Peter Carnevale

Peter Carnevale
University of Southern California | USC · Marshall School of Business

PhD

About

100
Publications
81,805
Reads
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6,752
Citations
Citations since 2016
1 Research Item
1867 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250

Publications

Publications (100)
Article
Full-text available
Negotiation is a component deeply ingrained in our daily lives, and it can be challenging for a person to predict the respondent's reaction (acceptance or rejection) to a negotiation offer. In this work, we focus on finding acoustic and visual behavioral cues that are predictive of the respondent's immediate reactions using a face-to-face negotiati...
Article
Full-text available
Virtual confederates–i.e., three-dimensional virtual characters that look and act like humans–have been gaining in popularity as a research method in the social and medical sciences. Interest in this research method stems from the potential for increased experimental control, ease of replication, facilitated access to broader samples and lower cost...
Article
Full-text available
Agency the capacity to plan and act - and experience - The capacity to sense and feel are two critical aspects that determine whether people will perceive non-human entities, such as autonomous agents, to have a mind. There is evidence that the absence of either can reduce cooperation. We present an experiment that tests the necessity of both for c...
Article
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The expression of emotion can play a significant role in strategic decision-making. In this study, we hypothesized that emotion expression alters behavior in morally charged negotiation. We investigated the impact of facial displays of discrete emotions, specifically anger and sadness, in a morally charged multi-issue negotiation task. Our results...
Article
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Recent research in perception and theory of mind reveals that people show different behavior and lower activation of brain regions associated with mentalizing (i.e., the inference of other's mental states) when engaged in decision making with computers, when compared to humans. These findings are important for affective computing because they sugge...
Article
Virtual confederates–i.e., three-dimensional virtual characters that look and act like humans–are used in a growing number of empirical studies, especially in the behavioral and medical sciences. The growing popularity of this research method stems from increased experimental control, ease of replication, facilitated access to broader samples and l...
Article
Full-text available
How do people make inferences about other people's minds from their emotion displays? The ability to infer others' beliefs, desires, and intentions from their facial expressions should be especially important in interdependent decision making when people make decisions from beliefs about the others' intention to cooperate. Five experiments tested t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper, we analyze face-to-face negotiation interactions with the goal of predicting the respondent's immediate reaction (i.e., accept or reject) to a negotiation offer. Supported by the theory of social rapport, we focus on mutual behaviors which are defined as nonverbal characteristics that occur due to interactional influence. These patte...
Conference Paper
Recent research in neuroeconomics reveals that people show different behavior and lower activation of brain regions associated with mentalizing (i.e., the inference of other's mental states) when engaged in decision making tasks with a computer, when compared to a human. These findings are important for affective computing because they suggest peop...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Negotiations can be characterized by the strategy participants adopt to achieve their ends (e.g., individualistic strategies are based on self-interest, cooperative strategies are used when participants try to maximize the joint gain, while competitive strategies focus on maximizing each participant's score against the other) and the outcomes that...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
There is growing evidence that emotion displays can impact people's decision making in negotiation. However, despite increasing interest in AI and HCI on negotiation as a means to resolve differences between humans and agents, emotion has been largely ignored. We explore how emotion displays in virtual agents impact people's decision making in huma...
Article
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Acknowledging the social functions of emotion in people, there has been growing interest in the interpersonal effect of emotion on cooperation in social dilemmas. This paper explores whether and how facial displays of emotion in embodied agents impact cooperation with human users. The paper describes an experiment where participants play the iterat...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The paper presents a computational model for decision-making in a social dilemma that takes into account the other party's emotion displays. The model is based on data collected in a series of recent studies where participants play the iterated prisoner's dilemma with agents that, even though following the same action strategy, show different emoti...
Article
Full-text available
Impulsive responses to ultimatums may cause rejection of unfair offers at a cost to oneself. A possible ameliorating strategy is self-regulation by setting goals and making plans geared toward controlling impulsive responses that may lead to rejection. Two studies test the hypothesis that entering an ultimatum with specific goals and plans (i.e., i...
Article
Emotional labor involves employees' displays of appropriate emotions done to comply with emotional display rules created to attain organizational goals. This study examined whether display rules operationalized as process accountability (being held accountable for the quality of emotional displays during social interactions) and as outcome accounta...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
There is now considerable evidence in social psychology, economics, and related disciplines that emotion plays an important role in negotiation. For example, humans make greater concessions in negotiation to an opposing human who expresses anger, and they make fewer concessions to an opponent who expresses happiness, compared to a no-emotion-expres...
Chapter
Purpose – Although extensive research shows that power affects negotiator performance, few efforts have been made to investigate how status conflict among negotiators affects negotiation. This chapter addresses this limitation and explores the question that when groups experience status conflict while simultaneously conducting negotiations, how thi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Acknowledging the social functions that emotions serve, there has been growing interest in the interpersonal effect of emotion in human decision making. Following the paradigm of experimental games from social psychology and experimental economics, we explore the interpersonal effect of emotions expressed by embodied agents on human decision making...
Article
How do professional mediators decide what tactics to use in public sector disputes? The present study was designed to evaluate the general proposition that mediators tailor their tactics to the particular dispute circumstances. The respondents were 32 mediators working with the Iowa Public Employment Relations Board. Interviews with these mediators...
Article
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This study examined decision frame (“gain” vs. “loss”) and negotiator affect (positive vs. control) in a simulated bilateral negotiation where negotiators dealt with a programmed opponent and made offers and counteroffers on three issues that differed in value. Direct comparisons between the gain and loss frame conditions, in the control-affect con...
Chapter
Conceptualizing Trust and Negotiation in Intergroup ContextsBenefits of Trust in Intergroup NegotiationBarriers to Trust in Intergroup NegotiationUntying the Knot: Creating and Sustaining Trust in Intergroup NegotiationConclusions References
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Article
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We propose an annotation scheme for a corpus of negotiation dialogs that was collected in the scope of a study about the effect of negotiation attitudes and time pressure on dialog patterns.
Article
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How does creativity play out in social conflict? Just like Mark Twain's observation about difference of opinion and interesting horse races, it is difference of interest, and how difference is handled, that makes interesting solutions to social conflict. If creativity is applied to the handling of differences, the outcome might very well be a mutua...
Article
Building on symbolic self-completion theory, we conceptualize group identity as a goal toward which group members strive, using material symbols of that identity. We report four studies showing that the value placed on such material symbols (e.g., a building) depends on commitment to group identity, the extent to which a symbol can be used to repre...
Article
The analysis of mediation and other forms of third party intervention requires grappling with difficult conceptual problems, some of which Keith Murnighan discusses in the preceding article. Two such problems are: (a) how to define and describe mediation; and (b) how to develop models of mediation that are applicable across the variety of contexts...
Article
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Across 3 experiments, the authors examined the effects of temporal distance on negotiation behavior. They found that greater temporal distance from negotiation decreased preference for piecemeal, single-issue consideration over integrative, multi-issue consideration (Experiment 1). They also found that greater temporal distance from an event being...
Article
A simulated organizational dispute tested the influence of third party power and settlement suggestions on negotiation. Six different types of third party suggestions were tested: Integrative (highest possible value to both parties), compromise (the prominent solution equally favorable to both parties), unintegrative (lowest possible value to both...
Article
Two studies investigated preferences for dispute resolution procedures as a function of several situational factors. Study 1 varied intentionality of the conflict, consequences, and expected future interaction between the disputants. The data indicated that 3rd-party procedures were most preferred when the wrongdoing was intentional and when there...
Article
The present study simulated an organizational dispute to examine the effects of reward and coercive third party power on negotiator concessions and negotiator perceptions of the third party. The results indicated that the possibility of third party rewards inhibited negotiator concessions, and the possibility of third party punishments facilitated...
Article
The dual concern model of negotiation predicts behavioral approaches from an analysis of negotiators' motives. Previous studies of the model have shown support, but only under conditions where negotiators' motivationally prescribed behavior was the same. The present study was designed to examine the impact of several different behavioral contexts....
Article
The present study simulated an organizational dispute to test two sets of alternative hypotheses regarding the effects of within-group cooperation and conflict on a subsequent negotiation with an out-group. The first set of hypotheses concerned in-group cooperation. We expected that either (a) in-group cooperation would produce greater cooperation...
Article
The present study simulated an organizational dispute to test 12 hypotheses about mediator behavior that were derived from the strategic choice model of mediation. This model is based on the assumption that mediators have four basic strategies to resolve disputes: (a) integrate, which involves a search for mutually acceptable outcomes; (b) press, w...
Article
Emotional reactions like anger can cause rejection of unfair ultimatums at a cost to oneself. A possible ameliorating strategy is self-regulation: there is evidence that binding goals are an effective tool for controlling emotions and successful goal pursuit. The present study tests the hypothesis that entering an ultimatum with the goal of control...
Article
The present study examined endowment effects for group-owned property where the property had rival group-based identity features and where the relationships were defined as either cooperative or competitive. The data indicated once again a group endowment effect: sellers set higher prices than buyers for group-owned property. Identity rivalry tende...
Article
We tested the proposition that perceived need plays an important role in judgments about what is fair and thus what happens in ultimatum bargaining (Guth, Schmittberger, & Schwarze, 1982). In the ultimatum paradigm, there are 2 players, a proposer and a responder, and the issue is how to divide a fixed resource (here, a pool of 19 lottery tickets)....
Article
This article describes how laboratory experiments are used by social psychologists and those in related fields to study conflict, negotiation, and mediation. In a laboratory experiment, the researcher experimentally controls one or more variables in controlled, artificial settings that induce processes likely to occur naturally. Laboratory experime...
Article
In this article, we compare the relative popularity of a wide variety of methods and techniques used in the study of conflict and negotiation across five domains of inquiry: political science, communication sciences, social and personality psychology, economics, and organizational behavior. An analysis of articles on conflict and negotiation publis...
Article
This experiment examined the impact of negotiators' cooperative and competitive expectations on the interpretation of ambiguous messages. In a simulated bilateral negotiation, participants received an initial set of cooperative, competitive or ambiguous messages, followed by a set of ambiguous messages. Negotiators who received cooperative of compe...
Article
This study employed a laboratory method to examine the role of "benevolent sexism" in a negotiator's receptivity to a mediator. Benevolent sexism refers to attitudes and beliefs about women that the perceiver subjectively considers positive (Glick & Fiske, 1996; 2001). The participants were 45 female students, placed in the role of negotiator, and...
Article
The chapter reviews the settings and research paradigms to illustrate that in some conflicts and in some negotiation settings some motives are more likely to emerge than in other settings. It also reviews past research on cognitive and motivational processes in conflict and negotiation, and introduces defensiveness and naive realism as barriers to...
Article
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This article investigates the relationship between culture, personality, and deception in a simulated international management negotiation at multiple levels of analysis. `Deception' was operationalized here as the propensity to lie and bribe. As predicted, at the cultural level the results from a scenario study with 1583 participants from eight cu...
Article
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Unlike most treatments of culture in international diplomacy, this article suggests that culture can play a positive role in the mediation of international disputes. Cultural ties between the mediator and one or both of the disputants can facilitate mediation by, among other things, enhancing the mediator's acceptability to the parties, and enhanci...
Article
Do cultural values influence the manner in which people cooperate with one another? This study assessed cultural characteristics of individuals and then related these characteristics to cooperative behavior in social dilemmas. Participants were assessed for their degree of vertical and horizontal individualism and collectivism, cultural values iden...
Article
The superiority of group performance over performance of the average individual is relatively greater on world knowledge tasks than on quantity estimation tasks. Previous research on quantity estimations has involved judgments without an explicit frame of reference. We propose that a frame of reference converts a quantity estimation into a world kn...
Article
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Participants were led to expect either cooperation or conflict, and then performed K. Duncker's (1945) functional-fixedness task (Experiment 1) or E. Rosch's (1975) categorization task (Experiment 2). Those who expected cooperation, compared with those who expected conflict, were more likely to solve Duncker's task and used categories more inclusiv...
Article
The financial crisis of 2008, which started with an initially well-defined epicenter focused on mortgage backed securities (MBS), has been cascading into a global economic recession, whose increasing severity and uncertain duration has led and is continuing to lead to massive losses and damage for billions of people. Heavy central bank intervention...
Article
Conflicts sometimes involve issues for which both parties want the same outcome, although frequently parties fail to recognize their shared interests. These common-value issues set the stage for a nasty misrepresentation strategy: feigning opposed interest on the common-value issue to gain an advantage on other issues. In a laboratory negotiation s...
Article
Two studies investigated preferences for dispute resolution procedures as a function of several situational factors. Study 1 varied intentionality of the conflict, consequences, and expected future interaction between the disputants. The data indicated that 3rd-party procedures were most preferred when the wrongdoing was intentional and when there...
Article
Research adopting prospect theory to examine negotiator performance was extended to mediation. We examined whether framing negotiator payoffs in terms of gains or losses affects a mediator's behavior towards negotiators when the mediator has no personal frame. The use of a mediator presents a critical test between an explanation of framing effects...
Article
Two resource dilemmas, the commons dilemma, in which individuals take from a common resource, and the public goods problem, in which individuals give to a common good, were experimentally compared. Although they provide equivalent outcomes, the two dilemmas involve different frames of reference and are not psychologically equivalent. We also examin...
Article
Full-text available
This chapter reviews research and theory concerned with outcome frames in negotiation—the negotiator's conception of the dispute as involving gains (gain frame) or losses (loss frame). We argue that because losses are more aversive than equivalent gains are attractive, loss framed negotiators should display greater resistance to concession making a...
Article
This study tested the hypothesis that partisanship influences judgments of fairness and trustworthiness in the mediation of social conflict. Subjects evaluated third party proposals for resolving the conflict in Jerusalem. A2×2×4 factorial design examined (1) partisanship of the subject, either partisan (pro-Israeli) or nonpartisan (neutral); (2) c...
Article
This study examined the dispute-resolution behavior of the "intravenor," a distinct third-party role in organizational dispute resolution. Unlike a mediator, whose involvement in the dispute is at the whim of the disputants, the intravenor can control the outcome of the dispute. Unlike an arbitrator, who is compelled to dictate the outcome of the d...
Article
Examined negotiator cognition and behavior as a function of own frame, foreknowledge about opponent's frame, opponent's communicated frame, and their interactions. Prenegotiation information about the opponent's gain or loss frame on negotiator cognition and behavior was also examined. Ss were 107 undergraduates. The opposing negotiator was perceiv...
Article
The black-hat/white-hat strategy is a sequential process involving two people who work as a team in a negotiation against an adversary. The first person in the sequence, the black hat, takes a competitive stance toward the adversary; the second in the sequence, the white hat, takes a more cooperative stance. The presumed effect is success in elicit...
Article
Pruitt and Carnevale's examination of behavior in negotiations and its antecedents and consequences looks at the nature of negotiator strategies and tactics and their impact on the outcomes of negotiation. Among the antecedents examined are the negotiator's role in his or her organization, conflict style, the other party's behavior, the way the iss...
Chapter
This chapter examines the role of time pressure in negotiation and mediation. Negotiation can be defined as discussion between two or more parties and joint decision making with the goal of reaching agreement. Mediation is a variation on negotiation in which one or more outsiders (“third parties”) assist the parties in their efforts to reach agreem...
Article
This experiment examined the influence of mediators' interests and outcome recommendations on disputants' perceptions and behavior. A distinction (following Pruitt, 1983) was made between two types of mediator bias: general alignment and overt support. In the general alignment variable, participants dealt with a mediator who was aligned either: (a)...
Article
The contingency approach to research on mediation has become increasingly popular in recent years. In building contingency models, researchers have used general mediation strategies to organize mediation tactics. However, none of the extant organizing schemes have been verified empirically. In the present study, 54 active professional mediators sor...
Article
We examined decision frame (profit vs. expense) and negotiator affect (positive vs. control). In the control, the standard frame effect was obtained: an expense frame produced fewer concessions than a profit frame. However, a statistically significant interaction indicated that this effect reversed in the positive affect condition.
Article
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Although it is widely recognized that the behavior of mediators in resolving disputes is often contingent on the characteristics of disputes, little systematic research has examined mediators' perceptions of the contingent use or effectiveness of their behavior. We surveyed 255 professional mediators about the features of the disputes they encounte...
Article
This study simulated an organizational dispute to test two hypotheses derived from the strategic choice model of mediation about the influence of third-party power and interests on negotiation. The first hypothesis was that third-party compensation—the capacity to offer negotiators positive benefits—would produce a “chilling effect,” i.e., reduced...
Article
The present study simulated a dispute to examine the influence of time pressure on mediator behavior and to test P. J. Carnevale's (1986, Negotiation Journal, 2, 41–56) strategic choice model of mediation. Time available for negotiation, mediator concern for the disputants' aspirations, and perceived probability of a mutually acceptable agreement w...
Chapter
Mediators can pursue four basic strategies to facilitate bargaining: (a) integrate, which involves a search for efficient outcomes, (b) press, which involves attempts to lower the bargainer’s aspirations, (c) compensate, which involves offers of side payments, and (d) inaction, which involves letting the bargainers handle the dispute by themselves....
Article
A laboratory experiment examined the effects of time pressure on the process and outcome of integrative bargaining. Time pressure was operationalized in terms of the amount of time available to negotiate. As hypothesized, high time pressure produced nonagreements and poor negotiation outcomes only when negotiators adopted an individualistic orienta...
Article
Full-text available
This experiment examined the influence of constituent surveillance, constituent gender, and negotiator gender on negotiation behavior and outcome. (Constituents are the people represented by negotiators.) Surveillance by a male constituent made negotiators more contentious and produced relatively unequal final outcomes. Surveillance by a female con...
Article
The present study investigated the influence of positive affect and visual access on the process and outcome of negotiation in an integrative bargaining task. Visual access was crossed with positive affect in a 2 × 2 design. The results supported the hypotheses that positive affect would reduce the use of contentious tactics and would increase join...
Article
Examines social-psychological aspects of the causes and prevention of international disputes and effective negotiation and bargaining techniques. The roles of the mediator, intermediary, envoy, and conciliator in conflicts are identified, along with motivational aspects of mediation, behavior of biased mediators, and criteria for successful mediati...
Article
Prior research has found that although physically attractive people are consistently viewed and treated more favorably than those who are less attractive, there is a surprisingly weak relationship between physical attractiveness and self-esteem. An attributional explanation for this relationship was tested in the present study. Males and females wh...
Article
A leader's legitimacy from appointment or election has been found to have distinctive effects on leader-follower relations in an American context. To examine this process further, an experiment was conducted with 21 groups of male college students organized into groups of four. Ss were assigned a group decision-making task regarding urban problems....