Peter W. de Jong

Peter W. de Jong
Wageningen University & Research | WUR · Department of Entomology

PhD

About

84
Publications
22,924
Reads
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1,662
Citations
Introduction
My main interest lies in evolutionary genetics and -ecology of insect adaptation to their biotic and abiotic environment. I try to understand to what extent different processes (selection, migration and genetic drift) influence observed geographical distribution of insect adaptations. The adaptations under study include insect virulence/-resistance to host plant defences or -resistance, but also thermal adaptation to climatic factors. In the more applied field, my interest lies in biological control, among others in an IPM context. Apart from this research, major tasks include my role as secretary of the Examining Board Life Sciences of Wageningen University, and coordinating one of the bigger courses at this university, Academic Consultancy Training.
Additional affiliations
August 2006 - present
Wageningen University & Research
Position
  • study coordinator
November 2001 - present
Wageningen University & Research
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
November 2001 - present
Wageningen University & Research
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
Description
  • Various courses, a.o. Molecular and Evolutionary Ecology, Insect Ecology, Fundamental and applied biology of insects, evolutionary biology, molecular aspects of biointeractions. supervising >40 MSc students with MSc projects (each 1/2 - 1 year)

Publications

Publications (84)
Article
Full-text available
Intraspecific genetic variation in arthropods is often studied in the context of evolution and ecology. Such knowledge, however, can also be very usefully applied to biological pest control. Selection of genotypes with optimal trait values may be a powerful tool to develop more effective biocontrol agents. Although it has repeatedly been proposed,...
Article
Tuta absoluta(Meyrick), a key pest of tomato, is quickly spreading over theworldand biological control is considered as one of the control options.Worldwidemore than 160 species of natural enemies are associated with this pest, andan important challenge is to quickly find an effective biocontrol agent from this pool of candidate species. Evaluation...
Article
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Host plant resistance has received considerable attention for the management of insect herbivores on crop plants. However, resistance is threatened by the rapid adaptation of target herbivores towards virulence (the ability to survive, develop and damage a host with major resistance genes). This study examines the potential costs and benefits of ad...
Article
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Eggplant shoot and fruit borer, Leucinodes orbonalis, is a major pest in eggplant production in South and South-East Asia. Farmers frequently spray insecticides to control it. Integrated pest management (IPM) based on mass trapping or pheromone trapping and sanitation (removal of infested shoots and fruits) has been suggested but poorly adopted. Th...
Article
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Ecologists study how populations are regulated, while scientists studying biological pest control apply population regulation processes to reduce numbers of harmful organisms: an organism (a natural enemy) is used to reduce the population density of another organism (a pest). Finding an effective biological control agent among the tens to hundreds...
Article
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With climate change, the occurrence of extreme weather events such as heatwaves is expected to increase. Extreme temperature events are short periods of high temperature (i.e., >95th percentile of temperature distribution), and their occurrences are difficult to predict. These extreme temperature events pose great challenges to living organisms, es...
Article
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Augmentative biological control by predaceous ladybird beetles can be improved by using flightless morphs, which have longer residence times on the host plants. The two-spot ladybird beetle, Adalia bipunctata (L.) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), is used for the biological control of aphids in greenhouses and on urban trees. Flightlessness due to trunc...
Article
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Bacterial wilt (causal agent: Ralstonia solanacearum) and Phomopsis fruit rot (causal agent: Phomopsis vexans) are two major diseases constraining eggplant production in Bangladesh. No integrated management options to manage both diseases together are currently available; farmers spray pesticides. A 2-year participatory study was conducted to compa...
Article
Tuta absoluta (Meyrick), a key pest of tomato, is quickly spreading over the world. Here we report lifetime predation of T. absoluta eggs by adults of three Neotropical mirid species [Campyloneuropsis infumatus (Carvalho), Engytatus varians (Distant) and Macro-lophus basicornis (Stal)]. Prey eggs were offered ad libitum on a tomato leaflet at 24 ±...
Article
Eggplant seedling production in homestead nurseries of farmers in Jamalpur (Bangladesh) is greatly compromised by damping-off. Therefore, farmers often do not have enough seedlings to transplant. Effective treatments of soil and seed to reduce disease pressure in the nurseries are available but little is known on the relative contributions of soil-...
Article
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Among characteristics that are thought to determine the success of invasive species, life-history traits feature prominently. However, in most cases, these have been determined under laboratory conditions. Here, we use a field set-up to determine immature development time and survival of invasive Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) and native Adalia bipunct...
Article
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Mating behaviour often increases predation risk, but the vulnerability within mating pairs differs between the sexes. Such a sex difference is expected to lead to differences in responses to predation risk between the sexes. In the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae, males engage in pre-copulatory mate guarding because only the first matin...
Article
Investigations of the ongoing evolutionary change of host specificity, especially of that in the initial phase, contribute largely to our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the diversification of phytophagous insects. However, empirical studies of this aspect in natural systems are very scanty. In the present study, we document the evo...
Article
Full-text available
Tuta absoluta (Meyrick), a key pest of tomato, is quickly spreading over the world. We are evaluating the biology and pest control capacity of three Neotropical mirid species, Campyloneuropsis infumatus (Carvalho), Engytatus varians (Distant) and Macrolo-phus basicornis (Stal). Here we report about the predation of T. absoluta eggs by all nymphal s...
Article
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Under predicted global climate change, species will be gradually exposed to warmer temperatures, and to a more variable climate including more intense and more frequent heatwaves. Increased climatic variability is expected to have different effects on species and ecosystems than gradual warming. A key challenge to predict the impact of climate chan...
Article
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The harlequin ladybird, Harmonia axyridis, is an important natural enemy of aphids throughout the world, but is now also considered an invasive alien species. We performed a meta-analysis of published life history data to address the question whether invading populations in Europe and North America have life history parameters that differ from nati...
Article
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This study examines the three-way interaction between symbionts, insect herbivores and their host plants during adaptation to resistant crop varieties. We conducted a long-term selection study (20 generations of continuous rearing) with a monophagous phloem-feeder, the brown planthopper [Nilaparvata lugens (Stål)], on several resistant rice (Oryza...
Article
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Proximate factors affecting animal behavior include stimuli generated by conspecifics. In spider mites of the Tetranychus genus (Acari: Tetranychidae), males guard pre-reproductive quiescent females because only the first mating results in fertilization. In a dual-choice experiment, more adult males of T. urticae were attracted to females guarded b...
Article
Full-text available
The aphid predator Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is an invasive alien species in Europe and North America with negative effects on non-target species (including a decline of native ladybird populations), as well as fruit production, and human health. It is, therefore, important to find out which natural enemies could be use...
Data
Full-text available
For over 50 years, host plant resistance has been the principal focus of public research to reduce planthopper and leafhopper damage to rice in Asia. Several resistance genes have been identified from native varieties and wild rice species, and some of these have been incorporated into high-yielding rice varieties through conventional breeding. How...
Article
Full-text available
The Asian ladybird Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is regarded as an invasive species in many parts of the world. In a previous study we hypothesised that H. axyridis enters diapause at the end of October and then shifts to a quiescent state in December in northwestern Europe. In the present study we test this idea of a short...
Article
Full-text available
For over 50 years, host plant resistance has been the principal focus of public research to reduce planthopper and leafhopper damage to rice in Asia. Several resistance genes have been identified from native varieties and wild rice species, and some of these have been incorporated into high-yielding rice varieties through conventional breeding. How...
Article
Full-text available
We comment on the implications that Vilcinskas et al. (Reports, 17 May 2013, p. 862) attach to the finding that the exotic, invasive ladybird Harmonia axyridis carries microsporidia to which this species is insensitive but that is lethal to species that are native to the invaded areas. The authors suggest that these microsporidia might serve as “bi...
Article
Since the establishment of Harmonia axyridis in Europe, populations of native ladybirds have decreased. Overwintering survival is one of the aspects of the biology of H. axyridis that may contribute to its firm establishment in and invasion of a new area. In this study winter survival of five wild H. axyridis populations was assessed under natural...
Article
The publisher regrets the error caused. In the original version, in the first sentence of the Introduction section, the word 'Multicoloured' was misspelt as 'Min pressul-ticoloured'. The publisher would like to apologise for any inconvenience caused.
Article
Full-text available
We report a case of genetic linkage between the two major loci underlying different wing traits in the two-spot ladybird beetle, Adalia bipunctata (L.) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae): melanism and winglessness. The loci are estimated to be 38.8 cM apart on one of the nine autosomes. This linkage is likely to facilitate the unravelling of the genetics...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Indian rice variety PTB33 is one of the most resistant to the brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stal), and has been used extensively in breeding programs aimed at increasing rice resistance to biotic stresses. The sources of resistance in PTB33 are still not fully understood, but it appears that the variety may contain several resist...
Article
The interaction between the flea beetle, Phyllotreta nemorum L. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), and its host plants is well suited to study the dynamics of a geographic mosaic of (co)evolution. The flea beetle can either be resistant or susceptible to the defense of one of its host plants, Barbarea vulgaris R.Br. G-type (Brassicaceae). Previous findin...
Article
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Aphids can cause major environmental problems in urban areas. One important problem is the annual outbreaks of lime aphid, Eucallipterus tiliae (L.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), which spoil the surroundings of lime trees by depositing honeydew. To date no environmentally friendly method has been demonstrated to yield effective control of lime aphids. At...
Article
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A central issue in the evolutionary ecology of species interactions is coevolution, which involves the reciprocal selection between individuals of interacting species. Understanding the importance of coevolution in shaping species interactions requires the consideration of spatial variation in their strength. This is exactly what the, recently deve...
Article
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A cline in the frequency of melanic morphs of the two-spot ladybird, Adalia bipunctata, was first surveyed in 1980 along a transect extending inland from the coast in the Netherlands. At that time, the frequency of melanics increased over some 40 km from 10% near the coast to nearly 60% inland. Additional surveys made in 1991 and 1995 demonstrated...
Article
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Females of the larval parasitoid of Drosophila, Asobara citri, from sub-Saharan Africa, defend patches with hosts by fighting and chasing conspecific females upon encounter. Females of the closely related, palearctic species Asobara tabida do not defend patches and often search simultaneously in the same patch. The effect of patch defence by A. cit...
Article
Full-text available
After establishment of Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in Europe, population densities of native ladybird species have decreased. The post-hibernation onset of female reproduction, a key characteristic influencing population dynamics and competition with related species, was studied. Hibernating individuals were collected and...
Article
Full-text available
Flea beetles are characterized by their tendency to jump. They can also fly. First, the effects of starvation on flight activity in the flea beetle, Phyllotreta nemorum L. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) were determined. After starving P. nemorum for five days a greater number of individuals of both sexes flew than when fed continuously for the same pe...
Article
The concept of “enemy-free space” (EFS) refers to ways of living that reduce or eliminate the vulnerability of a species to natural enemies. It has been invoked to explain host shifts of phytophagous insects. A demonstrated cause of EFS is escape from enemies in time, through phenological mismatching of herbivore development and enemy occurrence, l...
Article
Full-text available
The flea beetle Phyllotreta nemorum L. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is genetically polymorphic for resistance against the defences of one of its host plants, Barbarea vulgaris R.Br. (Brassicales: Brassicaceae). Whereas resistant flea beetles are able to use B. vulgaris as well as other cruciferous plants as food, non-resistant beetles cannot survive...
Article
Full-text available
Females of the African sub-saharan larval parasitoid of Drosophila, Asobara citri, defend patches with hosts by fighting and chasing con- specific females it encounters. The palearctic, closely related species A. tabida does not defend patches and allows conspecific females to search in the same patch. The effect of patch defence by A. citri female...
Article
Full-text available
The challenge of using ladybird beetles for biological control of insect pests such as aphids is that the adult beetles tend to fly away from the host plants. Therefore, flightless ladybirds might improve biocontrol. There are several artificial ways to obtain flightless beetles, but it may be preferable to use natural variation in flight ability....
Article
The solitary parasitoid Eretmocerus mundus Mercet (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) is one of the key biological control agents of the whitefly Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring, also known as B. tabaci (Gennadius) B-biotype (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). We present new information on its biology, and particularly about larval elimination during the first...
Article
Meer dan de helft van alle bekende insecten leeft van planten. Niet alleen insecten passen zich aan hun voedsel aan. Ook de plant wapent zich tegen zijn belagers. Hoe is deze situatie ontstaan? Hoe verdedigen planten zich tegen insectenvraat, en hoe 'ontmantelen' sommige insecten deze verdediging?
Article
Het succes van insecten is rechtstreeks afhankelijk van het klimaat. Daarom mag je verwachten dat klimaatsverandering een heel directe invloed heeft op insecten en andere koudbloedigen. Als je weet hoe belangrijk insecten zijn in ecosystemen dan kun je wel nagaan wat de impact zal zijn van klimaatsverandering op het leven op aarde
Article
In the Danish region of Kværkeby, a mutation in an, as yet, unknown single autosomal gene has resulted in a dominant resistance (R-) allele in the flea beetle Phyllotreta nemorum L. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Alticinae). It enables the beetle to overcome the defences of Barbarea vulgaris ssp. arcuata (Opiz.) Simkovics G-type (Brassicaceae) and use...
Article
1 Linking new developments in genomics with ecology provides interesting novel tools to address ecological questions in ways that have not been possible up to now. In this paper we address this issue for the ecology of infochemicals and plant¿insect interactions in a food web context. 2 Plants are at the basis of most terrestrial food webs and inse...
Article
Ten microsatellite markers for the flea beetle Phyllotreta nemorum were developed using di- and trinucleotide repeat-enriched libraries. Each of these primer pairs were characterized on 96 individuals. Expected heterozygosities ranged between 0.11 and 0.84 and the number of alleles ranged between two and 14 per locus. These microsatellite markers a...
Article
Full-text available
A challenge for ecologists has been to understand how individual traits of organisms affect species interactions and community dynamics. Recent breakthroughs provide ecologists with delicate manipulative tools in which mechanistic knowledge of well-characterized genotypes and phenotypic plasticity can be exploited to study the effect of individual...
Article
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The incidence of sibling cannibalism in clutches of Harmonia axyridis infected by the male-killing Spiroplasma was compared with that in uninfected clutches, and the way in which fitness compensation was realized by sibling cannibalism was investigated. Primarily the rate of sibling cannibalism was determined by the hatching rate as all unviable eg...
Article
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Microsatellites were used as markers for a study of the population structure of Anopheles funestus on Madagascar and Comoros. Mosquitoes were collected in four different localities on Madagascar and one on Comoros. There was a significant genetic differentiation between all samples from Madagascar and that from Comoros (P<0.05). With respect to the...
Article
Full-text available
Winglessness in the two-spot ladybird beetle Adalia bipunctata (L.) is determined by a single locus with the wingless allele recessive to the winged wildtype allele. The expression of the wingless trait is highly variable, with individuals missing a variable part of elytra and flight wings; the elytra and wings appear to be truncated rather than mi...
Article
Host-handling behavior is an important aspect of parasitoid foraging behavior. When a parasitoid encounters a potential host, the handling behavior starts with the evaluation of the host and continues if the host has been judged acceptable. Host handling is usually terminated after egg laying or host feeding and host marking. Host-handling behavior...
Article
Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) is a serious pest of vegetable, ornamental, and agronomic crops throughout the world. To control B. tabaci, Eretmocerus eremicus Rose & Zolnerowich, and Eretmocerus mundus Mercet are considered the most effective parasitoids in dry tropical regions. In parasitoids, choosing the ‘right’ hosts has direct consequences for th...
Article
Abstract The flea beetle, Phyllotreta nemorum L. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is an intermediate specialist feeding on a small number of plants within the family Brassicaceae. The most commonly used host plant is Sinapis arvensis L., whereas the species is found more rarely on Cardaria draba (L.) Desv., Barbarea vulgaris R.Br., and cultivated radis...
Article
Full-text available
A so-called R-gene renders the yellow-striped flea beetle Phyllotreta nemorum L. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Alticinae) resistant to the defenses of the yellow rocket Barbarea vulgaris R.Br. (Brassicacea) and enables it to use it as a host plant in Denmark. In this study, genetic markers for an autosomal R-gene, inherited as a single, dominant locu...
Article
Full-text available
Winglessness in the two-spot ladybird beetle Adalia bipunctata (L.) is determined by a single locus with the wingless allele recessive to the winged wildtype allele. The expression of the wingless trait is highly variable, with individuals missing a variable part of elytra and flight wings; the elytra and wings appear to be truncated rather than mi...
Article
The flea beetle, Phyllotreta nemorum L. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is an intermediate specialist feeding on a small number of plants within the family Brassicaceae. The most commonly used host plant is Sinapis arvensis L., whereas the species is found more rarely on Cardaria draba (L.) Desv., Barbarea vulgaris R.Br., and cultivated radish (Raphan...
Article
Eretmocerus species (Hym. Aphelinidae) are solitary parasitoids of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius). Mate finding and mating behavior of two species, E. mundus and E. eremicus, were studied under laboratory conditions. We used three populations of Eretmocerus: typical arrhenotokous populations of E. eremicus (from USA) and E. mundus (from Spain), and an...
Article
This study compares the population genetic structure of two obligate parthenogenetic sawfly species, Aneugmenus padi (L.) Zhelochovtsev and Eurhadinoceraea ventralis (Panzer) Enslin (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae). Allozymes were used to detect genetic differences in larvae collected at different sites in six European countries. For A. padi, scoring...
Article
Full-text available
The genetic basis and fitness consequences of winglessness were investigated in the two-spot ladybird beetle, Adalia bipunctata. By breeding lines from a wingless individual found at The Uithof, Utrecht in The Netherlands, the wingless condition was confirmed to be under the control of a major allele, recessive to the wild type. Wingless individual...
Article
Ecologists are discovering that molecular biologists have lots of fun tools that they can use to dissect ecosystem dynamics and species interactions within communities. In their Perspective, [Dicke and colleagues][1] discuss an elegant field study ([ Kessler et al .][2]) that uses ecogenomics to elucidate the interactions between native tobacco pla...
Article
Full-text available
Ecologists are discovering that molecular biologists have lots of fun tools that they can use to dissect ecosystem dynamics and species interactions within communities. In their Perspective, [Dicke and colleagues][1] discuss an elegant field study ([ Kessler et al .][2]) that uses ecogenomics to elucidate the interactions between native tobacco pla...
Article
The view of (insect) populations as assemblages of local subpopulations connected by gene flow is gaining ground. In such structured populations, local adaptation may occur. In phytophagous insects, one way in which local adaptation has been demonstrated is by performing reciprocal transplant experiments where performance of insects on native and n...
Article
The flea beetle Phyllotreta nemorum is an oligophagous species using crucifers as host plants. In Denmark two populations have been found which use Barbarea vulgaris ssp. arcuata (G-type) as a host plant, whereas this plant is unsuitable for the survival of the majority of P. nemorum. In the locations in which these two populations occur, alternati...
Article
One essential aspect of the study of the evolution of host-plant use by insects is (variation in) its genetic basis. The genetic basis of the ability of a flea beetle (Phyllotreta nemorum) to use the crucifer Barbarea vulgaris ssp. arcuata (G type) as a host plant was studied in a Danish population (Kvaerkeby) occurring naturally on this atypical h...
Article
Major resistance genes are present in Danish flea beetle (Phyllotreta nemorum) populations, enabling the beetles to utilize a defended plant, Barbarea vulgaris ssp. arcuata, as a host plant, whereas this plant is unsuitable for beetles lacking the resistance genes. Two lines of beetles carrying a resistance gene have been established which are near...
Article
Full-text available
The flea beetle Phyllotreta nemorum L. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Alticinae) is polymorphic for its ability to use Barbarea vulgaris R. Br. (Brassicaceae) as a host plant. The genetic factors influencing this ability show both sex-linked and autosomal inheritance. Evidence was found for the presence of major genes such as those found in earlier st...
Article
Full-text available
Effects of two different mating regimes on sperm precedence in the two-spot ladybird, Adalia bipunctata , were studied using the polymorphic gene for melanism as a marker for paternity. Virgin nonmelanic females (homozygous recessive) were mated to nonmelanic male(s) and then, after laying fertilized eggs, were mated to a melanic male of known geno...
Article
Full-text available
The polymorphic two-spot ladybird, Adalia bipunctata, shows clinal variation in the frequency with which melanic and non-melanic morphs occur. Here we show that the clines in melanism in The Netherlands have changed over the past two decades: they have become shallower. This change has coincided with an increase in local ambient spring temperatures...
Article
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The consequences of the elytral colour difference between non-melanic (red) and melanic (black) two-spot ladybirds for their thermal properties were studied by applying and testing a biophysical model. The expected differential effects of variation in transmission through the elytra, body size, width of the subelytral cavity, ambient temperature, r...