Peter Glick

Peter Glick
Lawrence University · Psychology

PhD

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106
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31,262
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Publications

Publications (106)
Article
We proposed that the Prescriptive Beauty Norm (PBN), the injunctive demand for women to intensively pursue beauty, reflects motives to maintain gender hierarchy and translates into employment discrimination. In Studies 1a and 1b, the PBN (distinct from other "beauty myth" [Wolf, 1990] components; namely, bodily and grooming standards, and attainabi...
Article
Data from Reuters/Ipsos polls (6116 respondents) conducted shortly before and after the 2016 presidential election (from 4 to 17 November 2016) were used to test whether: (1) women and men differed in favorability toward Hillary Clinton versus Donald Trump, (2) sexism (either hostile or benevolent) predicted favorability ratings toward each candida...
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The Madonna-Whore Dichotomy (MWD) denotes polarized perceptions of women in general as either “good,” chaste, and pure Madonnas or as “bad,” promiscuous, and seductive whores. Whereas prior theories focused on unresolved sexual complexes or evolved psychological tendencies, feminist theory suggests the MWD stems from a desire to reinforce patriarch...
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We propose that a key reason why the workplace gender revolution has stalled (England, 2010) is that work remains the site of masculinity contests among men. In this article, we outline a theoretical framework for thinking about work as a masculinity contest, beginning with a brief review of scholarship on masculinity and exploring how the workplac...
Chapter
Is sexism a form of prejudice? Although the question might appear absurd, consider Allport’s (1954) influential definition of ethnic prejudice. Prejudice, Allport wrote, “is an antipathy based upon a faulty and inflexible generalization” (p. 9). The existence of prejudice is commonly indexed by measures of antipathy, such as social distance (e.g.,...
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Sociocultural and biological frameworks suggest a Sexual Advice Double Standard (SADS; wherein heterosexual men are encouraged to have causal sex more than heterosexual women are) motivated by intransigent factors (e.g., patriarchy or evolved dispositions). Alternatively, people generally perceive casual sex as riskier for women, who may be discour...
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Two studies examine whether the workplace motherhood penalty and fatherhood bonus are better conceived, respectively, as a caregiver penalty and breadwinner bonus. Participants acting as employers structured offers for married female or male job candidates with children. In Study 1, participants assumed “mother = caregiver” and “father = breadwinne...
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Cultures of honor, such as Turkey, prioritize defending individual and family reputations, but in gender-specific ways (Nisbett and Cohen 1996). Men maintain honor via reputations for toughness, aggression, control over women, and avenging insults. Women maintain honor through obedience to men, sexual modesty, and religious piety. Honor beliefs sup...
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Ambivalent Sexism Theory (Glick & Fiske, 1996) addresses the often paradoxical nature of gender relations. Despite the continuing global reality of patriarchy, men and women routinely form and maintain intimate relationships. An interlocking set of misogynistic and paternalistic attitudes toward women, known as ambivalent sexism, resolves tension b...
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Four studies tested whether cultural values moderate the content of gender stereotypes, such that male stereotypes more closely align with core cultural values (specifically, individualism vs. collectivism) than do female stereotypes. In Studies 1 and 2, using different measures, Americans rated men as less collectivistic than women, whereas Korean...
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We investigated how men's masculine identification and ambivalent sexism relate to evaluations of male and female subtypes. Masculine identification correlated with positive attitudes toward male and female types that conform to traditional gender norms (i.e., masculine men, feminine women), but negative attitudes toward feminine men. However, masc...
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Sexism differs from other prejudices due to intimate interdependence between the sexes, requiring gender-specific research on effective ways to confront sexist behavior. Two central themes emerge from the current issue: (i) who can confront sexism successfully and (ii) how organizations and leaders should intervene. The burden to confront often fal...
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The current paper assesses the psychometric properties of short versions of the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (ASI; Glick & Fiske, 1996) and Ambivalence Toward Men Inventory (AMI; Glick & Fiske, 1999), which represent widely used measures of sexist attitudes toward, respectively, women and men. Participants in the study were 960 Caucasian adults (48....
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Women experience workplace penalties when they become mothers, whereas men who become fathers are not penalized. We explored whether a working mother's self-professed devotion to work over family would undermine the "motherhood penalty." Male and female business students evaluated an applicant for an industrial engineering job. The applicant was al...
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In two studies, we examined how romantic attachment style relates to women's sexism toward men. Specifically, we applied structural equation modeling and mediation analyses to the responses of over 500 self-reported heterosexual women. Study 1 included 229 women who answered questionnaires tapping attachment anxiety and avoidance, ambivalent sexism...
Article
The current volume represents a crucial first step in examining how past genocidal attacks continue to affect present intergroup relations, and what psychology can offer to help heal the wounds and prevent future violence. Studying the social psychology of genocide's aftermath, in all its messy, real-world complexity, has not been as popular a topi...
Chapter
Backlash refers to social and economic penalties for counterstereotypical behavior (Rudman, 1998). By penalizing vanguards (atypical role models), backlash reinforces cultural stereotypes as normative rules. We present the Backlash and Stereotype Maintenance Model (BSMM), supported by studies of gender and racial vanguards (Phelan and Rudman, 2010a...
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This chapter charts the development of gender prejudice in terms of two general modes of intergroup prejudice, hostile and benevolent . The authors' main contention is that children's attitudes toward the other sex fit well into the standard social psychological model of hostile intergroup relations, but that the dependencies that develop between...
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The authors present an integrative account of how attachment insecurities relate to sexism. Two studies showed that attachment avoidance predisposes men to endorse hostile but to reject benevolent sexism (BS), whereas attachment anxiety predisposes men toward ambivalent (both hostile and benevolent) sexism. The authors also tested predicted mediato...
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Two traits – warmth and competence – govern social judgments of individuals and groups, and these judgments shape people's emotions and behaviors. The present chapter describes the causes and consequences of warmth and competence judgments; how, when and why they determine significant professional and organizational outcomes, such as hiring, employ...
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Three studies examined how a woman's reaction to a man's benevolently sexist offer of help affected observers' perceptions. Results suggest a dilemma for women: A woman who accepted benevolently sexist help was perceived as warm but incompetent and less suited for a competence-related job (management consultant), whereas a woman who declined help a...
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The present research examines how romantic relationship experience and age predict ambivalent sexism in adolescents. We measured sexist beliefs and romantic relationship experience in a large sample of Spanish adolescents (N = 1447), ranging from 12 to 19years of age. Consistent with prior research, age predicted less sexist beliefs. Controlling fo...
Article
We theorize that sexual harassment in the workplace results from the complex interplay of ambivalent motives and gender stereotyping of women and jobs. Ambivalence combines hostile and “benevolent” sexist motives based on paternalism, gender differentiation, and heterosexuality. Stereotyped images of women and jobs also reflect these three dimensio...
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The special issue on Ambivalent Sexism (Glick and Fiske 1996, 1999, 2001) reflects the current landscape of ambivalent sexism research. This introduction reviews the theory, exploring the particularly insidious case of benevolent sexism. Next, it presents the included papers, which range broadly, but generally fit one of three research streams in t...
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Gender-based structural power and heterosexual dependency produce ambivalent gender ideologies, with hostility and benevolence separately shaping close-relationship ideals. The relative importance of romanticized benevolent versus more overtly power-based hostile sexism, however, may be culturally dependent. Testing this, northeast US (N=311) and c...
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We examined how Spanish women's benevolent sexism (a sex-role attitude) affects their perceptions of whether a hypothetical husband will feel threatened by a wife's success at work. In a social perception study, female participants (N = 210) read a vignette in which a husband and his wife argued over her job promotion. Women's benevolent sexism (bu...
Chapter
Scapegoating is unfairly blaming a group for causing societal misfortunes (e.g., the Nazis blaming the Jews for Germany's loss of World War I). Mass frustrations, such as economic, political, and social crises, can lead to severe attacks against scapegoated groups, including ethnic cleansing and genocide. Early scapegoating theories invoked Freudia...
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Two studies examined how ambivalent gender ideologies, measured by the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (ASI) and Ambivalence Toward Men Inventory (AMI), relate to the perceived legitimacy and stability of gender hierarchy. Study 1 showed simple correlations of each ASI and AMI subscale with the perceived legitimacy of gender hierarchy, but only Hostili...
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Prejudice, stereotyping and discrimination: Theoretical and empirical overview This chapter has two main objectives: to review influential ideas and findings in the literature and to outline the organization and content of the volume. The first part of the chapter lays a conceptual and empirical foundation for other chapters in the volume. Specific...
Book
Representing both traditional and emerging perspectives, this multi-disiplinary and truly international volume will serve as a seminal resource for students and scholars. © John. F. Dovidio, Miles Hewstone, Peter Glick and Victoria M. Esses 2010.
Chapter
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Sexism Informed by the dominant model of ‘prejudice as antipathy,’ researchers initially defined sexism as ‘hostility toward women.’ Decades of research challenged this assumption, leading theorists to define sexism as subjectively favorable and unfavorable attitudes (toward both sexes) that reinforce gender inequality. This new framework focuses o...
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According to ambivalent sexism theory (AST; Glick & Fiske, 1996; 2001), sex-ism combines complementary gender ideologies, held by both men and women worldwide, which serve to justify social hierarchy. This chapter reviews how be-nevolent and hostile attitudes toward women operate in concert, ultimately main-taining gender inequity. Research specifi...
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The stereotype content model (SCM) proposes potentially universal principles of societal stereotypes and their relation to social structure. Here, the SCM reveals theoretically grounded, cross-cultural, cross-groups similarities and one difference across 10 non-US nations. Seven European (individualist) and three East Asian (collectivist) nations (...
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“Classic” Scapegoating TheoryIdeological Model of ScapegoatingHistorical ExamplesImplications and SpeculationsConclusion AcknowledgmentReferences
Article
The stereotype content model (SCM) defines two fundamental dimensions of social perception, warmth and competence, predicted respectively by perceived competition and status. Combinations of warmth and competence generate distinct emotions of admiration, contempt, envy, and pity. From these intergroup emotions and stereotypes, the behavior from int...
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We examined whether men, but not women, would be distracted by a female sales representative's exposed cleavage, leading to greater perceived efficacy for a weak, but not for a strong product. A community sample of 88 men and 97 women viewed a video of a female pharmaceutical sales representative who (a) had exposed cleavage or dressed modestly and...
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On the Nature of Prejudice commemorates the fiftieth anniversary of the publication of Gordon Allport's classic work on prejudice and discrimination by examining the current state of knowledge in the field. A distinguished collection of international scholars considers Allport's impact on the field, reviews recent developments, and identifies promi...
Book
On the Nature of Prejudice commemorates the fiftieth anniversary of the publication of Gordon Allport's classic work on prejudice and discrimination by examining the current state of knowledge in the field. A distinguished collection of international scholars considers Allport's impact on the field, reviews recent developments, and identifies promi...
Article
The present study investigated whether hostile sexism, benevolent sexism, belief in a just world and empathy predict attitudes toward rape victims in a Turkish sample. Turkish college students (N = 425, mean age = 22) completed scales assessing Ambivalent Sexism, Belief in a Just World and Rape Victim Empathy as predictors of a general measure of a...
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A naturalistic field study investigated behavior toward pregnant (vs. nonpregnant) women in nontraditional (job applicant) and traditional (store customer) roles. Female confederates, who sometimes wore a pregnancy prosthesis, posed as job applicants or customers at retail stores. Store employees exhibited more hostile behavior (e.g., rudeness) tow...
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Three studies examined women's reactions to ostensibly protective restrictions. In Study 1, only benevolently sexist women accepted a protectively justified (hypothetical) prohibition against driving on a long trip, but only when imposed by a husband (not a coworker). In Study 2, when women's actual romantic partners opposed their participation in...
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We examined whether, due to men’s desire to reject stereotypically feminine traits in themselves, a masculinity threat would elicit negative affect toward effeminate, but not masculine gay men. Fifty-three male undergraduates from the United States received bogus feedback that they had either a “masculine” or “feminine” personality before rating af...
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In the present research, consisting of 2 correlational studies (N = 616) including a representative U.S. sample and 2 experiments (N = 350), the authors investigated how stereotypes and emotions shape behavioral tendencies toward groups, offering convergent support for the behaviors from intergroup affect and stereotypes (BIAS) map framework. Warmt...
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Like all perception, social perception reflects evolutionary pressures. In encounters with conspecifics, social animals must determine, immediately, whether the "other" is friend or foe (i.e. intends good or ill) and, then, whether the "other" has the ability to enact those intentions. New data confirm these two universal dimensions of social cogni...
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The psychological approach to sex discrimination is complementary to approaches that use a broader level of analysis such as economics and sociology. Psychology, however, adds a crucial piece to solving the puzzle of discrimination. Discrimination can be embedded in the structure of an organization, in what is known as institutional racism or sexis...
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Perceptions of America as a powerful but malevolent nation decrease its security. On the basis of measures derived from the stereotype content model (SCM) and image theory (IT), 5,000 college students in I I nations indicated their perceptions of the personality traits of, intentions of, and emotional reactions to the United States as well as their...
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Social role theory (Eagly, Wood, & Diekman, 2000) predicts that traditional gender ideology is associated with preferences for qualities in a mate that reflect a conventional homemaker-provider division of labor. This study assessed traditional gender ideology using Glick and Fiske's (1996, 1999) indexes of ambivalent attitudes toward women and men...
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Full-text available
Perceptions of America as a powerful but malevolent nation decrease its security. On the basis of measures derived from the stereotype content model (SCM) and image theory (IT), 5,000 college students in I I nations indicated their perceptions of the personality traits of, intentions of, and emotional reactions to the United States as well as their...
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We hypothesized that women who dress in a sexy versus business-like manner evoke negative emotions and perceptions of lesser competence if employed in high- (but not low-) status jobs. Male and female undergraduates evaluated a videotaped female target whose physical attractiveness was held constant, but who was (a) dressed in sexy or business-like...
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Although some anthropologists dispute the universality of patriarchy and argue that the hunter-gatherer groups in which humans evolved were egalitarian (Salzman, 1999), agricultural and industrial societies are typically dominated by men, who monopolize the highest status positions in powerful social institutions, such as business, government, and...
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Working moms risk being reduced to one of two subtypes: homemakers—viewed as warm but incompetent, or female professionals—characterized as competent but cold. The current study ( N= 122 college students) presents four important findings. First, when working women become mothers, they trade perceived competence for perceived warmth. Second, working...
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A 16-nation study involving 8,360 participants revealed that hostile and benevolent attitudes toward men, assessed by the Ambivalence Toward Men Inventory (P. Click & S.T. Fiske, 1999), were (a) reliably measured across cultures, (b) positively correlated (for men and women, within samples and across nations) with each other and with hostile and be...
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This study examined the relationship of ambivalent sexism, political conservatism, demographic variables (age, education, and gender), and prior sexual experience to Turkish men s and women s attitudes toward women who engage in premarital sex. Participants included 124 Turkish undergraduate students and 60 nonstudent Turkish adults. Benevolent but...
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In an experiment, job description and applicants' attributes were examined as moderators of the backlash effect, the negative evaluation of agentic women for violating prescriptions of feminine niceness (Rudman, 1998). Rutgers University students made hiring decisions for a masculine or “feminized” managerial job. Applicants were presented as eithe...
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Men and women in Turkey and Brazil completed the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (Glick & Fiske, 1996) and measures of attitudes about wife abuse. In both nations hostile sexism (HS) and benevolent sexism (BS) positively correlated with attitudes that legitimize abuse. Regression analyses revealed that HS accounted for unique variance, but BS (once HS...
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The relationships of education and religiosity to hostile and benevolently sexist attitudes toward women and men, as assessed by the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (ASI; Glick & Fiske, 1996) and the Ambivalence Toward Men Inventory (AMI; Glick & Fiske, 1999), was explored in a random sample of 1,003 adults (508 women, 495 men) from Galicia, Spain. For...
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This chapter reexamines the scapegoat concept, distinguishing between 2 variants of the theory identified by G. W. Allport (1954). After explicating and critiquing these classic versions of scapegoat theory, the chapter presents an alternative, ideological model of scapegoating. The proposed model seeks to correct scapegoat theory's deficiencies mo...
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Stereotype research emphasizes systematic processes over seemingly arbitrary contents, but content also may prove systematic. On the basis of stereotypes' intergroup functions, the stereotype content model hypothesizes that (a) 2 primary dimensions are competence and warmth, (b) frequent mixed clusters combine high warmth with low competence (pater...
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Replies to commentaries from J. V. Petrocelli (see record 2002-13736-004) and L. Sax (see record 2002-13736-005) on the authors's article (see record 2001-00159-001) that introduced a perspective of how benevolent sexism may play a potent role in the inequality between the genders, as does hostile sexism. The authors note that the two commentaries...
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Stereotype research emphasizes systematic processes over seemingly arbitrary contents, but content also may prove systematic. On the basis of stereotypes' intergroup functions, the stereotype content model hypothesizes that (a) 2 primary dimensions are competence and warmth, (b) frequent mixed clusters combine high warmth with low competence (pater...
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Full-text available
The questions the authors address in this chapter can be traced over two decades of work by J. T. Spence and her colleagues. More than any other single researcher, Spence has sought to establish the content of beliefs about women, to determine whether these beliefs are merely descriptions of women or prescriptions for how women ought to be, and to...
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The equation of prejudice with antipathy is challenged by recent research on sexism. Benevolent sexism (a subjectively favorable, chivalrous ideology that offers protection and affection to women who embrace conventional roles) coexists with hostile sexism (antipathy toward women who are viewed as usurping men's power). The Ambivalent Sexism Invent...
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The authors argue that complementary hostile and benevolent components of sexism exist across cultures. Male dominance creates hostile sexism (HS), but men's dependence on women fosters benevolent sexism (BS)--subjectively positive attitudes that put women on a pedestal but reinforce their subordination. Research with 15,000 men and women in 19 nat...
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Women who display masculine, agentic traits are viewed as violating prescriptions of feminine niceness (L. A. Rudman, 1998). By legitimizing niceness as an employment criterion, "feminization" of management (requiring both agentic and communal traits for managers) may unintentionally promote discrimination against competent women. Participants made...
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As Allport (1954) implied, the content of stereotypes may be systematic, and specifically, ambivalent. We hypothesize two clusters of outgroups, one perceived as incompetent but warm (resulting in paternalistic prejudice) and one perceived as competent but not warm (resulting in envious prejudice). Perceived group status predicts perceived competen...
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We present a measure, the Ambivalence toward Men Inventory (AMI), that differentiates between women's hostile and benevolent prejudices and stereotypes about men. The Hostility toward Men (HM) and Benevolence toward Men (BM) subscales of the AMI tap conventional attitudes toward men that have opposing valences. Each subscale assesses subfactors con...
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In western countries there have been important changes in the public expression of sexist beliefs. Thus, openly admitting that one believes women are inferior to men is not something one can safely tell in the 1990s. However, several indices show that sex discrimination is far from being out of style. This contradictory situation led some authors t...
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Two studies using Peter Glick and Susan Fiske's Ambivalent Sexism Inventory examined sexist men's attitudes toward women. The authors hypothesized that ambivalent sexist (as compared with nonsexist) men would habitually classify women into polarized subgroups (those they put on a "pedestal" and those they place in the "gutter"). Study 1 revealed th...
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Presents a theory of sexism as ambivalence, not just hostility, toward women. Ambivalent Sexism Theory distinguishes between hostile and "benevolent" sexism (each addresses issues of power, gender differentiation, and sexuality). Benevolent sexism encompasses subjectively positive attitudes toward women in traditional roles: protective paternalism,...
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The authors present a theory of sexism formulated as ambivalence toward women and validate a corresponding measure, the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (ASI). The ASI taps 2 positively correlated components of sexism that nevertheless represent opposite evaluative orientations toward women: sexist antipathy or Hostile Sexism (HS) and a subjectively po...
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A multidimensional approach to occupational gender type was explored. In Study 1, participants' spontaneous images of various jobs were elicited. The attributes generated were used to develop a job images questionnaire employed in Study 2 on which participants rated a random sample of 100 occupational titles. Occupational images were primarily stru...
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