Peter Crosthwaite

Peter Crosthwaite
The University of Queensland | UQ · School of Languages and Comparative Cultural Studies

Ph.D (Cambridge)
Senior Lecturer Applied Linguistics, U. of Queensland. Associate Editor, Journal of English for Academic Purposes

About

70
Publications
50,425
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
612
Citations
Citations since 2016
61 Research Items
603 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022050100150
2016201720182019202020212022050100150
2016201720182019202020212022050100150
2016201720182019202020212022050100150
Introduction
My research areas include second language acquisition, (learner) corpus linguistics, English for Academic and Specific Purposes, and the use of corpora for data-driven learning. At UQ School of Languages and Cultures, I lecture on second language acquisition, L2 writing research, EAP, and corpus linguistics. I am associate editor of Journal of English for Academic Purposes, and on the editorial boards of IRAL, System, and Applied Corpus Linguistics.
Additional affiliations
July 2017 - present
The University of Queensland
Position
  • Lecturer
September 2014 - July 2017
The University of Hong Kong
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
Education
October 2009 - May 2014
University of Cambridge
Field of study
  • Applied Linguistics

Publications

Publications (70)
Book
Full-text available
Despite advancements in and availability of corpus software in language classrooms facilitating data-driven learning (DDL), the use of such methods with pre-tertiary learners remains rare. This book explores the affordances of DDL specifically for younger learners, testing its viability with teachers and students at the primary and secondary years...
Article
Full-text available
Despite a marked shift towards blended learning in EAP due to massification of higher education and the impact of COVID-19, relatively little is known about student engagement with EAP genre education as realised through blended learning. This paper explores international undergraduate/graduate students’ perceptions of using an online text, image a...
Article
Full-text available
The use of corpora for the purposes of language teaching and learning, commonly known as “data-driven learning” (DDL), is gaining popularity across a range of CALL contexts. However, how trainee teachers attempt to develop the technological, pedagogical and content knowledge (TPACK) to integrate corpus tools and DDL pedagogy into classroom practice...
Article
Full-text available
Corpus-based approaches to language and literacy education, commonly known as data-driven learning (DDL), are increasing in prominence. However, the vast majority of DDL interventions involve adult tertiary level learners, leaving a dire need for comprehensive DDL studies for secondary education. The present study reports on a half-year DDL experim...
Article
Full-text available
We conduct a bibliometric analysis to map the field of research on written corrective feedback (WCF) for L2 learning over the last 30+ years, tracking changes in the popular areas for L2 WCF research topics, outlets, highest-cited authors, and geographical origins of published L2 WCF research. Based on a collection of the metadata of 493 L2 WCF-rel...
Article
Full-text available
This paper uses a bibliometric analysis to map the field of Corpus Linguistics (CL) research in arts and humanities over the last 20 years, while tracking changes in the popular CL research topics, outlets, highly-cited authors, and geographical origins of published CL research. Based on a collection of the metadata of 5,829 CL-related articles fro...
Article
Children’s writing development is a matter of concern for Australian and other education systems. Factors related to the nature of writing as a literate skill, school writing pedagogy, and diminishing role of writing in a screen-dominant environment may account for this educational concern. What happens in a child’s writing when immigrant parents a...
Article
Full-text available
This article conducts Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) on a corpus of TED talks (2463 talks, across 427 topic tags) to create a new Multi-Dimensional model. The resultant model contained seven dimensions: i. ‘Spontaneous involved versus edited informational discourse’, ii. ‘Abstract informational versus narrative discourse’, iii. ‘Human-world orie...
Chapter
Advances in the availability, functionality and user-friendliness of language corpora have resulted in a concomitant rise in the number of DDL studies focusing on YLs in recent years, with generally positive qualitative and even quantitative results now finally reported in the literature. However, there are still a number of barriers to the impleme...
Article
Full-text available
Ph.D. thesis writers’ abilities to effectively use interpersonal language and engage with disciplinary communities are recognized as key features of successful thesis writing (Hyland, 2006). As a high-stakes part-genre in Ph.D. theses, the ‘limitations’ section often contains caveats about writers’ findings/methods/claims as realized through negati...
Article
Full-text available
The past few decades have witnessed an upsurge of scholarly interest in the generic descriptions of PhD theses following Swales' seminal Genre Analysis. Fitted within the Create A Research Space (CARS) model, the thesis introduction plays a key role in justifying research originality/significance, where novice writers engage with academic communiti...
Article
Full-text available
This paper compares Australian and New Zealand Prime Ministers’ crisis response communication about COVID-19. We examine how gender performativity and contextual factors contribute to each leader’s discursive “style” at the lexical level (Fairclough, 2003), and explore micro-diachronic changes as the pandemic unfolded. Informed by corpus linguistic...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Stance-taking is considered as a feature of successful argumentative academic writing. However, previous research also informs that L2 English learners have been struggling with stance when they try to express their opinions in the target language. This corpus-assisted discourse study investigated stance-taking in eighty L2 English argumentative es...
Chapter
While we recognise the value of the previous thirty years’ research in getting us where we are today, there is a suspicion that research, zombie-like, is covering well-trod paths rather than breaking substantial new ground. This leaves DDL in danger of never truly breaking into the mainstream. In response, we present a number of useful DDL studies...
Article
Full-text available
Data-driven learning (DDL), or the use of language corpora for the purposes of language learning and teaching, has seen a marked increase in research interest within ICT-rich WEIRD (Western, Educated, Industrialised, Rich and Democratic) contexts. However, less is known about its adoption in nations such as Indonesia where ICT/CALL training is unde...
Article
Full-text available
Despite an increasing amount of research on Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL) in classroom settings within the Chinese EFL context, less is known about how learners engage with MALL outside of the classroom. In particular, few studies have explored the impact of voice-message-assisted Synchronous Computer-Mediated Communication (SCMC) for la...
Article
Full-text available
Appraisal theory (Martin and White 2005), an approach to discourse analysis dealing with evaluative language, has been previously employed in analysing newspaper articles and spoken discourses in several earlier studies, although it is gaining in popularity as a framework for comparing first and second (L1/L2) writing. This study investigated 40 En...
Presentation
Full-text available
Ever since Römer (2009, p.84) outlined the need for corpus enthusiasts to “spread the word” about the applications of corpora for education as a kind of “missionary”, there has been a sharp increase in the frequency of studies on the direct use of corpora in the language classroom in the form of Data-driven learning (DDL). However, this increase ha...
Article
Full-text available
The increasing availability of corpora (large electronic collections of texts) and the development of specialized software that retrieves linguistic data from corpora has had a tremendous impact on linguistics as a discipline. Whether a methodology or an approach to linguistic enquiry, corpus linguistics enables researchers to identify language pat...
Article
Full-text available
This paper describes the rationale, design and implementation of a short private online course (SPOC) on data-driven learning (DDL) (Johns, 1991), focusing on L2 error correction in postgraduate academic writing and involving over 300 registered users. I discuss the affordances of using a SPOC platform (namely EdX) for online DDL training, describi...
Article
Full-text available
Less is more? The impact of written corrective feedback on corpus-assisted L2 error resolution. Abstract The past decade has seen a sharp increase in research into L2 learners' direct use of language corpora (typically known as 'data-driven learning', DDL) for error resolution in L2 writing. However, a crucial yet underexplored variable in this pro...
Article
Full-text available
This study identifies and compares the gender-preferential language features present in the argumentative writing of L1 Indonesian and Indonesian L2 English learners. The data is comprised of 80 English argumentative essays sampled from the International Corpus Network of Asian Learners of English (ICNALE, Ishikawa, 2011) and a comparative corpus o...
Chapter
Full-text available
As outlined in the Foreword and Introduction to this volume, reference has proven to be a rich vein for SLA inquiry, attracting the interest of researchers from a broad range of theoretical perspectives and research agendas including those exploring cross-linguistic influence, developmental pragmatics, interlanguage, error analysis, constraints on...
Book
Full-text available
The introduction and tracking of individuals over extended discourse, known as referential movement, is a central feature of coherence, and accounts for ‘about every third word of discourse’. Located at the intersection of pragmatics and grammar, reference is now proving a rich and enduring source of insight into second language development. The ch...
Chapter
Full-text available
While much is now known about how the introduction and maintenance of reference in L2 Korean, there have been comparatively few studies that have sought to explore the difference between heritage and L2 learners’ production. The present study uses the Korean Learner Language Analysis (KoLLA) corpus (Lee, Dickinson & Israel, 2012, 2013) to investiga...
Chapter
Full-text available
The introduction and tracking of reference to people or individuals, also known as referential movement, is a central feature of coherence, and accounts for “about every third word of discourse”. Located at the intersection of pragmatics and grammar, reference is now proving a rich and enduring source of insight into second language development. Th...
Preprint
Full-text available
This is the introductory chapter to Crosthwaite, P. & Cheung, LML (2019) Learning the language of Dentistry: Disciplinary corpora in the teaching of English for Specific Academic Purposes. Accepted for publication in Studies in Corpus Linguistics series (volume 93). Amsterdam, The Netherlands: John Benjamins. In press, pages 1-23 (introduction), au...
Book
Full-text available
This book explores the affordances of disciplinary corpora for the teaching and learning of the 'language of dentistry', within the field of English for Specific Academic Purposes (ESAP). We extract disciplinary register features and vocabulary from three key genres of the dentistry discipline (published experimental research articles, case reports...
Chapter
Full-text available
This introduction presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book provides a range of studies that seek to address how corpus-based data-driven learning with young learners is finally emerging, how it is being applied, and how it can be infused into classroom practice in innovative ways. It discu...
Chapter
Full-text available
This study explores the initial reactions to corpora of two Year 5 L1 primary school students in Australia as they write argumentative essays in a private tutoring setting. Both students have similar language and cultural backgrounds, but different learning preferences and ICT support at school. The students were instructed to revise lexical errors...
Chapter
Full-text available
4chan (www.4chan.org) is an anonymous online community posting images and text on a wide variety of topics, and is widely known as a hotbed of internet culture and memes alongside frequent off-site real-world activism. We apply a sentiment analysis to a multimodal corpus of 4chan’s sports board’s (/sp/) user coverage of the Ultimate Fighting Champi...
Article
Full-text available
A growing body of literature recognizes the importance of interaction between writers and readers in disciplinary academic texts. An effective way for authors to evaluate their or others’ findings, methods, and theories is to package propositional information in evaluative ‘that’ patterns (e.g. ‘the author believes that…’). These provide various op...
Article
Full-text available
Written corrective feedback (WCF) refers to the feedback provided by writing teachers on students' writing. While much attention has been given to the (in)effectiveness of WCF on writing accuracy or skills in L2 writing research, there has been relatively less research on whether teachers' beliefs regarding WCF are aligned with their actual correct...
Article
Full-text available
Data-driven learning (DDL, Johns, 1991), involving students’ hands-on use of corpora for self-guided language learning, is a methodology now increasingly used in many tertiary contexts to enhance the teaching of disciplinary postgraduate thesis writing. However, there are still few studies tracking students’ actual engagement with corpora for DDL....
Article
Full-text available
This study determines the fine-grained bottom-up linguistic features involved in successful second language (L2) English academic group oral tutorial discussion through the use of a spoken learner corpus comprised of over 20 hours of L2 production. Student performances were graded by teacher-raters using a can-do rating scale which assessed student...
Article
Full-text available
While much work has been done on the textual analysis of political discourses in Western countries, relatively little has focused on electoral manifestos in the East. Manifestos are open extensive declarations of individual ideologies for campaigns, comprising small texts in terms of word count but with massive implications for voters' perception o...
Article
Full-text available
Martin and White’s (2005) appraisal theory explores the ways interpersonal meanings are expressed when researching evaluative aspects of language use. Despite numerous discourse analyses using appraisal, there is little research comparing appraisal resources deployed by L1 and L2 English writers in discourse produced under the same conditions and o...
Presentation
Full-text available
The use of corpora for the purposes of improving academic writing in the form of data-driven learning (DDL) is now thriving, as advances in computer/internet speed, corpus availability, user-friendly corpus query interfaces and data visualisation have come to the fore. However, the majority of studies in this area have been conducted in face-to-fac...
Article
Full-text available
Definite discourse-new bridging reference (e.g. a school…the teacher, Clark, 1975) is a complex syntax-pragmatic component of referential movement, one that is subject to relatively opaque form-function contingency compared with forms used for discourse-old reference, and one that is especially prone to cross-linguistic influence. Research shows As...
Chapter
Full-text available
This entry looks at the diverse range of contexts where English is taught and learned in South-East Asia, from outer circle countries such as Hong Kong and Singapore, to expanding circle countries such as Thailand and Laos. The entry considers the stereotypes attached to the teaching and learning of English in Asian culture, then considers whether...
Article
Full-text available
An increasing number of studies have looked at the value of corpus-based data-driven learning (DDL) for second language (L2) written error correction, with generally positive results. However, a potential conundrum for language teachers involved in the process is how to provide feedback on students’ written production for DDL. The study looks at DD...
Article
Full-text available
Despite the efforts exerted on error correction by teachers and students during English for Academic Purposes (EAP) courses, the literature is split about whether such instruction succeeds in reducing grammatical and lexical errors in student writing. In this study, a longitudinal corpus of essays and reports collected at three key data points alon...
Article
Full-text available
Medical students often lack key skills in academic writing, yet good academic writing is often a prerequisite for employment, promotion and enculturation into the profession. This article focuses on the rhetorical strategies used for the presentation of academic stance by student writers of dentistry research reports. Adopting a contrastive, corpus...
Article
Full-text available
The present study uses concurrent think-aloud verbal protocols alongside post-hoc interviews to explore how six teacher-raters determine a students' ability to explain academic concepts and argue for an academic stance supported by sources during a 25-minute group tertiary academic tutorial oral assessment. We explored how the raters arrived at dec...
Article
Full-text available
The introduction and tracking of discourse referents over extended discourse, known as referential movement, is a central feature of discourse coherence. However, while much attention is usually paid to the management of temporal, spatial and causal language in L2 writing course materials and curricula, it is apparent that the appropriate managemen...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the influence of blended vs. conventional writing environments and L2 proficiency on cognitive, somatic, and behavioral components of L2 English writing anxiety. Second language anxiety was measured using Cheng's (2004) Second Language Writing Anxiety Inventory (L2WAI) which measures cognitive, somatic, and behavioral compon...
Article
Full-text available
This paper employed Dörnyei’s L2 motivational self system to investigate the correlation between motivational variables and L2 English learning, both within and between undergraduates and postgraduates. 210 university students (including undergraduate and postgraduate students) from two mainland Chinese universities completed online questionnaires...
Article
Full-text available
We present an Integrated Contrastive Model of non-numerical quantificational NPs (NNQs, i.e. ‘some people’) produced by L1 English speakers and Mandarin and Korean L2 English learners. Learner corpus data was sourced from the ICNALE (Ishikawa, 2011, 2013) across four L2 proficiency levels. An average 10% of L2 NNQs were specific to L2 varieties, in...
Article
Full-text available
Significance Although much research has been devoted to the acquisition of number words, relatively little is known about the acquisition of other expressions of quantity. We propose that the order of acquisition of quantifiers is related to features inherent to the meaning of each term. Four specific dimensions of the meaning and use of quantifier...
Article
Full-text available
This paper adopts the Integrated Contrastive Model (Granger 1996) to an examination of the use of articles in the L2 English written production of L1 speakers of three article-less languages (Mandarin Chinese, Korean and Thai) across four L2 proficiency levels. Data is sourced from the International Corpus Network of Asian Learners of English (ICNA...
Article
Full-text available
p>This study attempts to validate an academic group tutorial discussion speaking test for undergraduate freshmen students taking initial EAP training at a university in Hong Kong in terms of task, rater and criterion validity. Three quantitative measures (Cronbach’s Alpha, Intraclass Correlation Coefficient, and Exploratory Factor Analysis) are use...
Article
Full-text available
It is well-documented that L2 English learners from article-less languages, such as Mandarin and Korean, have trouble appropriately marking definiteness/specificity in L2 English, causing numerous breakdowns in referential coherence. The status of Filipino / Tagalog as an article or article-less language is up for debate, with ANG, NG, SA markers u...
Article
Full-text available
While universities devote great effort to initial EAP instruction, many question the effectiveness of such instruction on student production. The present study seeks to determine whether EAP instruction results in a longitudinal linguistic variation in the direction of the established norms of an academic register, which by extension, would provide...
Article
Full-text available
Bridging relations are used when the identity of a discourse-new entity can be inferred via lexical relations from an antecedent (e. g. a cake … the slice) or non-lexically via reference to world knowledge or discourse structure (e. g. a war … the survivors). Such relations are marked in English via the definite article, which is considered a diffi...
Article
Full-text available
Background This study investigates the effectiveness and fairness of teacher-led assessment of students’ in-class participation and its effect on actual participation levels and language test scores, taking into account the diversity of second language learners’ learning styles. Methods The level of participation was measured across ten criteria o...
Article
Full-text available
The introduction and maintenance of reference in discourse is subject to a number of language-universal constraints on NP form and selection that allow speakers to maintain reference co-referentially (i.e. from mention to mention) with minimal processing effort across large spans of discourse. Automated approaches to co-reference resolution (i.e. t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The proposed paper for IELT-Con 2015 looks at the construction of a new multimillion-word longitudinal corpus of second-language (L2) English entitled ‘The HKU-CAES Learner Corpus’. It will initially collect L2 data sourced from the academic writing of undergraduate EFL students (mostly L1 [native] Cantonese- and Mandarin-speaking students), totall...
Article
Full-text available
Definite expressions may be used to introduce a referent into discourse when their familiarity between speaker and listener can be inferred, a strategy known as bridging. However, for a number of reasons, bridging may be difficult to acquire compared to the acquisition of indefinite introductions for noninferable referent types, with the native lan...
Thesis
Full-text available
This dissertation presents a cross-sectional study of coherence of reference to person by Chinese and Korean adults learning English as a foreign language. The study focuses on universal and language-specific constraints on reference management in three native language groups (English, Mandarin and Korean) and the acquisition of reference managemen...
Article
Full-text available
This research investigates errors of referring expressions used in L2 narrative discourse through two learner corpora, namely the Cambridge Learner Corpus (CLC), and a subsequent controlled corpus created in CLAN. By adopting the cross-sectional approach to learner language used in the English Profile Programme, the research identifies the frequenc...
Article
Full-text available
Learner corpora, or searchable collections of the written or spoken production of language learners, have become increasingly vital in the field of applied linguistics. As advances in computational linguistics and natural language processing have allowed for the automatic or semi-automatic parsing, tagging and coding of large chunks of learner-prod...
Article
Full-text available
This research looks at differences between how native speakers of English and Korean L2 English learners manage cohesive reference maintenance, as well as the effect of scaffolded interlocutor collaboration on the coherence and cohesion of extended L2 narrative discourse. Scaffolded and unscaffolded narratives were elicited from 10 Korean learners...

Questions

Questions (2)
Question
HI there,
I'm conducting a corpus study of L2 spoken academic group oral discussion, with individual production that has been rated (A- to C+) by teacher-raters. I am identifying the features involved in grading decisions of successful/unsuccessful academic discourse, with the list of (dis)fluency features involved taken from the website of your project (https://www.uclouvain.be/415256.html). I have found that of all of the features I have annotated for, 'discourse markers', 'repeats' and 'speech rate' play a significant role in the grading decisions made, with other features (inc. syntactic markers) seen as not significant overall.
I wonder if you could provide some sources explaining about your selection of these features in your project,  I'm trying to justify using the (dis)fluency features selected for your project in the literature review and methodology sections of my paper, and I would be happy to send this to you upon request.
Any help you could provide would be greatly appreciated!
Best,
Peter.
Question
Hi, I'm doing a multidimensional analysis following the work of Douglas Biber, on two corpora (one learner data, one professional texts).  I have the following dimensions following exploratory factor analysis, but am having trouble working out how to define and characterise these dimensions according to function (e.g. involved vs. informational discourse, context (in)dependent discourse, etc.). 
Here are the 5 dimensions.  In EACH CASE, the z-scores are HIGHER in the learner texts than the professional texts except where a * is seen after the linguistic feature.
1) 
VBD – Past tense verbs
PRT – Present tense verbs*
2) 
NN - Other nouns not nominalisations or gerunds*
NOMZ – Nominalisation
POMD – Possibility modals
VB – Verbs in base form
TO1 – Infinitives
3) 
JJ – Adjectives*
PRMD – Predictive Modals
4) 
PIN – Total prepositional phrases
DT – Determiners
VBN – Verbs with part participle
FPP1 – First person pronouns
5) 
SPP2 – Second person pronouns
QUPR – Quantifier pronouns
TPP3 – Third person pronouns
IN – Preposition or subordinate conjunction.
I hope that anyone who has done their own MDA might want to provide some pointers here.  Many thanks in advance!

Network

Cited By

Projects

Projects (7)
Project
This project aims to investigate (discipline-specific) language features present within academic genres.
Project
https://edge.edx.org/courses/course-v1:UQx+HASS0653N_7120_SLATx+2021_S1/course/ The translation project of SLATx: Improving writing through corpora, which was originally designed and developed by the University of Queensland, aims to introduce this online course to more Chinese EFL learners with lower level of English language proficiency. By taking this course, learners will actively use the powerful tools of language corpora to address their issues of English academic writing, and improve language learning autonomy.
Project
To explore the use of language corpora for the purposes of teaching and learning