Per Kudsk

Per Kudsk
Aarhus University | AU · Department of Agroecology

About

215
Publications
96,500
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4,697
Citations
Citations since 2016
96 Research Items
3310 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500600
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500600
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500600
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500600

Publications

Publications (215)
Article
The rapid increase of herbicide resistance in some of the most problematic annual weeds, and potential negative impacts of herbicides on human health and the environment have led growers to look for alternative non-chemical weed control. Harvest weed seed control (HWSC) is a non-chemical weed control tactic based on reduction of seed return of prim...
Article
Full-text available
Initiatives to reduce the reliance of agriculture on pesticides, including the European Union (EU) Directive 2009/128/EC on the sustainable use of pesticides (SUD), have yet to lead to widespread implementation of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) principles. Developments in weed management have strongly focused on increasing the efficiency of herbi...
Article
Full-text available
Lolium spp. are troublesome weeds mainly found in winter cereal crops worldwide, including Europe. In recent years resistant mechanisms have been evolved to several important herbicides. In this study we investigated the mechanisms responsible for conferring glyphosate resistance in some Lolium spp. populations. A holistic approach was used, based...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents and discusses the “PesticideLoadIndicator” package, a new R-package to compute potential environmental and health effects of pesticide applications using the Danish ‘Pesticide Load’ indicator. The implementation in the R Statistical Language makes it easy for researchers, practitioners and institutions to compare potential pesti...
Article
Full-text available
Flavonoids play a key role in the regulation of plant−plant and plant−microbe interactions, and factors determining their release have been investigated in most of the common forage legumes. However, little is known about the response of flavonoid production and release to co-cultivation with other crop species. This study investigated alterations...
Article
Full-text available
Translocation of metabolites between different plant species provides important hints in understanding the fate of bioactive root exudates. In the present study, targeted and untargeted mass spectrometry-based metabolomics was applied to elucidate the transfer of bioactive compounds between rye and several crops and weed species. Our results demons...
Article
Full-text available
Rattail fescue (Vulpia myuros (L.) C.C. Gmel.) is a self-pollinating winter annual grassy weed of winter annual crops. The problems with V. myuros are mostly associated with no-till cropping systems where glyphosate application before sowing or emergence of the crop is the most important control measure. Ineffective V. myuros control has been repor...
Article
Full-text available
Due to natural tolerance to most widely used herbicides for grass weed control, prosulfocarb as pre-emergence or early post-emergence herbicide and mesosulfuron + iodosulfuron as post-emergence herbicide are the mainstays of any chemical control program for Vulpia myuros in Denmark. However, farmers often report variable efficacy of these herbicide...
Preprint
Translocation of metabolites between different plant species provides important hints in understanding the fate of bioactive root exudates. In the present study, targeted and untargeted mass spectrometry-based metabolomics was applied to elucidate the transfer of bioactive compounds between rye and several crops and weed species. Our results demons...
Article
Rimsulfuron is commonly used to control common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L.) and redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) fields. Comparing rimsulfuron absorption and metabolism patterns in these two weed species with potato could provide crucial information to optimise herbicide application in the field....
Article
Full-text available
This study aimed to elucidate the chemical response of hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) to interspecific competition by rye (Secale cereale L.). Hairy vetch plants were grown as target plants in a mixture with different densities of rye plants (0, 1, 2, and 4). Twelve flavonoids in the shoot, root, and root exudate of hairy vetch plants were quanti...
Article
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Dose–response experiments are conducted to determine the toxicity of chemicals on organisms. The relationship between dose and response is described by different statistical models. The four‐parameter log‐logistic model is widely used in pesticide sciences to derive biologically relevant parameters such as ED50 and Resistance Index (RI). However, t...
Article
Full-text available
Annual ryegrass species (Lolium spp.) infest cereal crops worldwide. Ryegrass populations with multiple resistance to the acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase) and acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitors are an increasing problem in several European countries. We investigated the resistance pattern and level of resistance in ryegrass populations co...
Article
Full-text available
Field experiments were conducted in the growing seasons of 2017/18 and 2018/19 to evaluate the competitive effects of rattail fescue [ Vulpia myuros (L.) C.C. Gmel.] in winter wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.), and to assess whether delayed crop sowing and increased crop density influence the emergence, competitiveness and fecundity of V. myuros . Cumu...
Book
Full-text available
Rapporten samler tilgængelig viden om dyrkningssystemet Conservation Agriculture (CA). Yderligere giver rapporten en oversigt over klima- og miljøeffekter ved CA med tydelig indikation af, i hvilken retning effekterne peger (positiv, negativ, eller neutral). Rapporten er udarbejdet på basis af en vidensyntese, som er udført med udgangspunkt i en ge...
Article
Full-text available
Vulpia myuros has become an increasing weed problem in winter cereals in Northern Europe. However, the information about V. myuros and its behavior as an arable weed is limited. Field and greenhouse experiments were conducted in 2017/18 and 2018/19, at the Department of Agroecology in Flakkebjerg, Denmark to investigate the emergence, phenological...
Article
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Plants have evolved advanced chemical defence mechanisms, including root exudation, which enables them to respond to changes occurring in their surroundings rapidly. Yet, it remains unresolved how root exudation effects belowground plant-plant interactions. The objective of this study was to elucidate the fate of benzoxazinoids (BXs) exuded from ro...
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Numerous pesticide policies have been introduced to mitigate the risks of pesticide use, but most have not been successful in reaching usage reduction goals. Here, we name key challenges for the reduction of environmental and health risks from agricultural pesticide use and develop a framework for improving current policies. We demonstrate the need...
Article
IWMPRAISE is the first EU Framework Research project focusing solely on weed management. Thirty-eight partners in eight European countries are working together on developing integrated weed management strategies for agricultural and horticultural crops. Per Kudsk, the coordinator of IWMPRAISE, and the work package leaders present the project, the o...
Article
Full-text available
Recently, Vulpia myuros has become a problematic grass weed species in parts of Europe. It is most common in no-till cropping systems. The inherent tolerance to several selective grass weed herbicides is of serious concern to the successful management of V. myuros in arable farming. Here, we reviewed the available knowledge about the biology of V....
Book
Full-text available
In 2019, the ENDURE network launched a survey on the agricultural use of glyphosate in European countries. This report presents the results obtained through the survey and proposes a framework for understanding and monitoring glyphosate uses. The share of herbicides among all pesticide sales varies from one country to another. It is particularly hi...
Article
The glyphosate controversy before the renewal of the authorization of glyphosate in the European Union (EU) once again turned the spotlight on pesticide regulation in the EU. In the EU, pesticides are attracting more public attention than in other parts of the world, and many nongovernmental organizations specifically target pesticide regulation, t...
Article
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Quantifying the level of eco-physiological, biochemical, and agronomical fitness of herbicide-resistant (R) and -susceptible (S) weeds is useful for understanding the evolutionary development of herbicide resistance, but also for implementing herbicide-resistance management strategies. Although germination is a key fitness component in the life cyc...
Article
Full-text available
Plants are consistently releasing root exudates into the rhizosphere which have the potential to influence the growth and development of neighboring plant species. Root exudates contain low and high molecular weight compounds such as sugars, amino acids, secondary metabolites, phytohormones, proteins, enzymes, and polysaccharides. Although abovegro...
Article
Alopecurus myosuroides Huds is the most abundant herbicide-resistant weed species in Western Europe. Herbicide resistance management programs may rely, amongst other things, on information about fitness of resistant sub-population i.e. the number of offspring a genotype produces and contributes to next generation. Growth and phenological developmen...
Article
Accurate predictions of weed seed dispersal are important for spatial modelling of weed population dynamics. However there are few multi-year data sets available, and they are seldom analysed well. Here we gathered together and re-examined population growth and seed spread data from three grass weed species over 3 years. Using a new seed spread fun...
Article
Pesticides are widely used in European crop production to stabilize yields and mitigate losses from weeds, diseases and insects. Detailed spray records reported per farm and crop have for the first time been collected and analyzed for a whole country, providing good and reliable information on specific spraying patterns in arable crops. Dividing fa...
Article
Weed science, as an integral part of agricultural production needs to evolve by moving away from its mono-disciplinary perspective at targeting weeds, sometimes a single species, through the overreliance on few single herbicide mechanisms of action. Herbicides remain a simple and cost-effective way to control weeds but they are rapidly losing their...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, herbicide resistance has attracted much attention as an increasingly urgent problem worldwide. Unfortunately, most of that effort was focused on confirmation of resistance and characterization of the mechanisms of resistance. For management purposes, knowledge about biology and ecology of the resistant weed phenotypes is critical....
Article
Integrated and more sustainable weed management practices are in great demand all around the globe. The adoption of more weed-suppressive cereal cultivars could be part of an integrated weed management strategy. Recently, a study was published analysing the relative contribution of above-ground competition and allelopathy to weed suppression of Sca...
Article
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Determining the intra-specific variability of response to a given herbicide is important for monitoring the possible shifts in the sensitivity of weed populations. This study describes the responses of populations of Alisma plantago-aquatica, Cyperus difformis, and Schoenoplectus mucronatus from Italy, Greece, Portugal, and Spain to penoxsulam, an...
Article
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There is an urgent need for more integrated weed management in commercial cereal production. However, there is gap in the general understanding of crop–weed interactions and the traits contributing to weed suppression by winter cereals. In this research, we measured the above-ground competitive traits crop height, leaf area index and early ground c...
Article
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Both weed science and plant invasion science deal with noxious plants. Yet, they have historically developed as two distinct research areas in Europe, with different target species, approaches and management aims, as well as with diverging institutions and researchers involved. We argue that the strengths of these two disciplines can be highly comp...
Article
The lack of non-destructive sampling methods that allow for repeated sampling of secondary plant metabolites in the root zone is restricting the understanding of allelopathic interactions in intact plant communities. Here, we determine the robustness of silicone tube microextraction (STME) to technical and environmental effects, as well as its appl...
Article
Full-text available
Recent years have seen an increasing effort towards the development and adoption of sustainable crop protection strategies, especially in the EU. Several policy frameworks have been put in place including the EU framework Directive (128/EC/2009) on the sustainable use of pesticides. Consequently, all EU Member States developed National Action Plans...
Article
Full-text available
Currently, European farmers do not have access to a sufficient number and diversity of crop species/varieties. This prevents them from designing more resilient cropping systems to abiotic and biotic stresses. Crop diversification is a key lever to reduce pest (pathogens, animal pests and weeds) pressures at all spatial levels from fields to landsca...
Article
Pesticides provide growers with an effective tool for the control of damaging crop pests preventing yield losses that could jeopardise food security. In recent years the potentially adverse effects of their use on human health and the environment has received increasing attention by the public and the competent authorities. In this context reliable...
Article
Weed suppressive potential of 33 winter wheat, 24 winter rye and 11 winter triticale cultivars recently introduced to the Scandinavian market was investigated. Competitive traits recorded were early vigor, leaf area index and crop height. Allelopathic potential was assessed by analyzing plant root and shoot material by LC-MS/MS for their content of...
Article
Full-text available
Attention should be devoted to weeds evolving herbicide resistance with non-target-site resistance (NTSR) mechanism due to their unpredictable resistance patterns. Quantification of fitness cost can be used in NTSR management strategies to determine the long-term fate of resistant plants in weed populations. To our knowledge, this is the first repo...
Chapter
Site-specific application of pesticides has so far focused mainly on herbicides. The purpose of precision farming technologies in relation to herbicide use is to reduce herbicide cost and environmental impact from spraying, but at the same time to achieve acceptable weed control. Another purpose is to increase the spraying capacity, to reduce the n...
Article
Crop management practices such as tillage can influence the dissipation of herbicides in soil. This study aimed to determine the effects of tillage systems on soil dissipation of prosulfocarb (PSC) using two assessment methods: bioassay and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. PSC was applied on plots cultivated under three tilla...
Article
The tetrazolium (TZ) test is an efficient way to evaluate seed viability. However, TZ protocols vary greatly among species and need to be adjusted for each. Loose silky bentgrass (Apera spica-venti) is an important grass weed in Central and Eastern Europe with very small seeds (3.0 × 0.5 mm). Due to the small size of A. spica-venti seeds, it is ver...
Article
Full-text available
Herbicide resistance is an example of plant evolution caused by an increased reliance on herbicides with few sites of action to manage weed populations. This micro-evolutionary process depends on fitness, therefore the assessment of fitness differences between susceptible and resistant populations are pivotal to establish management strategies. Loo...
Chapter
Over the past decades declining biodiversity has been a major concern across the world; however, preventing biodiversity declines in agricultural areas has been ineffective. Failure to adequately assess and properly regulate herbicide effects can have important implications for species richness and overall biodiversity within natural and semi-natur...
Chapter
In the wake of the steadily increasing number of cases of non-target site resistance (NTSR) in recent years, the discussion of low versus high herbicide doses (‘the dose discussion’) has attracted renewed attention. Several studies have concluded that low doses can select for NTSR phenotypes and this has led to a general recommendation to farmers n...
Article
Seedling emergence traits of susceptible (S) and resistant (R) blackgrass subpopulations isolated from a single non–target-site resistant (NTSR) population were studied in controlled conditions. The seedling emergence of the R subpopulation was lower and slower than that of the S subpopulation, especially at low temperature and deep burial. The bur...
Article
Annual grass weeds such as Apera spica-venti and Vulpia myuros are promoted in non-inversion tillage systems and winter cereal-based crop rotations. Unsatisfactory weed control in these conditions is often associated with a poor understanding of the emergence pattern of these weed species. The aim of this study was to investigate, understand and mo...
Chapter
Wheat is among the most important cereal and food crops of world and is grown in almost all parts of the world. It is a staple for a large part of the world population. Any decline in wheat yield by biotic or abiotic factors may affect global food security adversely. Weeds are the most damaging pest of wheat causing in total 24% losses in wheat gra...
Chapter
This chapter provides an up-to-date summary of the parameters influencing herbicide performance. It addresses the interaction between soil moisture and the performance of foliage-applied herbicides. Herbicides can be grouped according to different characteristics such as mode of action, site of uptake and mobility in the plants. Herbicides can be c...
Article
Silky windgrass is a serious weed in central and northern Europe. Its importance has escalated in recent years because of its growing resistance to acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicides. This study investigated the resistance level for three herbicide sites of action in eight silky windgrass populations, collected in fields neighboring...
Article
Silky windgrass and annual bluegrass are among the most troublesome weeds in northern European winter crops, while problems with rattail fescue have been especially linked to direct-drilling practices. This study investigated the germination patterns of silky windgrass, annual bluegrass, and rattail fescue in multiple water potentials and temperatu...
Article
Conventionally bred (CHT) and genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) crops have changed weed management practices and made an important contribution to the global production of some commodity crops. However, a concern is that farm management practices associated with the cultivation of herbicide-tolerant (HT) crops further deplete farmland...