Per Aagaard

Per Aagaard
University of Southern Denmark | SDU · Institute of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics

PhD MSc

About

388
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Introduction
Per Aagaard currently works at the Institute of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark. Per does research in Biomechanics, Exercise Physiology, Muscle Biology, Motor Control, Orthopedic Surgery, Physiotherapy and Sports Medicine.

Publications

Publications (388)
Preprint
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It has recently been established that myosin, the molecular motor protein, is able to exist in two conformations in relaxed skeletal muscle. These conformations are known as super-relaxed (SRX) and disordered-relaxed (DRX) states and are finely balanced to optimize skeletal muscle metabo-lism. Indeed, SRX myosins are thought to have a 10-fold reduc...
Article
Background Sporadic inclusion body myositis (sIBM) is an acquired disease within the idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM) spectrum, characterized clinically by progressive muscle atrophy, weakness and often severely impaired physical function leading to Sarcopenia. Despite of this, muscle mass and physical function is not routinely assessed in pa...
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Previous evidence suggests that resistance training in combination with specific collagen peptides (CP) improves adaptive responses of the muscular apparatus. Although beneficial effects have been repeatedly demonstrated, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Therefore, the primary objective of the present randomized trial was to eluci...
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Sporadic inclusion body myositis (sIBM) is characterised by skeletal muscle inflammation, progressive muscle loss and weakness, which is largely refractory to immunosuppressive treatment. Low-load blood-flow restricted (BFR) training has been shown to evoke gains in myofibre cross sectional area (mCSA) in healthy adults. This could partially be due...
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A retrospective analysis of routine countermovement jump (CMJ) testing, a coupled eccentric-concentric (stretch-shorten-cycle: SSC) movement, was performed in female elite alpine skiers with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction (ACLR) and without ACLR. A total of 567 tests obtained from the daily training environment were analyzed in 41...
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Sporadic inclusion body myositis (sIBM) is an idiopathic inflammatory muscle disease associated with skeletal muscle inflammation and a parallel progressive decline in muscle strength and physical function. Eventually, most sIBM patients require use of wheelchair after about 10 years of diagnosis and assistance to perform activities of daily living...
Article
Background: Ankle sprain is the most common type of sports injury, especially in team sports. Standing and dynamic landing balance, as an indicator of ankle instability, were investigated using varying experimental approaches. Methods: In the present cross-sectional study, 81 adolescent female elite handball and football players were divided int...
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Background: Although growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) is known to increase with disease and is associated with low physical performance, the role of GDF15 in normal ageing is still not fully understood. Specifically, the influence of circulating GDF15 on impairments in maximal muscle power (a major contributor to functional limitations) an...
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# Background Reduced activation of the hamstring muscles and specifically the medial semitendinosus muscle (ST) has been shown to be a risk factor for non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Specific hamstring strength exercises may show high ST activity, however the effect of unilateral vs. bilateral exercise execution on ST activati...
Article
Background The 30-s sit-to-stand (STS) muscle power test is a valid test to assess muscle power in older people; however, whether it may be used to assess trajectories of lower-limb muscle power through the adult lifespan is not known. This study evaluated the pattern and time course of variations in relative, allometric and specific STS muscle pow...
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Introduction Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs) are rare diseases characterised by non-suppurative inflammation of skeletal muscles and muscle weakness. Additionally, IIM is associated with a reduced quality of life. Strength training is known to promote muscle hypertrophy and increase muscle strength and physical performance in healthy youn...
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Purpose To identify modifiable biomechanical and neuromuscular anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury risk factors for first-time ACL injury in adolescent female elite football and team handball players. Methods Adolescent female elite football and handball players with no previous ACL injury participated in the present study. At baseline, player...
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Aim: MRI can provide fundamental tools in decoding physiological stressors stimulated by training paradigms. Acute physiological changes induced by three diverse exercise protocols known to elicit similar levels of muscle hypertrophy were evaluated using muscle functional magnetic resonance imaging (mfMRI). Methods: The study was a cross-over st...
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Purpose: Increasing age, high quadriceps strength, and low hamstring muscle strength are associated with hamstring strain injury in soccer. The authors investigated the age-related variation in maximal hamstring and quadriceps strength in male elite soccer players from under-13 (U-13) to the senior level. Methods: A total of 125 elite soccer pla...
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Prolonged physical inactivity in young adults may lead to deficiencies in musculoskeletal fitness, and thus a need exists to develop physical activity and exercise programmes that are effective of increasing musculoskeletal fitness. The aim of this study, therefore, was to investigate the effects of small-sided team handball training on lower limb...
Article
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture is a serious injury with a high prevalence worldwide, and subsequent ACL reconstructions (ACLR) appear to be most commonly performed using hamstring-derived (semitendinosus tendon) autografts. Recovery of maximal muscle strength to ≥90% of the healthy contralateral limb is considered an important criterion f...
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This study aimed to assess the validity and functional relevance of a standardized procedure to assess lower limb muscle power by means of the 30-s sit-to-stand (STS) test when compared to leg extension power (LEP), traditional STS performance and handgrip strength. A total of 628 community-dwelling older subjects (60–93 years) from the Copenhagen...
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Aim: Glycogen particles are found in different subcellular localizations, which are utilized heterogeneously in different fibre types during endurance exercise. Although resistance exercise typically involves only a moderate use of mixed muscle glycogen, the hypothesis of the present study was that high-volume heavy-load resistance exercise would...
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Study design Comprehensive review and meta‐analysis. Background The recovery in rapid force production measured as the rate of force development (RFD) is not clear after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Objectives To evaluate (1) time‐course change of between‐limb asymmetries in isometric knee extension/flexion RFD in individuals...
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Aim: Previous reports suggest that low-load muscle exercise performed under blood flow restriction (BFR) may lead to endurance adaptations. However, only few and conflicting results exist on the magnitude and timing of microvascular adaptations, overall indicating a lack of angiogenesis with BFR training. The present study, therefore, aimed to exam...
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Introduction: Heavy-load strength training (HLT) is generally considered the Gold Standard exercise modality for inducing gains in skeletal muscle strength. However, use of heavy external exercise loads may be contraindicative in frail individuals. Low-load resistance exercise combined with partial blood-flow restriction (LL-BFR exercise) may offe...
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Aim: To investigate if short-term block-structured training consisting of alternating weeks of blood-flow restricted low-load resistance training (BFR-RT) and conventional free-flow heavy-load resistance training (HL-RT) leads to superior gains in mechanical muscle function, myofiber size and satellite cell (SC) content and myonuclear number compa...
Article
Heavy controlled loads of tendon with prolonged time under tension remains the treatment‐of‐choice in tendinopathy rehabilitation. The use of low‐load resistance exercise (LL, 20‐40% 1RM) in combination with blood flow restriction (BFR) has been advocated as a clinically important rehabilitation tool for persons not tolerating high muscle‐tendon lo...
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Background Our main goal was to evaluate the pattern and time course of changes in relative muscle power and its constituting components throughout the lifespan. Methods A total of 1305 subjects (729 women and 576 men; aged 20-93 years) participating in the Copenhagen Sarcopenia Study took part. Body mass index (BMI), leg lean mass assessed by DXA...
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Background: Sporadic inclusion body myositis (sIBM) is clinically characterised by progressive proximal and distal muscle weakness and impaired physical function while skeletal muscle tissue displays abnormal cellular infiltration of T cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells. Only limited knowledge exists about the effects of low-load blood flow r...
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Purpose: Numerous daily tasks such as walking and rising from a chair involve bilateral lower limb movements. During such tasks lower extremity function (LEF) may be compromised among older adults. LEF may be further impaired due to high degrees of between-limb asymmetry. The present study investigated the prevalence of between-limb asymmetry in m...
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Introduction: A significant step towards sport-related injury prevention is the introduction of easily accessible smartphone applications (apps). However, it is unknown whether this type of app-based instruction facilitates similar acute neuromuscular and biomechanical characteristics of the preventive exercises as achieved when instructed on-site...
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Background: Despite no international consensus on the diagnostic criteria for sarcopenia, low lean mass, muscle strength, and physical function are important risk factors for disability, frailty, and mortality in older individuals, as well as in a wide range of patients with muscle loss. Here, we provide a population-based reference material of to...
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Purpose:: This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the association between hamstring muscle peak torque and rapid force capacity (rate of torque development: RTD) versus sprint performance in elite youth football players. Methods:: Thirty elite academy youth football players (16.75 ± 1.1 years, 176.9 ± 6.7 cm, 67.1 ± 6.9 kg) were included...
Article
Pareja-Blanco, F, Rodríguez-Rosell, D, Aagaard, P, Sánchez-Medina, L, Ribas-Serna, J, Mora-Custodio, R, Otero-Esquina, C, Yáñez-García, JM, and González-Badillo, JJ. Time course of recovery from resistance exercise with different set configurations. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-This study analyzed the response to 10 resistance exercise...
Article
The strategy of the nervous system to activate agonist muscle(s) appears to differ substantially between eccentric versus isometric and concentric contractions1,2,3. Previous study reports have indicated that in untrained individuals the muscle is not fully activated during eccentric contraction despite a maximal volitional effort (MVC). More speci...
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Neuromuscular activity is suppressed during maximal eccentric (ECC) muscle contraction in untrained subjects owing to attenuated levels of central activation and reduced spinal motor neuron (MN) excitability indicated by reduced electromyography signal amplitude, diminished evoked H-reflex responses, increased autogenic MN inhibition, and decreased...
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Objectives: To investigate the effect of 12 weeks of low-load blood-flow restricted resistance (BFR) training on self-reported and objective physical function, and maximal muscle strength in patients with sporadic inclusion body myositis (sIBM). Method: Twenty-two patients with sIBM were randomized into a training group (BFR group) or a non-exercis...
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Young, adolescent female athletes are at particular high risk of sustaining a non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury during sport. Through the last decades much attention has been directed toward various anatomical and biomechanical risk factors for non-contact ACL injury, and important information have been retrieved about the influen...
Article
Background: Reduced lower extremity muscle strength as well as reduced lower extremity muscle pre-activity (defined as muscular activity just prior to initial ground contact) during high-risk movements are factors related to increased risk of non-contact ACL injury in adolescent female athletes. A strong relationship exists between muscle strength...
Article
While short-term disuse negatively affects mechanical muscle function (e.g. isometric muscle strength) little is known of the relative contribution of adaptions in central neural drive and peripheral muscle contractility. The present study investigated the relative contribution of adaptations in central neural drive and peripheral muscle contractil...
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Background: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, using hamstring auto-graft is a common surgical procedure, which often leads to persistent hamstring muscle-strength deficiency and reduced function. The purpose of this randomized controlled trial (RCT) is to investigate the effect of a combined, progressive, strength and neuromuscular...
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The review describes the fitness and health effects of recreational football in women aged 18–65 years. The review documents that 2 × 1 h of recreational football training for 12–16 weeks causes marked improvements in maximal oxygen uptake (5–15%) and myocardial function in women. Moreover, mean arterial blood pressure was shown to decrease by 2–5...
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Objective The preseason Nordic Hamstring Protocol (NHP) reduces hamstring strain injuries in football players. Despite persisting injury rates, elite clubs are reluctant to apply the NHP often over concerns of negative impacts on performance. This pilot study investigated if sprint or jump-performance outcomes tended to increase or decrease followi...
Article
This assessor-blinded, randomized controlled superiority trial investigated the efficacy of the 10-week Nordic Hamstring exercise (NHE) protocol on sprint performance in football players. Thirty-five amateur male players (age: 17–26 years) were randomized to a do-as-usual control group (CG; n = 17) or to 10-weeks of supervised strength training usi...
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Rate of force development (RFD) refers to the ability of the neuromuscular system to increase contractile force from a low or resting level when muscle activation is performed as quickly as possible, and it is considered an important muscle strength parameter, especially for athletes in sports requiring high-speed actions. The assessment of RFD has...
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Background Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear is the most frequent injury in alpine ski racing, and there is a high prevalence of ACL reinjury. Limited data exist on the concurrent pathology with primary ACL tears in elite alpine ski racers and the magnitude of injury progression after primary ACL reconstruction (ACLR). Purpose To evaluate (1)...
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Objectives The present study aimed to explore the effect of resistance training in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a disease characterized by progressive motor neuron loss and muscle weakness. Materials and Methods Following a 12-week “lead-in” control period, a population of ALS patients from Funen, Denmark, completed a 12-week...
Article
Previous studies indicate that low-load muscle contractions performed under local blood flow restriction (BFR) may initially induce muscle damage and stress. However, whether these factors are evoked with longitudinal BFR training remains unexplored at the myocellular level. Two distinct study protocols were conducted, covering 3 weeks (3 wk) or on...
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The purpose of the present review was to: 1) provide an overview of the current understanding on the epidemiology, etiology, risk factors, and prevention methods for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in alpine ski racing; and 2) provide an overview of what is known pertaining to ACL reinjury and return to sport after ACL injury in alpine ski...
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The purpose of this study was to determine the adaptive response of ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and pain over six consecutive training sessions. Thirty subjects were assigned to either a blood flow restricted training group (BFRT) or a high intensity group (HIT). BFRT group performed four sets (30+15+15+15, respectively) of unilateral leg e...
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Introduction: Self-reported physical function, functional capacity, and isolated muscle function were investigated in sporadic inclusion body myositis (sIBM) patients. Methods: SF-36 health survey and 2-min Walk test (2MWT), Timed Up & Go test (TUG), and 30-sec Chair Stand performance were evaluated. Additionally, patients were tested for knee e...
Article
Purpose: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect and time course of high-frequent low-load resistance training with blood-flow restriction (BFR) on rapid force capacity (i.e. rate of torque development (RTD)). Methods: Ten male subjects (22.8±2.3 years) performed four sets of knee extensor exercise (20%1RM) to concentric failu...
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The aim of the present single-case study was to investigate the effect of 6 weeks’ kettlebell training on the neuromuscular risk profile for ACL injury in a high-risk athlete returning to sport after ACL reconstruction. A female elite soccer player (age 21 years) with no previous history of ACL injury went through neuromuscular screening as measure...