Peter Holtz

Peter Holtz
Leibniz-Institut für Wissensmedien | KMRC · Knowledge Construction Lab

Dr.

About

70
Publications
61,133
Reads
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1,272
Citations
Additional affiliations
December 2015 - present
Leibniz-Institut für Wissensmedien
Position
  • Researcher
June 2015 - June 2016
Symanto Research
Position
  • Head of Department
November 2013 - May 2015
Jacobs University
Position
  • PostDoc Position

Publications

Publications (70)
Article
Full-text available
Based on an analysis of ten popular introductions to social psychology, we will show that Karl Popper's philosophy of ‘critical rationalism’ so far has had little to no traceable influence on the epistemology and practice of social psychology. If Popper is quoted or mentioned in the textbooks at all, the guiding principle of ‘falsificationism’ is r...
Article
Full-text available
Recently, several studies have investigated developments in academic language over the last four decades: An analysis of a large number of PubMed abstracts by Vinkers, Tijdink, and Otte showed a dramatic rise in use of positive words such as “innovative,” “robust,” “novel,” and “unprecedented.” In the field of psychology, Pritschet, Powell, and Hor...
Article
Full-text available
Within this article we argue that Karl Popper’s philosophical approach of critical rationalism has often been erroneously subsumed under the positivistic epistemological paradigm in the literature on qualitative and quantitative approaches in the social sciences. In other highly influential publications on this issue, critical rationalism has been...
Article
Full-text available
Filter bubbles and echo chambers have both been linked recently by commentators to rapid societal changes such as Brexit and the polarization of the US American society in the course of Donald Trump's election campaign. We hypothesize that information filtering processes take place on the individual, the social, and the technological levels (triple...
Article
Full-text available
Background Explorative online information search activities are self‐regulated learning processes that require monitoring in the form of accurate metacognitive judgments about one’s own knowledge. People have to judge what they know, but also understand what they do not know. Previous research has explored those two aspects in relation to each othe...
Article
Full-text available
Using a Web search engine is one of today’s most frequent activities. Exploratory search activities which are carried out in order to gain knowledge are conceptualized and denoted as Search as Learning (SAL). In this paper, we introduce a novel framework model which incorporates the perspective of both psychology and computer science to describe th...
Preprint
Full-text available
The emerging research field Search as Learning investigates how the Web facilitates learning through modern information retrieval systems. SAL research requires significant amounts of data that capture both search behavior of users and their acquired knowledge in order to obtain conclusive insights or train supervised machine learning models. Howev...
Chapter
In informal learning scenarios the popularity of multimedia content, such as video tutorials or lectures, has significantly increased. Yet, the users’ interactions, navigation behavior, and consequently learning outcome, have not been researched extensively. Related work in this field, also called search as learning, has focused on behavioral or te...
Preprint
In informal learning scenarios the popularity of multimedia content, such as video tutorials or lectures, has significantly increased. Yet, the users' interactions, navigation behavior, and consequently learning outcome, have not been researched extensively. Related work in this field, also called search as learning, has focused on behavioral or te...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents an analysis of interviews of participants in a political manifestation in Indonesia about the reasons for the rally and the resulting riot. The rally was held in the middle of the Jakarta gubernatorial election, against a non-Muslim incumbent who was accused of having insulted the Quran. We argue that there is a deep relationshi...
Article
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Within this article, I will compare postmodernist and critical rationalist conceptualizations of epistemological key concepts such as truth, progress, and research methods. An analysis of Gergen’s program for a postmodern psychology shows that a naïve positivist understanding of truth is clearly incompatible with his postmodernist approach, whereas...
Data
This is the 1068-word Personal Value Dictionary and Supplemental Information for the article: Ponizovskiy, V., Ardag, M. M., Grigoryan, L., Boyd, R., Dobewall, H., & Holtz, P. (2020). Development and validation of the Personal Values Dictionary: A theory-driven tool for investigating references to basic human values in text. European Journal of Pe...
Article
Full-text available
Estimating psychological constructs from natural language has the potential to expand the reach and applicability of personality science. Research on the Big Five has produced methods to reliably assess personality traits from text, but the development of comparable tools for personal values is still in the early stages. Based on the Schwartz theor...
Article
Full-text available
There are many factors that contribute to the present crisis of confidence in psychology, among them epistemological causes: Under pressure to ‘publish or perish’ and to ‘get visible or vanish’ in order to survive in an increasingly globalized academic job market, psychologists may often be too eager to find their hypotheses confirmed by empirical...
Preprint
Ranking and recommendation of multimedia content such as videos is usually realized with respect to the relevance to a user query. However, for lecture videos and MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses) it is not only required to retrieve relevant videos, but particularly to find lecture videos of high quality that facilitate learning, for instance, in...
Chapter
Soziale Medien spielen zunehmend auch im Bereich des Lernens eine wesentliche Rolle. Viele Lernende nutzen soziale Medien und Plattformen wie Wikipedia alltäglich zum informellen Alltagslernen. Allerdings werden auch in formellen Lernumgebungen häufig Elemente sozialer Medien wie Wikis und Blogs eingesetzt. Zu beachten ist, dass sozio-kognitive Ver...
Chapter
So beschreibt Eli Pariser den Begriff der Filter Bubble (Filterblase), den er ein Jahr später mit seinem Buch Filter Bubble: Wie wir im Internet entmündigt werden geprägt hat. Es liegt ihm daran, auf mögliche Probleme hinzuweisen, die entstehen können, wenn über das Internet nur noch personalisierte Nachrichten zu finden sind. Richten sich Beiträge...
Presentation
Full-text available
Workshop for PhD students on basic concepts of epistemology and the role and function of theories in research.
Preprint
Full-text available
Metacognitive self-assessments of one's learning performance (calibration) are important elements of Searching as Learning (SAL) tasks. In this SAL study, N = 115 participants were asked to learn for up to 30 minutes about the formation of thunderstorms and lightning by using any suitable internet resources (including multimedia resources). Partici...
Conference Paper
******Download Link here: https://dl.acm.org/doi/pdf/10.1145/3347451.3356731 ****** Ranking and recommendation of multimedia content such as videos is usually realized with respect to the relevance to a user query. However, for lecture videos and MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses) it is not only required to retrieve relevant videos, but particula...
Chapter
Full-text available
Der Begriff der „Lügenpresse“ hat seit einiger Zeit in vielen Bereichen der Gesellschaft wieder Konjunktur. Beispielsweise wird im Umfeld der fremdenfeindlichen Pegida-Bewegung (Röhn, 2016) die mediale Berichterstattung als unwahr empfunden und den Medien enormes Misstrauen entgegengebracht (Bernhard, 2018). Dieses Misstrauen geht zugleich mit Unzu...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Digital learning environments have become very common in the training of medical professionals, and students often use such platforms for exam preparation. Multiple choice questions (MCQs) are a common format in medical exams and are used by students to prepare for said exams. Objective: We aimed to examine whether particular learning...
Article
Since 1965, in Indonesia, people labelled as communists and their descendants have been mistreated. Recently, there has been an issue to apologize to them, but up until now, no official apology has been offered by the Indonesian government. The present study aims to understand how communism is perceived in Indonesia and why communism attributes lab...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Digital learning environments have become very common in the training of medical professionals. Students use such platforms for exam preparation. Multiple choice questions (MCQs) are a common format in medical exams and are used by students to prepare for their medical exams. OBJECTIVE In the present study, we analyzed data from users o...
Article
Full-text available
The advent of the social web brought with it challenges and opportunities for research on learning and knowledge construction. Using the online-encyclopedia Wikipedia as an example, we discuss several methods that can be applied to analyze the dynamic nature of knowledge-related processes in mass collaboration environments. These methods can help i...
Preprint
Full-text available
There are many factors that contribute to the present crisis of confidence in psychology, among them epistemological causes: Under pressure to ‘publish or perish’ and to ‘get visible or vanish’ in order to survive in an increasingly globalized academic job market, psychologists may often be too eager to find their hypotheses confirmed by empirical...
Article
Full-text available
This study aims to demonstrate and change negative perceptions of descendants of members of the Indonesian Communist Party (Partai Komunis Indonesia/PKI), a stigmatized social group in Indonesia. In Studies 1 and 2, participants were given positive descriptions of an adult (Study 1) and a child (Study 2), and were asked to evaluate them twice, befo...
Article
Full-text available
Background Consulting the internet for health-related information is a common and widespread phenomenon, and Wikipedia is arguably one of the most important resources for health-related information. Therefore, it is relevant to identify factors that have an impact on the quality of health-related Wikipedia articles. Objective In our study we have h...
Preprint
Web search is frequently used by people to acquire new knowledge and to satisfy learning-related objectives. In this context, informational search missions with an intention to obtain knowledge pertaining to a topic are prominent. The importance of learning as an outcome of web search has been recognized. Yet, there is a lack of understanding of th...
Article
Full-text available
Conducted in Indonesia, this study analyzes how a religious group accused of being heretical ended up receiving threats and a number of violent reactions, a situation in which the victims were considered to have caused the violence. The study presented here focused on this case of the Ahmadiyya, a minority Muslim group in Indonesia that are the mos...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Web search is frequently used by people to acquire new knowledge and to satisfy learning-related objectives, but little is known about how a user»s knowledge evolves through the course of a search session. We present a study addressing the knowledge gain of users in informational search sessions. Using crowdsourcing, we recruited 500 distinct users...
Article
Full-text available
A growing body of research aims to identify the factors that motivate people to make contributions in Wikipedia. We conducted two laboratory experiments to investigate the connections between topic characteristics, perception of threat, and willingness to engage with Wikipedia articles. In Study 1 (N = 83), we examined how topic familiarity, topic...
Article
Full-text available
Most studies evaluating the effectiveness of school internships have relied on self-assessments that are prone to self-presentational distortions. Therefore, the present study analyzed the improvement in the instructional quality of 102 student teachers (46 women) from a German university during a 15 week internship at a local secondary school acro...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
More and more learning activities take place online in a self-directed manner. Therefore, just as the idea of self-tracking activities for fitness purposes has gained momentum in the past few years, tools and methods for awareness and self-reflection on one's own online learning behavior appear as an emerging need for both formal and informal learn...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Conflict understandings of lay people mirror society in miniature. Although lay people and their conflict understandings in society may shape the course of an ongoing conflict, little scholarly attention is so far given to the understandings of everyday discourse in Turkey’s ongoing Kurdish conflict. The present research examines the views...
Chapter
Minority groups tend to balance their self-image in a way that maximizes their political standing and the value they are attributed in a society. For achieving this, groups may attempt and need to change the image that others hold of them. One way is to take an influence on the degree of essentialization that others project upon them. If projected...
Article
Full-text available
This paper is to my best of knowledge the first to discuss similarities and differences between Karl Popper’s ‘three worlds theory’ and Serge Moscovici’s ‘theory of social representations’. Karl Popper maintained that to be subject to criticism, and hence to falsification attempts and subsequent improvement, scientific theories must first be formul...
Article
Full-text available
The 2009 Swiss minaret ban was widely regarded as a blatant act of discrimination against Muslims. We analyzed postings in threads related to the minaret ban in two German language internet forums for young Muslims. The first forum was hosted by a fundamentalist group whereas the second represented a more secular or moderate segment of German Musli...
Article
Full-text available
The 2009 Swiss minaret ban was widely regarded as a blatant act of discrimination against Muslims. We analyzed postings in threads related to the minaret ban in two German language internet forums for young Muslims. The first forum was hosted by a fundamentalist group whereas the second represented a more secular or moderate segment of German Musli...
Article
Full-text available
This research investigated the influence of parent–adolescent communication quality, as perceived by the adolescents, on the relationship between adolescents’ Internet use and verbal aggression. Adolescents (N = 363, age range 10–16, MT1 = 12.84, SD = 1.93) were examined twice with a six-month delay. Controlling for social support in general terms,...
Article
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Six million migrants from over 170 countries have resettled in Australia since 1945 ensuring religious diversity is now a hallmark of Australia's population. However, not all religious groups are perceived in the same way. In this paper, we explore how representational processes differentially essentialise religious groups, in particular how some g...
Article
Full-text available
Based on five focus groups (total N = 56) with German Muslims, we analyze discourses on the experience of discrimination and feelings of national and religious attachment. The focus groups took place in mid to late 2010 in four German cities. Whereas only few participants describe personal discrimination by non-Muslim Germans, almost all participan...
Chapter
The discussion of moral dilemmas is often proposed as one way to teach ethics. But can ethics be taught to everyone? Do participants’ value orientations predict the acquisition of moral competence in an educational context? This study presents data from an evaluation of a course on the social consequences of information technology (IT). IT-related...
Article
Full-text available
The authors examined the influence of parent-adolescent communication quality, as perceived by the adolescents, on the link between adolescents' Internet use and loneliness, controlling for perceived family support in general terms. Adolescents (N = 216, M(age) = 15.80 years) provided data on Internet use, loneliness, Internet-related parent-adoles...
Article
Full-text available
Whenever a new, potentially controversial technology enters public awareness, stakeholders suggest that education and public engagement are needed to ensure public support. Both theoretical and empirical analyses suggest, however, that more information and more deliberation per se will not make people more supportive. Rather, taking into account th...
Article
Full-text available
Within Internet forums, members of certain (online) communities discuss matters of concern to the respective groups, with comparatively few social restraints. For radical, extremist, and other ideologically "sensitive" groups and organizations in particular, Internet forums are a very efficient and widely used tool to connect members, inform others...
Chapter
Full-text available
For most human beings, it is close to inconceivable to do harm or kill other humans unless there is the threat of being attacked. Yet the atrocities of war crimes against innocent civilians and the cruelties of genocide or ethnic cleansing are ubiquitous. The question arises: How can people commit such crimes? In the majority of cases it is ordinar...
Article
Full-text available
The discussion of moral dilemmas is often proposed as one way to teach ethics. But can ethics be taught to everyone? Do participants’ value orientations predict the acquisition of moral competence in an educational context? This study presents data from an evaluation of a course on the social consequences of information technology (IT). IT-related...
Article
Full-text available
This article presents a theory of the perception of hybrids, resulting from cross-breeding natural animals that pertain to different species and of children parented by couples with a mixed ethnic or racial background. The theory states that natural living beings, including humans, are perceived as possessing a deeply ingrained characteristic that...
Article
Full-text available
In early adolescence, the time spent using the Internet and video games is higher than in any other present-day age group. Due to age-inappropriate web and gaming content, the impact of new media use on teenagers is a matter of public and scientific concern. Based on current theories on inappropriate media use, a study was conducted that comprised...
Article
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We present insights from a study on communicating Synthetic Biology conducted in 2008. Scientists were invited to write press releases on their work; the resulting texts were passed on to four journalists from major Austrian newspapers and magazines. The journalists in turn wrote articles that were used as stimulus material for eight group discussi...
Article
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We investigated a total of 4997 postings on an extreme right-wing Internet discussion board with regard to the groups and themes mentioned. The most frequently mentioned target groups were Africans, Jews, Muslims, Poles, and Turks; the most prominent themes and contexts were conspiracy, criminality, exploitation, threats to German identity, infiltr...
Article
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In an interview study with 17 music-creating artists (composers of contemporary “classical” music, electronic music, musicals, movie scores, and jazz musicians) from Southern Germany, three types of music-creating artists could be discerned: the avant-gardists, the neo-romantics, and the self-disclosing artists. These types represent social groups...
Article
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Projecting essence onto a social category means to think, talk, and act as if the category were a discrete natural kind and as if its members were all endowed with the same immutable attributes determined by the category's essence. Essentializing may happen implicitly or on purpose in representing ingroups and outgroups. We argue that essentializin...
Thesis
Aufbauend auf eine Fragebogenstudie und Interviews mit 17 Musik schaffenden Künstlern werden in dieser Arbeit zunächst relevante Dimensionen herausgearbeitet, auf denen sich Musiker bezüglich ihres musikalischen Schaffens voneinander unterscheiden. In einem nächsten Schritt werden die verschiedenen Einzelergebnisse in einem Modell der musikalischen...

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Projects

Projects (7)
Project
The SALIENT project investigates methods targeted at supporting users knowledge gain while searching the web. The main focus lies on enhancing retrieval and ranking algorithms to incorporate appropriate multimodal information (e.g. diagrams, slides, videos).
Project
The project analyses how people collaboratively construct knowledge in Wikipedia. The project aims to further develop the "co-evolution model of individual learning and collaborative knowledge construction" that was proposed by Cress & Kimmerle in 2008.