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Per Johan Brandvik

Per Johan Brandvik
SINTEF Ocean · Climate and Environment

PhD

About

111
Publications
7,998
Reads
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2,038
Citations
Citations since 2016
18 Research Items
1196 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200
Introduction
Skills and Expertise

Publications

Publications (111)
Article
Properties and stability of water-in-oil emulsions influence oil behavior and response decisions. Closed-system lab protocols that assess emulsion stability cannot fully represent oil behavior in the open sea. We developed a novel test system that allows emulsions to spread over a laboratory flat pan. Nine highly weathered oils were studied and sev...
Article
The size distribution of oil droplets formed in subsea oil and gas blowouts is known to have a strong impact on their subsequent fate in the environment. Small droplets have low rising velocities, are more influenced by oceanographic turbulence and have larger potential for natural biodegradation. Subsea Dispersant Injection (SSDI) is an establishe...
Article
The low oil recovery rates reported during Macondo (3–5% of the released oil) have caused discussions regarding the efficiency of mechanical recovery compared to other oil spill response options. These low recovery rates have unfortunately been used as reference recovery rates in several later modelling studies and oil spill response analysis. Mult...
Article
Subsea dispersant injection (SSDI) has been implemented as a response method since it was first used in large-scale during the Macondo subsea blow-out in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010. Oil and gas operators have access to SSDI equipment through multiple suppliers of response equipment. This equipment is a crucial part of the capping and containment pa...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents a compilation of data describing interfacial tension between oil and seawater (IFT(oil-water)) as a function of dispersant dosage. The data are from several earlier laboratory studies simulating subsea oil blowouts to evaluate subsea injection of dispersant (SSDI). Three dispersants were tested with four oil types to give a larg...
Article
Full-text available
The degree to which droplet shedding (tip-streaming) can modify the size of rising oil droplets has been a topic of growing interest in relation to subsea dispersant injection. We present an experimental and numerical approach predicting oil droplet shedding, covering a wide range of viscosities and interfacial tensions. Shedding was observed withi...
Article
Full-text available
Both oil droplets and gas bubbles have simultaneously been quantified in laboratory experiments that simulate deep-water subsea releases of both live oil (saturated with gas) and additional natural gas under high pressure. These data have been used to calculate particle size distributions (50–5000 μm) for both oil and gas. The experiments showed no...
Article
Limited experimental and field data are available describing oil droplet formation from subsea releases at high pressure. There are also analytical challenges quantifying oil droplets over a wide size and concentrations range at high pressure. This study quantified oil droplets released from an orifice in seawater at low and high pressure (5 m and...
Article
The main objective with this study has been to study injection techniques for subsea dispersant injection (SSDI) to recommend techniques relevant for both laboratory studies and operational response equipment. The most significant factor was the injection point of the dispersant in relation to the release of the oil. The dispersant should be inject...
Article
Subsea blowouts have the potential to spread oil across large geographical areas, and subsea dispersant injection (SSDI) is a response option targeted at reducing the impact of a blowout, especially reducing persistent surface oil slicks. Modified Weber scaling was used to predict oil droplet sizes with the OSCAR oil spill model, and to evaluate th...
Article
A methodology is presented and applied to assess the oil contamination probability in the Gulf of Patras and the environmental impacts on the environmentally sensitive area of Mesolongi - Aitoliko coastal lagoons, and to examine the effectiveness of response systems. The procedure consists of the following steps: (1) Determination of the computatio...
Article
The main objective of this project has been to train dogs to find oil spills hidden in snow or ice. Previous tests performed during 2007 in a laboratory environment in Trondheim showed that dogs are able to detect and identify the smell of oil, both weathered crude and bunker fuels. Outdoor tests in the Trondheim area in Norway (63°N) have also sho...
Article
New and novel results regarding effectiveness and use of subsea dispersant injection (SSDI) are presented in this paper. These findings are relevant for operational guidance, decision making and improvement of models of subsea releases of oil and gas. More specifically, the paper presents data from a comprehensive set of laboratory experiments to m...
Article
Full-text available
An in situ particle imaging system for measurement of high concentrations of suspended particles ranging from 30 μm to several mm in diameter, is presented. The system obtains quasi-silhouettes of particles suspended within an open-path sample volume of up to 5 cm in length. Benchmarking against spherical standards and the LISST-100 show good agree...
Article
The blowout on the Ekofisk field in the North Sea in 1977 initiated R&D efforts in Norway focusing on improving oil spill contingency in general and more specifically on weathering processes and modeling drift and spreading of oil spills. Since 1978, approximately 40 experimental oil spills have been performed under controlled conditions in open an...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper presents novel results regarding the effectiveness of subsea dispersant injection relevant for operational guidance, decision making and to improve existing models describing the environmental fate and behavior of subsea releases of oil and gas. More specifically, the paper presents data from a comprehensive set of laboratory experiments...
Conference Paper
The size distribution of oil droplets formed in subsea oil and gas blowouts is known to have strong impact on their subsequent fate in the environment. Fine droplets are frequently neutrally buoyant and within the full body of water they are available for biodegradation. Subsea Dispersion Injection (SSDI) is an integral part of achieving this goal,...
Research
Full-text available
Measurements of oil spill temperature were performed on the drifting ice in the Barents Sea in the May of 2008 and 2009 during the research cruises of RV Lance. Oil spills were produced at the water surface inside the basins artificially produced in sea ice. In the experiment of 2008 the basin had ice bottom with through holes, while in 2009 the po...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This article describes the SINTEF Tower Basin (located in Trondheim, Norway) and its use for examining droplet formation and the effectiveness of dispersant injection. The Tower Basin is 6 m high and 3 m in diameter, containing 42 m3 of natural sea water. Oil is injected from the base of the basin and oil droplets are monitored by laser diffraction...
Article
Troll B crude oil was weathered under Arctic conditions with different ice coverage: open water, 50% ice and 90% ice. Samples (100mL) were taken during the experiment and tested for ignitability in a burning cell. From each burning a residue sample was taken for analysis. The burning process removed the light compounds eluting before C13. No effect...
Article
In situ burning of oil spills in the Arctic is a promising countermeasure. In spite of the research already conducted more knowledge is needed especially regarding burning of weathered oils. This paper uses a new laboratory burning cell (100 mL sample) to test three Norwegian crude oils, Grane (asphalthenic), Kobbe (light oil) and Norne (waxy), for...
Article
The chemical composition and toxicity of a water soluble fraction (WSF) of oil versus the underlying water after in situ burning (ISB), has been studied in a laboratory experiment. A system for allowing water sampling after ISB was developed. Seawater samples and oil were collected prior to and immediately after ISB, and chemical analysis was condu...
Article
This paper compares the ignitability of Troll B crude oil weathered under simulated Arctic conditions (0%, 50% and 90% ice cover). The experiments were performed in different scales at SINTEF's laboratories in Trondheim, field research station on Svalbard and in broken ice (70-90% ice cover) in the Barents Sea. Samples from the weathering experimen...
Article
A large-scale field experiment took place in the marginal ice zone in the Barents Sea in May 2009. Fresh oil (7000 L) was released uncontained between the ice floes to study oil weathering and spreading in ice and surface water. A detailed monitoring of oil-in-water and ice interactions was performed throughout the six-day experiment. In addition,...
Article
With recent increased interest in oil and gas exploration and development in the Arctic comes increased potential for an accidental hydrocarbon release into the cryosphere, including within and at the base of snow. There is a critical need to develop effective and reliable methods for detecting such spills. Numerical modeling shows that ground-pene...
Article
For the removal of oil spilled in ice-infested waters, in situ burning (ISB) is one of the response techniques with the highest potential for Arctic conditions, particularly in snow and dense ice. In order to make in situ burning more operational, there is a need to be able to predict the ignitability of oil spills as a function of oil type and wea...
Article
For the removal of oil spilled in ice-infested waters, in situ burning (ISB) is one of the response techniques with the highest potential for conditions with dense ice and snow. In order to make ISB an operational tool, there is a need to better define the potential and limitations regarding oil types and weathering degree. A small laboratory scale...
Article
One of the goals during this joint industry program (Oil-in-Ice JIP) has been to improve the capability to predict the weathering properties of oil spills in ice. Previously, the knowledge concerning the weathering of oil spills in ice was limited compared to our in-depth knowledge of the fate of oil spills in open water. A flume basin has been use...
Article
A new dispersant application system for operations in cold and ice-covered areas has been designed and constructed through a cooperation between JASON and SINTEF. This paper summarizes the systematic and scientific approach in this technology development and tests documentation of the containerized dispersant spray system including: • Spraying perf...
Article
This paper summarizes the different Oil in Ice Joint Industry Program (JIP) remote sensing activities carried out from 2007 to 2009, including: technology review and selection, airborne systems, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) satellite imagery, trained dogs, and airborne Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR). A key finding is that flexible combinations of...
Article
The knowledge regarding weathering processes in Arctic oil spills, and especially oil spills in ice, is limited. Experimental studies have been performed in laboratories, but only to a limited degree in the field. This paper presents results from a series of meso-scale field experiments performed on Svalbard, Norway, in 2005. The results from these...
Article
The water accommodated fractions (WAFs) of nine oils in seawater have been studied. The oils range from light condensate to heavy crude, and include one highly biodegraded oil and one very wax rich oil. This study has identified large variations in the chemical composition of WAFs, depending on oil type, temperature, and mixing time. Experiments at...
Article
Field experiments dealing with oil encapsulated in ice were performed to study the dissolution of water soluble components (WSC) through first-year sea ice. Six oils (five crude oils and a heavy fuel oil) were frozen into sea ice in February. Oil/ice samples were analyzed and migration of WSC from the oil into the ice was quantified during the 112...
Article
Field work with oil encapsulated in ice was performed three successive years in van Mijenfjord on Svalbard. The results from these experiments have shown that not only the ice thickness, but also the air temperature prior to an oil spill are important for the distribution of water soluble oil components: A relatively high air temperature leads to a...
Article
This paper describes the findings from an experimental spill of 3,400 liters of Statfjord crude under first-year sea ice in Svalbard, Norway in March 2006. The objectives were to:1. Test commercially available radar and acoustics systems for detecting oil spilled under ice.2. Document the weathering processes governing crude oil behaviour in ice.3....
Article
Full-text available
Microbial communities associated with Arctic fjord ice polluted with petroleum oils were investigated in this study. A winter field experiment was conducted in the Van Mijen Fjord (Svalbard) from February to June 2004, in which the ice was contaminated with a North Sea paraffinic oil. Holes were drilled in the ice and oil samples frozen into the ic...
Article
The knowledge regarding weathering processes in Arctic oil spills and especially with the presence of ice is limited. Experimental studies have been performed in laboratories, but only to a limited degree in the field. This presentation summarized and compared results from field experiments performed in Norway in 1989, 1993 and 2003–2006. Two full-...
Chapter
SINTEF has on behalf of the oil companies Shell, Chevron, Statoil, Total and ConocoPhillips performed a pre-project for development of a R&D program for oil spill response in ice-infested and Arctic waters. AGIP KCO joined the program in 2006. The objective of the pre-project has been to propose objectives, scope of work and participants for a Join...
Article
Marine oil spills can occur in the Arctic due to pipeline breaks or leaks and spills from storage or production facilities. Depending on the time of year and scenario, a portion or all of the spill may become trapped under and/or encapsulated within the sea ice sheet. The current methods for locating spilled oil include visually inspecting drilled...