Peter Boyle

Peter Boyle
International Prevention Research Institute

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824
Publications
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57,648
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Publications

Publications (824)
Article
Full-text available
In a population-based case control study of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT), we reported a strong positive association between serum levels of Wolff's Group 1 (potentially estrogenic) polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) and risk of TGCT, and the observed associations were similar for both seminoma and non-seminoma. While the observed specific associ...
Article
The incidence rate of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) has continuously increased in Western countries over the last several decades. Some epidemiologic studies have reported that the endocrine disrupting polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in serum may be associated with TGCT risk, but the evidence is inconsistent. Our goal was to investigate wheth...
Article
Background: We previously observed a rapid increase in the incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in men and women between 1935 and 1989 in the USA, using data from the Connecticut Tumor Registry. This increase appeared to be largely explained by a positive cohort effect, but no population-based study has been conducted to comprehensively examine...
Preprint
In order to estimate a registration model of eye fundus images made of an affinity and two radial distortions, we introduce an estimation criterion based on an error between the vessels. In [1], we estimated this model by minimising the error between characteristics points. In this paper, the detected vessels are selected using the circle and ellip...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Open Source Intelligence (OSINT) and Signals Intelligence (SIGINT) from the clandestine intelligence sector are being increasingly employed in infectious disease outbreaks. The purpose of this article is to explore how such tools might be employed in the detection, reporting, and control of outbreaks designated as a ‘threat’ by the global c...
Article
Full-text available
The conflict environment in Libya is characterized by continued pervasive insecurity amidst the widespread availability of small arms and light weapons (SALW). After the First Civil War, armed brigades took the law into their own hands and the resulting violence terminated a short-lived post-conflict period that has relapsed into a Second Civil War...
Article
Objective: Concerns have been raised about a possible increased risk of pancreatic cancer associated with incretin-based therapies. We examined the risk of pancreatic cancer among patients with diabetes prescribed incretin drugs. Research design and methods: With the use of public health insurance databases of Belgium and Lombardy Region, Italy,...
Article
Full-text available
Background: In prospective studies, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) have been associated with weight increase. However, most prospective studies examine changes in body weight over time according to amounts of SSB intake at baseline, generally without considering changes over time in SSB, energy intake and physical activity. The objective of the p...
Article
AimsA systematic review was conducted of randomized trials which evaluated the impact of physical activity on the change in fasting glucose and HbA1c. MethodsA literature search was conducted in PubMed until December 2015. Studies reporting glucose or HbA1c at baseline and at the end of study were included, and the change and its variance were esti...
Article
Background: : Occupational exposures in the rubber manufacturing industry showed an increased risk of cancer and have been classified as a group 1 carcinogen, largely from studies on workers employed before 1950s. Cancer sites considered as causally associated are bladder, lung and stomach, and leukaemia. Recent studies did not report an increased...
Preprint
This is a preprint of the published article. It is a preliminary version.The Version of Record is available online at https://doi.org/10.1088/2057-1976/aa7d16.
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, a method is presented for superimposition (i.e. registration) of eye fundus images from persons with diabetes screened over many years for diabetic retinopathy. The method is fully automatic and robust to camera changes and colour variations across the images both in space and time. All the stages of the process are designed for long...
Poster
Full-text available
Many eye fundus images present strong variations of contrast which can be a limitation to the diagnosis of the retinopathy. Either some lesions are not taken into account or only a limited part of the domain of the image can be read. Graders have to manually adjust the contrast, which is tedious and not easily reproducible. We have developed an aut...
Article
4126 Background: Concerns have been raised on the risk of pancreatic cancer associated with specific anti-diabetic therapies. We have examined the risk of pancreatic cancer among patients with diabetes prescribed with an oral anti-diabetic drug (OAD) or an incretin drug (DPP4i and GLP-1 RA) or insulin. Methods: The public health insurance databases...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Explosive remnants of war (ERW)—landmines, unexploded ordnance (UXO), and abandoned explosive ordnance (AXO)—have been recognised as a threat to health since the 1990s. We aimed to study the effect of ERW on global public health. Methods: In this systematic mixed-studies review, we searched the Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, and ProQue...
Article
Background: Since the 1990s, important changes in the detection and management of breast cancer have taken place. We analysed breast cancer mortality trends from 1989 to 2012 in 47 countries with data available for most years since 1987. Methods: Breast cancer deaths and populations were extracted from the WHO mortality database. Age-standardised m...
Article
Objectives: Increased cancer risks have been reported among workers in the rubber manufacturing industry employed before the 1960s, but it is unclear for workers hired subsequently. The present study focused on cancer incidence among rubber workers first employed after 1975 in Sweden and the UK. Methods: Two cohorts of rubber workers employed fo...
Article
Full-text available
Afghanistan is one of the most fragile and conflict-affected countries in the world. It has experienced almost uninterrupted conflict for the last thirty years, with the present conflict now lasting over a decade. With no history of a functioning healthcare system, the creation of the Basic Package of Health Services (BPHS) in 2003 was a response t...
Article
Breast and cervical cancer are major threats to the health of women globally, particularly in low-income and middle-income countries. Radical progress to close the global cancer divide for women requires not only evidence-based policy making, but also broad multisectoral collaboration that capitalises on recent progress in the associated domains of...
Article
Full-text available
Since the launch of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) in 1988 the global incidence of poliomyelitis has fallen by nearly 99 %. From a situation where wild type poliovirus was endemic in 125 countries across five continents, transmission is now limited to regions of just three countries – Pakistan, Afghanistan and Nigeria. A sharp incre...
Article
Full-text available
In this review we illustrate our view on the epidemiological relevance of geographically mapping cancer mortality. In the first part of this work, after delineating the history of cancer mapping with a view on interpretation of Cancer Mortality Atlases, we briefly illustrate the ‘art’ of cancer mapping. Later we summarise in a non-mathematical way...
Article
Background: The role of breast screening in breast cancer mortality declines is debated. Screening impacts cancer mortality through decreasing the number of advanced cancers with poor diagnosis, while cancer treatment works through decreasing the case-fatality rate. Hence, reductions in cancer death rates thanks to screening should directly reflec...
Data
Predicted numbers of breast cancer deaths in the two-County trial reported in Tabar et al, Cancer, 1995, table 6. * Data in italicized letters were not reported table 6 of Tabar et al, 1995.[1]. † Includes invasive and in situ cancers. (DOCX)
Data
Checklist of items that should be included in reports of observational studies. (DOC)
Data
Reported invasive breast cancer patients and deaths in the HIP trial. BC: breast cancer. *Data from Table 9 of Shapiro et al, 1977 [1]. (DOCX)
Article
In their study on mortality, diabetes mellitus, and cancer, Singh et al1 concluded that worldwide >180 000 deaths could be attributed to sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption. To calculate the attributable deaths, data were derived from prospective cohort studies that examined associations between SSB intake and risks of premature death. Such...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer years of life lost and is associated with the highest economic burden relative to other tumour types. Research remains at the cornerstone of achieving improved outcomes from lung cancer. We present the results of a comprehensive analysis of global lung cancer research between 2004 and 2013 (...
Article
Full-text available
Delayed fetal growth and adverse birth outcomes are some of the greatest public health threats to this generation of children worldwide because these conditions are major determinants of mortality, morbidity, and disability in infancy and childhood and are also associated with diseases in adult life. A number of studies have investigated the impact...
Article
Background: Increased cancer risk has been reported among workers in the rubber manufacturing industry employed before the 1960s. It is unclear whether risk remains increased among workers hired subsequently. The present study focused on risk of cancer mortality for rubber workers first employed since 1975 in 64 factories. Patients and methods:...
Article
Objective: To review and quantify the association between endogenous and exogenous testosterone and prostate specific antigen (PSA) and prostate cancer. Methods: Literature searches were performed following the PRISMA guidelines. Prospective cohort studies that reported data on the associations between endogenous testosterone and prostate cancer...
Article
Background: Lower risk of breast cancer has been reported among physically active women, but the risk in women using hormone replacement therapy (HRT) appears to be higher. We quantified the association between physical activity and breast cancer, and we examined the influence that HRT use and other risk factors had on this association. Methods:...
Poster
Full-text available
A significant number of digital eye fundus images have strong contrast variations which can be a limiting factor for the diagnosis of the diabetic retinopathy lesions. Currently, to address this problem, graders have to manually adjust the image contrast which is person dependent and therefore not easily reproducible. Images may still be considered...
Article
Full-text available
Studies on active and passive tobacco smoking and breast cancer have found inconsistent results. A meta-analysis of observational studies on tobacco smoking and breast cancer occurrence was conducted based on systematic searches for studies with retrospective (case–control) and prospective (cohort) designs. Eligible studies were identified, and rel...
Article
Autier, Philippe Boniol, Mathieu Smans, Michel Sullivan, Richard Boyle, Peter eng Editorial England 2015/11/27 06:00 J R Soc Med. 2015 Nov;108(11):431-2. doi: 10.1177/0141076815616314.
Article
We compared calculations of relative risks of cancer death in Swedish mammography trials and in other cancer screening trials. Men and women from 30 to 74 years of age. Randomised trials on cancer screening. For each trial, we identified the intervention period, when screening was offered to screening groups and not to control groups, and the post-...
Article
To investigate variations in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels among men with an initial normal PSA level in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial study. Data were extracted from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial study data set on all men in the interventional arm, with 2 tests perf...
Article
Full-text available
Background: No analytic epidemiological study has examined the relationship between use of muscle-building supplements (MBSs) and testicular germ cell cancer (TGCC) risk. Methods: We conducted a population-based case-control study including 356 TGCC cases and 513 controls from Connecticut and Massachusetts. Results: The odds ratio (OR) for eve...
Article
Abstract (n=197) Breast cancer is the commonest form of cancer in women worldwide. It has been suggested that chronic hyperinsulinemia associated with insulin resistance plays a role in breast cancer etiology. To test the hyperinsulinemia hypothesis, a dietary pattern associated with a high glycemic index and glycemic load, both proxies for chronic...
Article
According to the Global Burden of Disease, trauma is now responsible for five million deaths each year. High-income countries have made great strides in reducing trauma-related mortality figures but low-middle-income countries have been left behind with high trauma-related fatality rates, primarily in the younger population. Much of the progress hi...
Article
Purpose: Genetic polymorphisms in DNA repair genes and hair dye use may both have a role in the development of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). We aimed to examine the interaction between variants in DNA repair genes and hair dye use with risk of NHL in a population-based case-control study of Connecticut women. Methods: We examined 24 single nucleot...
Conference Paper
Although the global burden of cancer is not known with precision, it is certain that it has doubled over the last 25 years and is set to double again before 2030. This period has also witnessed unprecedented advances in knowledge of Oncology from understanding causes, both lifestyle and biological, to the enormous progress in developing effective t...
Article
We investigated the incidence trends for adenocarcinoma (AC) of the cervix among individuals belonging to the 20-44-year age group in the USA and compared the observed birth cohort incidence patterns with the changing patterns of exposure to potential risk factors associated with AC of the cervix, such as infection with human papillomavirus, use of...
Article
Objectives: Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) is one of the most common cancers among young adults. We investigated the time trends for HL among the 20-44 age group in the USA by gender to identify the potential factors accounting for the incidence trends. Methods: Using data from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results...
Article
There is speculation on an association between sweetened, carbonated beverage consumption and cancer risk. This study aimed to examine this issue. Over 50 independent estimates of risk were available, 11 for colas specifically. A random-effects meta-analysis was carried out with tests for publication bias performed as well as Higgins and Thompson's...