Penny M Kris-Etherton

Penny M Kris-Etherton
Pennsylvania State University | Penn State · Department of Nutritional Sciences

About

355
Publications
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26,440
Citations
Citations since 2016
133 Research Items
13483 Citations
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201620172018201920202021202205001,0001,5002,000

Publications

Publications (355)
Article
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Purpose of Review The recent rise in cardiovascular disease (CVD) deaths in the USA has sparked interest in identifying and implementing effective strategies to reverse this trend. Healthy lifestyle behaviors (i.e., healthy diet, regular physical activity, achieve and maintain a healthy weight, avoid tobacco exposure, good quality sleep, avoiding a...
Chapter
This article describes the structure, function and metabolism of lipoprotein particles, which are complex macromolecules involved in the transport of lipids in the body. The primary lipids that are packaged in lipoproteins are cholesterol and triglycerides. Metabolism of lipoprotein particle involves many metabolic pathways that function to regulat...
Article
Dyslipidemia is a major risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and a healthy lifestyle is the first line of therapy for treatment A healthy dietary pattern is a cornerstone for treating elevated low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides (TG), both of which are hallmarks of dyslipidemia. Much research has been con...
Article
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Approximately 40% of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) experience an early-morning rise in fasting glucose that is not effectively treated by available oral hypoglycemic agents. This study aimed to determine the acute effect of consuming almond butter as an evening snack on fasting and overnight interstitial glucose, compared to a no-snack contro...
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Background Herbs and spices are rich in polyphenolic compounds that may influence gut bacterial composition. The effect of culinary doses of herbs and spices consumed as part of a well-defined dietary pattern on gut bacterial composition has not been previously studied. Objectives The aim of this pre-specified exploratory analysis was to examine g...
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Partial replacement of saturated fatty acids (SFA) with unsaturated fatty acids is recommended to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), including oleic acid, are associated with lower CVD risk. Measurement of flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery (FMD) is the gold standard for measuring endothelial fu...
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Background Tree nuts have glucoregulatory effects and influence gut microbiota composition. The effect of peanuts on the microbiota has not been investigated. Objectives The aim was to examine the effect of 28 g/d of peanuts for 6-wks, compared to an isocaloric lower-fat higher-carbohydrate (LFHC) snack, on gut microbiota composition. A secondary...
Article
Two of the leading chronic diseases are cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer. A cornerstone of prevention for CVD and cancer is a healthy dietary pattern throughout the lifespan. Dietary patterns represent the totality of the diet and reflect habitual consumption of combinations and quantities of foods and nutrients that cumulatively affect heal...
Article
A healthy eating pattern is recommended for all life stages and is central to achieving optimal pregnancy outcomes and successful lactation. The preconception period is a critical window of time during which good nutritional status benefits both the mother and the offspring. The ongoing overweight and obesity epidemic, especially in conjunction wit...
Article
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Background Excess visceral adiposity is associated with increased risk of cardiometabolic disorders. Short‐term well‐controlled clinical trials suggest that regular avocado consumption favorably affects body weight, visceral adiposity, and satiety. Methods and Results The HAT Trial (Habitual Diet and Avocado Trial) was a multicenter, randomized, c...
Article
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Background It is unknown whether the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) is associated with other blood pressure variables, beyond mean systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressures (DBP). Objectives The study aimed to study the associations between the DASH dietary pattern and daytime and nighttime mean BPs and BP variability independen...
Article
Background: Elevated lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is a significant contributor to residual CVD risk. Replacement of saturated fatty acids (SFA) with mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and PUFA), carbohydrates (CHO) has established effects on traditional lipid parameters related to CVD; however, the evidence for Lp(a) is inconsistent. Moreover, s...
Article
Background: Preclinical studies suggested that high intakes of sulfur amino acids (SAA), including methionine and cysteine, may increase risk of age-related chronic diseases. Until now, no epidemiologic studies have investigated habitual dietary intake of SAA in relation to risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality. Methods: We prospective...
Article
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Objective: Recommended dietary patterns improve cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors such as blood pressure and LDL-C, as well as emerging markers that confer residual risk. Strawberry consumption has been shown to improve CVD risk factors, but further research is needed to better understand these effects using a dose-response model that eval...
Article
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Given the evidence of the health benefits of plant-based diets and long-chain n-3 fatty acids, there is keen interest in better understanding the role of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), a plant-derived n-3 fatty acid, on cardiometabolic diseases and cognition. There is increasing evidence for ALA largely based on its major food sources (i.e., walnuts a...
Article
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The composition of the gut microbiota and their metabolites are associated with cardiometabolic health and disease risk. Intake of dietary fibers, including resistant starch (RS), has been shown to favorably affect the health of the gut microbiome. The aim of this research was to measure changes in the gut microbiota and fecal short-chain fatty aci...
Article
In cardiology clinic visits, the discussion of optimal dietary patterns for prevention and management of cardiovascular disease is usually very limited. Herein, we explore the benefits and risks of various dietary patterns including intermittent fasting (IF), low carbohydrate, Paleolithic, whole food plant based diet and Mediterranean dietary patte...
Article
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Background Women with obesity and infertility are counseled to lose weight prior to conception and infertility treatment to improve pregnancy rates and birth outcomes, although confirmatory evidence from randomized trials is lacking. We assessed whether a preconception intensive lifestyle intervention with acute weight loss is superior to a weight...
Chapter
Dietary fat is a macronutrient comprised of many different lipids and fatty acids some of which are essential nutrients. The fatty acid classes are saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA), polyunsaturated (PUFA) (omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids), and trans (TFA). Unsaturated fatty acids typically exist in the cis configuration and differ structural...
Chapter
High-oleic (HO) oils are defined as edible oils that contain at least 70% oleic acid per serving. Oils that meet this definition include both trait-enhanced (i.e., high-oleic sunflower or soybean) and naturally occurring high-oleic acid variants (i.e., olive oil). This chapter reviews the health aspects of HO oils with an emphasis on cardiovascular...
Chapter
Obesity-induced oxidative stress and inflammation are strongly associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Accumulating evidence suggests that spices can help lower oxidative stress and inflammation, which may reduce the risk of CVD. The objective of the current review was to comprehensively summarize the findings from clinical studies that exami...
Chapter
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is caused by risk factors that can present at all ages, including early life. Healthy lifestyle practices can delay or prevent the onset of CVD risk factors. Consistent evidence demonstrates that a healthy dietary pattern in childhood prevents the early onset of CVD risk factors and lowers CVD risk in adulthood. Healthy...
Article
Background: Dietary factors are a leading contributor to cardiovascular disease. Cardiologists are ideally positioned to initiate dietary discussions with patients and to make appropriate referrals to dietitians/nutritionists, yet the frequency of such referrals is unknown. Methods: A national survey was distributed to cardiologists to assess the f...
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Individual responses to diet vary but causes other than genetics are poorly understood. This study sought to determine whether baseline values of homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) was related to changes in small, dense low-density lipoprotein (sdLDL, i.e., LDL4, d = 1.044–1.063 g/mL) amounts quantified by isopycnic density profiling, in mildly...
Article
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Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the U.S. and globally. Dietary risk factors contribute to over half of all CVD deaths and CVD-related disability. The aim of this narrative review is to describe methods used to assess diet quality and the current state of evidence on the relationship between diet qua...
Article
Poor diet quality is strongly associated with elevated risk of cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. This scientific statement emphasizes the importance of dietary patterns beyond individual foods or nutrients, underscores the critical role of nutrition early in life, presents elements of heart-healthy dietary patterns, and highlights str...
Article
Engagement in healthy lifestyle behaviors is suboptimal. The vast majority of the US population does not meet current recommendations. A healthy lifestyle is defined by consuming a healthy dietary pattern, engaging in regular physical activity, avoiding exposure to tobacco products, habitually attaining adequate amounts of sleep, and managing stres...
Article
At a population level, engagement in healthy lifestyle behaviors is suboptimal in the United States. Moreover, marked disparities exist in healthy lifestyle behaviors and cardiovascular risk factors as a result of social determinants of health. In addition, there are specific challenges to engaging in healthy lifestyle behaviors related to age, dev...
Article
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Background Numerous studies demonstrate acute anti-inflammatory properties of individual spices, but none have examined the effect of longer-term consumption of a spice blend incorporated in a meal. Objective We investigated the effect of longer-term spice consumption on inflammatory cytokines and monocyte subsets [classical (CM), intermediate (IM...
Article
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Background The glycemic effects of peanuts are not well-studied and no trials have been conducted in adults with elevated fasting plasma glucose (FPG). Furthermore, intake of peanuts as a nighttime snack, an eating occasion affecting FPG, has not been examined. Objective The aim was to determine the effect of consuming 28 g/d of peanuts as a night...
Article
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Background Intake of a single meal containing herbs and spices attenuates postprandial lipemia, hyperglycemia, and oxidative stress, and improves endothelial function. There has been limited investigation of the effect of longer-term intake of mixed herbs and spices on risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases. Objectives The objective was to asse...
Article
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Excess visceral adiposity is associated with increased risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In the U.S. approximately 60% of adults have visceral obesity. Despite high calorie and fat, small, well-controlled clinical studies suggest that avocado consumption has favorable effects on body weight and visceral adiposity. Additionally, short-ter...
Article
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Emerging cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, including central vascular function and HDL efflux, may be modifiable with food-based interventions such as cranberry juice. A randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial was conducted in middle-aged adults with overweight/obesity (n = 40; mean BMI: 28.7 ± 0.8 kg/m2; mean age: 47 ± 2 years) an...
Article
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Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 is a probiotic strain that has been used worldwide since 1985. It has commonly been delivered in fermented dairy products for perceived benefits associated with gut health and enhanced immune function.
Article
Herbs and spices are recommended to increase flavor and displace salt in the diet. Accumulating evidence suggests herbs and spices may improve risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases. In this narrative review, an overview of evidence from human clinical trials examining the effect of herbs and spices on risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases i...
Article
Objectives: To examine the effect of consuming one ounce of peanuts (PNUT) as an evening snack on diet quality compared to an isocaloric lower fat higher carbohydrate snack (LFHC), in individuals with impaired fasting glucose IFG. Methods: Fifty-one individuals (48% female; 42 ± 15 y; BMI 28.3 ± 5.6 kg/m ² ; glucose 100 ± 8 mg/dL; total cholesterol...
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Appropriate planning, execution, and reporting of statistical methods and results is critical for research transparency, validity, and reproducibility. This paper provides an overview of best practices for developing a statistical analysis plan a priori, conducting statistical analyses, and reporting statistical methods and results for human nutrit...
Article
Background Physicians are inadequately trained to effectively provide lifestyle counseling to manage the obesity epidemic.ActivityFamily and community medicine residents participated in a culinary medicine course taught by two Registered Dietitian Nutritionists (RDNs) in University Park, PA, in March 2020.ResultsAll residents (n = 13) reported incr...
Article
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Diets varying in saturated (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) content can impact glycemic control; however, whether underlying differences in genetic make-up can influence blood glucose responses to these dietary fatty acids is unknown. We examined the impact of dietary oils varying in SFA/MUFA content on changes in blood glucose levels (p...
Article
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Background It remains unclear whether red meat consumption is causatively associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, and few randomized controlled studies have examined the effect of incorporating lean beef into a healthy dietary pattern. Objectives To evaluate the effects of a Mediterranean (MED) diet (carbohydrate 42%, protein 17%, fat 4...
Article
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Background High quality diets reduce the risk of cardiometabolic and other chronic diseases. The dietary components that distinguish higher from lower quality diets, and their associations with health, have not been fully investigated. Objective This study aimed to assess the component scores that underlie differences in total Healthy Eating Index...
Article
Existing cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its modifiable risk factors are associated with increased mortality from coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19). Clinical attention has focused on acute interventions for COVID-19, but reducing upstream risks associated with poor outcomes must occur in parallel. This is particularly urgent because risk factors for COV...
Chapter
Management of dyslipidemia is integral to atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk reduction. This chapter summarizes evidence-based dietary recommendations for the treatment and management of dyslipidemias that can be used in medical practice. Medical nutrition therapy targeting LDL-C, non-HDL-C, and triglycerides will be outlined. For...
Article
Background Single measurements of waist circumference (WC) predict the incident cardiovascular disease (CVD); however, long-term patterns of WC and their association with the incidence of CVD are poorly characterized. Objective We aimed to identify WC trajectories and determine their association with incident CVD (stroke and myocardial infarction)...
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In human nutrition randomized controlled trials (RCTs), planning, and careful execution of clinical data collection and management are vital for producing valid and reliable results. In this article, we provide an overview of best practices for biospecimen collection and analyses, and for the fundamentals of clinical data management, including prep...
Article
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Guidelines for designing, conducting, documenting, and reporting human nutrition randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have as yet to be developed and disseminated as reference for investigators, funders, regulators, institutions, assessors, trainees, and others involved in human nutrition research. Diet-related interventions can include diet and/or...
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Commensal microbiota-dependent tryptophan catabolism within the gastrointestinal tract is known to exert profound effects upon host physiology, including the maintenance of epithelial barrier and immune function. A number of abundant microbiota-derived tryptophan metabolites exhibit activation potential for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). Gene...
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Lipids and lipoproteins are major targets for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention. Findings from a limited number of clinical trials suggest diet-induced atherogenic lipoprotein lowering may be altered in the presence of chronic low-grade inflammation or insulin resistance. This review summarizes results from randomized controlled trials that h...
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Introduction Adherence to cardioprotective dietary patterns can reduce risk for developing cardiometabolic disease. Rates of diet assessment and counselling by physicians are low. Use of a diet screener that rapidly identifies individuals at higher risk due to suboptimal dietary choices could increase diet assessment and brief counselling in clinic...
Article
Objective To describe the prevalence of female sexual dysfunction in a well-defined polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) population, and to assess the impact of common PCOS treatments on sexual function. Design Secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial, oral contraceptive pills and weight loss in PCOS. Setting Two academic medical centers....
Article
Background Dried fruits are shelf-stable alternatives to fresh fruit that avert common barriers to consuming fruit. Consumption of dried fruits may facilitate greater fruit consumption and contribute to better diet quality and nutrient intakes. Objective Our aims were to assess differences in diet quality and cardiometabolic health between dried f...
Article
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Background The increased use of high-oleic oils to replace trans fat has led to concern about declining intake of PUFA and the potential for essential fatty acid insufficiency or even deficiency. Objectives The aim of this study was to examine circulating concentrations of essential and poorly biosynthesized fatty acids, as biomarkers of dietary i...
Article
Objective: To examine effects of common treatments for PCOS on a panel of hormones(reproductive/metabolic). Design: Secondary analysis of blood from a RCT of three 16-week preconception interventions designed to improve PCOS-related abnormalities: continuous oral contraceptives(OCP, N=34 subjects), intensive lifestyle modification(Lifestyle, N =...
Article
Background: Diet is an important lifestyle factor that may prevent or slow the onset and progression of neurodegeneration. Some, but not all, recent studies have suggested that adherence to a healthy dietary pattern may be associated with reduced risk of dementia. Objective: In this meta-analysis, we systematically examined the associations betw...
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Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is an independent, causal, genetically determined risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). We provide an overview of current knowledge on Lp(a) and CVD risk, and the effect of pharmacological agents on Lp(a). Since evidence is accumulating that diet modulates Lp(a), the focus of this paper is on the effect of dietary int...
Article
Fruit intake is associated with lower risk of cardiometabolic diseases. However, effects of dried fruits on cardiometabolic health are not well researched. We investigated the effect of daily dried fruit consumption compared to a carbohydrate-rich snack on cardiometabolic disease risk factors in adults with increased cardiometabolic risk. A two-per...
Article
Background: Factor VIIc, fibrinogen, and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) are cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and are modulated, in part, by fat type and amount. Objective: We evaluated fat type and amount on the primary outcomes: factor VIIc, fibrinogen, and PAI-1. Methods: In the Dietary Effects on Lipoproteins and Thrombo...
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Suboptimal nutrition has been implicated in the underlying pathology of behavioral health disorders and may impede treatment and recovery. Thus, optimizing nutritional status should be a treatment for these disorders and is likely important for prevention. The purpose of this narrative review is to describe the global burden and features of depress...
Article
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We hypothesized that weight loss with an intensive preconception lifestyle (IL) intervention of caloric restriction with meal replacements, daily orlistat and increased physical activity in women with obesity and unexplained infertility (UI) was more likely to result in Good Birth Outcome than a standard lifestyle modification (SL) with increased p...
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Objective This study aimed to compare two energy‐restricted, nutrient‐dense diets at the upper or lower ends of the dietary fat recommendation range (lower fat [20% energy from fat] versus moderate fat [35%]) on weight loss using behavioral theory–based nutrition education. Methods A total of 101 premenopausal women with overweight or obesity were...
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In the United States, cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death and disability. Suboptimal diet quality is responsible for a greater percentage of CVD-related morbidity and mortality than any other modifiable risk factor. Further troubling are the stark racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities in diet quality. This represents a...