Peter Boor

Peter Boor
RWTH Aachen University · Institute of Pathology

MD, PhD

About

404
Publications
63,193
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
8,901
Citations
Additional affiliations
November 2018 - January 2019
RWTH Aachen University
Position
  • Professor
May 2009 - December 2015
RWTH Aachen University
Position
  • Group Leader, Pathologist

Publications

Publications (404)
Article
Background In severe cases, SARS-CoV-2 infection leads to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), often treated by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). During ECMO therapy, anticoagulation is crucial to prevent device-associated thrombosis and device failure, however, it is associated with bleeding complications. In COVID-19, additional...
Preprint
Platelet homeostasis is essential for vascular integrity and immune defense. While the process of platelet formation by fragmenting megakaryocytes (thrombopoiesis) has been extensively studied, the cellular and molecular mechanisms required to constantly replenish the pool of megakaryocytes by their progenitor cells (megakaryopoiesis) remains uncle...
Article
Background In digital pathology, many image analysis tasks are challenged by the need for large and time-consuming manual data annotations to cope with various sources of variability in the image domain. Unsupervised domain adaptation based on image-to-image translation is gaining importance in this field by addressing variabilities without the man...
Preprint
Autoimmune vasculitis is a group of life-threatening diseases, whose underlying pathogenic mechanisms are incompletely understood, hampering development of targeted therapies. Here, we demonstrate that patients suffering from anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) showed increased activity of the DNA sensor cGAS a...
Article
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) describes a primary disease of podocytes (podocytopathy) and a secondary consequence of severe or progressive glomerular damage. No specific treatment options exist for FSGS, with many patients progressing to end-stage kidney disease. While podocyte injury is considered to initiate FSGS,...
Article
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Nephropathology is essential for the diagnosis of kidney diseases. Deep learning-based image analyses, including segmentation of kidney histology, open new possibilities for reproducible quantitative precision pathology. Current segmentation approaches in kidney histology focused on specific use cases. Here, we developed a frame...
Article
BACKGROUND AND AIMS The glycocalyx is a carbohydrate-rich gel-like mesh, which covers the luminal surface of cells, including the endothelium. The glycocalyx is involved in many regulatory functions of the endothelium, including vascular permeability. In chronic kidney disease (CKD), peritubular capillaries undergo anatomical, structural and functi...
Article
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Autopsies are an invaluable tool in medicine for studying the pathophysiology of diseases, including kidney diseases and causes of death. To facilitate multicenter autopsy-based studies and to provide a single point of contact for data analysis and reporting, the German COVID-19 Autopsy Registry (DeRegCOVID) was launched in Apri...
Article
Artificial intelligence (AI) can extract visual information from histopathological slides and yield biological insight and clinical biomarkers. Whole slide images are cut into thousands of tiles and classification problems are often weakly-supervised: the ground truth is only known for the slide, not for every single tile. In classical weakly-super...
Article
Whole slide images contain a magnitude of quantitative information that may not be fully explored in qualitative visual assessments. We propose (1) a novel pipeline for extracting a comprehensive set of visual features, which are detectable by a pathologist, as well as sub-visual features, which are not discernible by human experts, and (2) perform...
Article
Full-text available
It has been shown that the presence and density of nerve fibers (NFs; NFD) in the tumor microenvironment (TME) may play an important prognostic role in predicting long-term oncological outcomes in various malignancies. However, the role of NFD in the prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is yet to be explored. To this end, we aimed to investi...
Preprint
Pathology diagnostics relies on the assessment of morphological features by trained experts, which remains subjective and qualitative. Modern image analysis techniques, particularly deep learning, provide a possible solution, sometimes exceeding human capabilities, e.g., mutation prediction directly from histology. 49 However, categorical model out...
Article
Full-text available
Background and aims: Perihilar cholangiocarcinoma (pCCA) is a hepatobiliary malignancy, with a dismal prognosis. Nerve fiber density (NFD)-a novel prognostic biomarker-describes the density of small nerve fibers without cancer invasion and is categorized into high numbers and low numbers of small nerve fibers (high vs low NFD). NFD is different th...
Preprint
Full-text available
Artificial intelligence (AI) solutions that automatically extract information from digital histology images have shown great promise for improving pathological diagnosis. Prior to routine use, it is important to evaluate their predictive performance and obtain regulatory approval. This assessment requires appropriate test datasets. However, compili...
Article
Full-text available
In December 2019, the first case of COVID-19 was reported and since then several groups have already published that the virus can be present in the testis. To study the influence of SARS-CoV-2 which cause a dysregulation of the androgen receptor (AR) level, thereby leading to fertility problems and inducing germ cell testicular changes in patients...
Article
Full-text available
The use of autopsies in medicine has been declining. The COVID-19 pandemic has documented and rejuvenated the importance of autopsies as a tool of modern medicine. In this review, we discuss the various autopsy techniques, the applicability of modern analytical methods to understand the pathophysiology of COVID-19, the major pathological organ find...
Article
Full-text available
The rate of SARS-CoV-2 infections in vaccinees has become a relevant serious issue. This study aimed to determine the causes of death, histological organ alteration, and viral spread in relation to demographic, clinical-pathological, viral variants, and vaccine types for deceased individuals with proven SARS-CoV-2 infection after vaccination who di...
Article
Although underlying mechanisms and the clinical course of kidney disease progression are well described, less is known about potential disease reversibility. Therefore, to analyze kidney recovery, we adapted a commonly used murine chronic kidney disease (CKD) model of 2,8- dihydroxyadenine (2,8-DHA) crystal-induced nephropathy to study disease reco...
Preprint
Artificial Intelligence (AI) can support diagnostic workflows in oncology by aiding diagnosis and providing biomarkers. AI applications are therefore expected to evolve from academic prototypes to commercial products in the coming years. However, AI applications are vulnerable to adversarial attacks, such as malicious interference with test data ai...
Article
Full-text available
Confronted with an emerging infectious disease at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, the medical community faced concerns regarding the safety of autopsies on those who died of the disease. This attitude has changed, and autopsies are now recognized as indispensable tools for understanding COVID-19, but the true risk of infection to autopsy st...
Article
Purpose of review: The field of pathology is currently undergoing a significant transformation from traditional glass slides to a digital format dependent on whole slide imaging. Transitioning from glass to digital has opened the field to development and application of image analysis technology, commonly deep learning methods (artificial intellige...
Article
Background In patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), atrial fibrillation (AF) is highly prevalent and represents a major risk factor for stroke and death. CKD is associated with atrial proarrhythmic remodeling and activation of the sympathetic nervous system. Whether reduction of the sympathetic nerve activity by renal denervation (RDN) inhibi...
Article
Aims Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a devastating disease with limited therapeutic options. Vascular remodelling of pulmonary arteries, characterized by increased proliferation and migration of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs), is a hallmark of PAH. Here, we aimed to systematically characterize coagulation-independent effec...
Article
Full-text available
Background Autopsies are an important tool in medicine, dissecting disease pathophysiology and causes of death. In COVID-19, autopsies revealed e.g., the effects on pulmonary (micro)vasculature or the nervous system, systemic viral spread, or the interplay with the immune system. To facilitate multicentre autopsy-based studies and provide a central...
Article
Full-text available
(1) Background: In COVID-19 survivors there is an increased prevalence of pulmonary fibrosis of which the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood; (2) Methods: In this multicentric study, n = 12 patients who succumbed to COVID-19 due to progressive respiratory failure were assigned to an early and late group (death within ≤7 and >7 da...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Microsatellite instability (MSI)/mismatch repair deficiency (dMMR) is a key genetic feature which should be tested in every patient with colorectal cancer (CRC) according to medical guidelines. Artificial intelligence (AI) methods can detect MSI/dMMR directly in routine pathology slides, but the test performance has not been systematic...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is a genetic disorder affecting millions of people worldwide that is characterized by fluid-filled cysts and leads to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The hallmarks of PKD are proliferation and dedifferentiation of tubular epithelial cells, cellular processes known to be regulated by Notch signaling. Met...
Preprint
Background Autopsy studies have provided valuable insights into the pathophysiology of COVID-19. Controversies remain whether the clinical presentation is due to direct organ damage by SARS-CoV-2 or secondary effects, e.g. by an overshooting immune response. SARS-CoV-2 detection in tissues by RT-qPCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC) or electron micro...
Article
Full-text available
Organ fibrogenesis is characterized by a common pathophysiological final pathway independent of the underlying progressive disease of the respective organ. This makes it particularly suitable as a therapeutic target. The Transregional Collaborative Research Center "Organ Fibrosis: From Mechanisms of Injury to Modulation of Disease" (referred to as...
Preprint
Background & Aims: Perihilar cholangiocarcinoma (pCCA) is a hepatobiliary malignancy. Nerve fiber invasion (NFI) shows cancer invading the nerve and is considered an aggressive feature. Nerve fiber density (NFD) consists of small nerve fibers without cancer invasion and is divided into high NFD (high numbers of small nerve fibers) or low NFD (low n...
Article
Background: The fast acquisition process of frozen sections allows surgeons to wait for histological findings during the interventions to base intrasurgical decisions on the outcome of the histology. Compared with paraffin sections, however, the quality of frozen sections is often strongly reduced, leading to a lower diagnostic accuracy. Deep neur...
Article
Background/aims: The number of patients of older age with metabolic syndrome, obesity, and associated kidney disease, which is characterized by podocyte damage, glomerular hypertrophy, and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), is increasing worldwide. Animal models that would reflect the development of such kidney diseases could facilitate th...
Preprint
Full-text available
In digital pathology, many image analysis tasks are challenged by the need for large and time-consuming manual data annotations to cope with various sources of variability in the image domain. Unsupervised domain adaptation based on image-to-image translation is gaining importance in this field by addressing variabilities without the manual overhea...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: The rate of SARS-CoV-2 breakthrough infections in vaccinees is becoming an increasingly serious issue. Objective: To determine the causes of death, histological organ alteration, and viral spread in relation to demographic, clinical-pathological, viral variants, and vaccine types. Design: Comprehensive retrospective observational cohort...
Article
Full-text available
Microsatellite instability (MSI) or deficient mismatch repair (dMMR) is a clinically important genetic feature affecting 10-15% of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Patients with metastatic MSI/dMMR CRC are eligible for therapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors, making MSI/dMMR the most important immuno-oncological biomarker in CRC. Gold standard t...
Article
Full-text available
Background and Aim Desmosomes are intercellular junctions connecting keratin intermediate filaments of neighboring cells. The cadherins desmoglein 2 (Dsg2) and desmocollin 2 mediate cell-cell adhesion, whereas desmoplakin (Dsp) provides the attachment of desmosomes to keratins. While the importance of the desmosome-keratin-network is well establish...
Article
Full-text available
Kidney failure is frequently observed during and after COVID-19, but it remains elusive whether this is a direct effect of the virus. Here, we report that SARS-CoV-2 directly infects kidney cells and is associated with increased tubule-interstitial kidney fibrosis in patient autopsy samples. To study direct effects of the virus on the kidney indepe...
Article
Full-text available
Severe COVID-19 is linked to both dysfunctional immune response and unrestrained immunopathology, and it remains unclear whether T cells contribute to disease pathology. Here, we combined single-cell transcriptomics and single-cell proteomics with mechanistic studies to assess pathogenic T cell functions and inducing signals. We identified highly a...
Article
Tertiary lymphoid tissues (TLTs) facilitate local T- and B-cell interactions in chronically inflamed organs. However, the cells and molecular pathways that govern TLT formation are poorly defined. Here we identify TNF superfamily CD153-CD30 signaling between two unique age-dependent lymphocyte subpopulations, CD153+PD-1+CD4+ senescence-associated T...
Article
Full-text available
Background Histopathological assessment of transplant biopsies is currently the standard method to diagnose allograft rejection and can help guide patient management, but it is one of the most challenging areas of pathology, requiring considerable expertise, time, and effort. We aimed to analyse the utility of deep learning to preclassify histology...
Article
Background: Tertiary lymphoid tissues (TLTs) are ectopic lymphoid tissues found in chronically inflamed organs. Although studies have documented TLT formation in transplanted kidneys, the clinical relevance of these TLTs remains controversial. We examined the impacts of TLTs on future graft function using our histological TLT maturity stages and th...
Article
Full-text available
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) triggers the risk of developing uremic cardiomyopathy as characterized by cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis and functional impairment. Traditionally, animal studies are used to reveal the underlying pathological mechanism, although variable CKD models, mouse strains and readouts may reveal diverse results. Here, we systemat...
Article
Full-text available
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is accompanied with extensive cardiovascular calcification, in part correlating with functional vitamin K deficiency. Here, we sought to determine causes for vitamin K deficiency beyond reduced dietary intake. Initially, vitamin K uptake and distribution into circulating lipoproteins after a single administration of vit...
Article
COVID-19-induced ‘acute respiratory distress syndrome’ (ARDS) is associated with prolonged respiratory failure and high mortality, but the mechanistic basis of lung injury remains incompletely understood. Here, we analyzed pulmonary immune responses and lung pathology in two cohorts of patients with COVID-19 ARDS using functional single cell genomi...
Article
Background Autopsies are an important tool for understanding novel diseases, including COVID-19.Materials and methodsThe German Registry of COVID-19 Autopsies (DeRegCOVID) was established and launched in April 2020. DeRegCOVID acts as the electronic backbone of the German Network for Autopsies in Pandemics (DEFEAT PANDEMIcs), which started in Septe...
Article
Full-text available
Calreticulin (CALR) mutations are driver mutations in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), leading to activation of the thrombopoietin receptor and causing abnormal megakaryopoiesis. Here, we generated patient-derived CALRins5- or CALRdel52-positive induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) to establish an MPN disease model for molecular and mechanist...
Article
Introduction SGLT2 inhibitors reduce hospitalization for heart failure in patients with and without diabetes. The underlying mechanisms remain incompletely understood but might relate to the induction of a fasting like response with low blood glucose and insulin levels and increased ketone bodies. The study aimed to investigate underlying signaling...
Article
Full-text available
IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common glomerulonephritis. It is characterized by the deposition of immune complexes containing immunoglobulin A (IgA) in the kidney’s glomeruli, triggering an inflammatory process. In many patients, the disease has a progressive course, eventually leading to end-stage kidney disease. The current understanding of...
Article
Enhanced signaling via RTKs in pulmonary hypertension (PH) impedes current treatment options because it perpetuates proliferation and apoptosis resistance of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). Here, we demonstrated hyperphosphorylation of multiple RTKs in diseased human vessels and increased activation of their common downstream effec...
Article
Background Coexistent chronic kidney diseases (CKD) and cardiovascular diseases are highly prevalent in Western populations and account for substantial mortality. We recently found that apolipoprotein C-3 (ApoC3), a major constituent of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, induces sterile systemic inflammation by activating the NOD-like receptor protein...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Preclinical and clinical data indicate that contrast-enhanced ultrasound can enhance tumor perfusion and vessel permeability, thus, improving chemotherapy accumulation and therapeutic outcome. Therefore, we investigated the effects of high mechanical index (MI) contrast-enhanced Doppler ultrasound (CDUS) on tumor perfusion in breast cancer...
Article
Context: Diseases of the hematopoietic system such as leukemia is diagnosed using bone marrow samples. The cell type distribution plays a major role but requires manual analysis of different cell types in microscopy images. Aims: Automated analysis of bone marrow samples requires detection and classification of different cell types. In this work...
Article
Full-text available
ApoE abnormality represents a well-known risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Beyond its role in lipid metabolism, novel studies demonstrate a complex involvement of apoE in membrane homeostasis and signaling as well as in nuclear transcription. Due to the large spread of apoE isoforms in the human population, there is a need to understand the...