as a victory for controlling transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasite that causes Chagas disease. While public health officials believed this milestone achievement would effectively eliminate Chagas disease, case reports of acute vector transmission began amass...
Article
Background With multiple COVID-19 vaccines available, understanding the epidemiologic, clinical, and economic value of increasing coverage levels and expediting vaccination is important. Methods We developed a computational model (transmission and age-stratified clinical and economics outcome model) representing the US population, COVID-19 coronav...
Article
Full-text available
Background More contagious variants of SARS-CoV-2 have emerged around the world, sparking concerns about impending surge in cases and severe outcomes. Despite the development of effective vaccines, rollout has been slow. We evaluated the impact of accelerated vaccine distribution on curbing the disease burden of novel SARS-CoV-2 variants. Methods...
Article
Full-text available
A SARS-CoV-2 RBD219-N1C1 (RBD219-N1C1) recombinant protein antigen formulated on Alhydrogel® has recently been shown to elicit a robust neutralizing antibody response against SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus in mice. The antigen has been produced under current good manufacturing practices (cGMPs) and is now in clinical testing. Here, we report on process dev...
Article
There is an urgent need for an accessible and low-cost COVID-19 vaccine suitable for low- and middle-income countries. Here, we report on the development of a SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD) protein, expressed at high levels in yeast (Pichia pastoris), as a suitable vaccine candidate against COVID-19. After introducing two modifications in...
Article
Chronic Chagasic cardiomyopathy (CCC) is a Neglected Tropical Disease caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. The pathognomonic findings in symptomatic CCC patients and animal models includes diffuse cardiac fibrosis and inflammation with persistent parasite presence in the heart. This study investigated chemical alterations in different regions...
Article
Trichuriasis known as whipworm infection caused by Trichuris trichiura, is a highly prevalent soil-transmitted helminthiasis in low- and middle-income countries located in tropical and subtropical areas and affecting approximately 360 million people. Children typically harbour the largest burden of T. trichiura and they are usually co-infected with...
Article
In the coming months, most American adults will have the opportunity to receive at least one of up to five different COVID-19 vaccines produced by Operation Warp Speed and released through emergency use authorization by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). A similar group of vaccines will also be released in Europe by the European Medicines...
Article
Full-text available
Trypanosoma cruzi, a zoonotic kinetoplastid protozoan parasite, is the causative agent of American trypanosomiasis (Chagas disease). Having a very plastic, repetitive and complex genome, the parasite displays a highly diverse repertoire of surface molecules, with pivotal roles in cell invasion, immune evasion and pathogenesis. Before 2016, the comp...
Article
Background Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 has now spread worldwide to infect over 110 million people, with approximately 2.5 million reported deaths. A safe and effective vaccine remains urgently needed. Method We constructed three variants of the recombinant receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) prote...
Article
Full-text available
Chagas disease resulting from Trypanosoma cruzi infection leads to a silent, long-lasting chronic neglected tropical disease affecting the poorest and underserved populations around the world. Antiparasitic treatment with benznidazole does not prevent disease progression or death in patients with established cardiac disease. Our consortium is devel...
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Full-text available
The United States witnessed an unprecedented politicization of biomedical science starting in 2015 that has exploded into a complex, multimodal anti-science empire operating through mass media, political elections, legislation, and even health systems. Anti-science activities now pervade the daily lives of many Americans, and threaten to infect oth...
Article
Full-text available
The history of the neglected tropical disease movement is seen through the lens of authors who worked during the last 4 decades in different roles and in different settings, from Western-based laboratories to clinical roles in endemic countries and in critical policy roles in the World Health Organization (WHO). The authors seek to identify key pla...
Article
Introduction During a pandemic, there are many situations in which the first available vaccines may not have as high of an effectiveness as vaccines that are still under development or are not yet ready for distribution, raising the question of whether it is better to go with what is available now or wait. Methods In 2020, the team developed a com...
Article
Full-text available
Preprint
A SARS-CoV-2 RBD219-N1C1 (RBD219-N1C1) recombinant protein antigen formulated on Alhydrogel® has recently been shown to elicit a robust neutralizing antibody response against SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus in mice. The antigen has been produced under current good manufacturing practices (cGMP) and is now in clinical testing. Here, we report on process deve...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose of review: In this commentary, we summarize and put into perspective the recent information that highlights the associations between coronavirus disease and poverty. We also bring attention to another dimension that will most likely exacerbate the severity and long-term sequelae of COVID-19 in impoverished populations, that is, the comorbi...
Article
More clinical trial data are needed to determine whether sera from COVID-19-convalescent patients and neutralizing monoclonal antibodies specific to SARS-CoV-2 antigens can prevent COVID-19 or reduce the severity of the disease in high-risk populations.
Article
Full-text available
To maximise the likelihood of success, global health programmes need repeated, honest appraisal of their own weaknesses, with research undertaken to address any identified gaps. There is still much to be learned to optimise work against neglected tropical diseases. To facilitate that learning, a comprehensive research and development plan is requir...
Preprint
There is an urgent need for an accessible and low-cost COVID-19 vaccine suitable for low- and middle-income countries. Here we report on the development of a SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD) protein, expressed at high levels in yeast ( Pichia pastoris ), as a suitable vaccine candidate against COVID-19. After introducing two modifications i...
Article
We developed a severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) subunit recombinant protein vaccine candidate based on a high-yielding, yeast-engineered, receptor-binding domain (RBD219-N1) of the SARS beta-coronavirus (SARS-CoV) spike (S) protein. When formulated with Alhydrogel®, RBD219-N1 induced high levels of neutralizing antibodies against both pseud...
Article
An estimated 400 million people are infected by parasites of the genus Ascaris and the existing control measures are inefficient. Vaccine development using B cell antigens is a promising strategy for increased protection against this parasite. The present study aimed at developing a chimeric protein capable of conferring protection against infectio...
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Full-text available
Background: COVID-19 is arguably the most important public health concern in 2020 worldwide, and efforts are now escalating to suppress or eliminate its spread. Objective: In this study, we undertook a meta-analysis to estimate the global and regional SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence rates in humans, and to assess whether seroprevalence associates with ge...