Penny Hawkins

Penny Hawkins
RSPCA Science Group · Animals in Science

RSPCA

About

105
Publications
28,717
Reads
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1,740
Citations
Introduction
Penny Hawkins currently works at the Animals in Science Department, RSPCA Science and Policy Group. Penny's work focuses on ethical review and the refinement of animal care and use to reduce suffering and improve welfare.
Additional affiliations
November 1996 - September 2015
The Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals
The Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals
Position
  • Head, Research Animals Department
Education
October 1992 - April 1996
University of Birmingham
Field of study
  • Biological Sciences
October 1989 - May 1992
University of Portsmouth
Field of study
  • Biological Sciences

Publications

Publications (105)
Article
Full-text available
Good practice for the housing and care of laboratory zebrafish Danio rerio is an increasingly discussed topic, with focus on appropriate water quality parameters, stocking densities, feeding regimes, anaesthesia and analgesia practices, methods of humane killing, and more. One area of current attention is around the provision of environmental enric...
Article
Full-text available
This guidance relates to delivering the ethics learning outcomes within licensee training in the UK, but it will be useful for anyone delivering ethics training in the contest of animal research worldwide. The first part of the document deals with general principles of ethics training, including: the overall aim of ethics training - what each learn...
Article
Full-text available
This report was produced by an Expert Working Group (EWG) consisting of UK-based researchers, veterinarians and regulators of animal experiments with specialist knowledge of the use of animal models of spinal cord injury (SCI). It aims to facilitate the implementation of the Three Rs (Replacement, Reduction and Refinement), with an emphasis on refi...
Article
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This article investigates the barriers to implementing higher caging in animal research establishments in the UK. The use of animals in research and testing in the UK is regulated by the Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986, which sets out how animal experiments must be licensed and regulated. Within this, the Code of Practice currently allows...
Article
Full-text available
Within animal research and testing, the need for an effective Culture of Care is widely recognized and described in terms of an establishment-wide commitment to improving the implementation of the 3Rs, animal welfare, scientific quality, care of the staff, and transparency for all stakeholders, including the public. Ideally, each establishment woul...
Article
Full-text available
In October 2019, the RSPCA, in association with the Biomedical Research Foundation of the Academy of Athens (BRFAA), brought together around 100 delegates from 16 countries to share knowledge and promote new approaches aimed at avoiding mortality in animals used in research and testing. The main programme was based on the content of a recent public...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The AWERB is now well established, with greater efforts being made to fulfil all of its tasks; the Animals in Science Committee Hub Network is starting to operate more effectively; and the Knowledge Hub has been established. However, there is still of room for improvement with respect to a number of issues, including: communications both from and t...
Book
Full-text available
This report aims to provide guidance, and stimulate discussion, on ways of avoiding mortality in animals in research and testing. It is concerned with mortality that could feasibly be avoided, by reducing the number of animals ‘found dead’, reducing unpredicted mortality of animals being used in procedures, and challenging perceived requirements fo...
Poster
Full-text available
Good two-way communication between scientists and animal technologists/care staff is a vital component of a good Culture of Care, as set out within the EC Working Document on Animal Welfare Bodies and National Committees. A good way to facilitate this is to 'encourage development of formal and informal communication channels between researchers and...
Article
Full-text available
In October 2017, the RSPCA once again brought together people from a range of roles to share knowledge and promote new approaches to avoiding 'severe' suffering in laboratory animals. This meeting, which followed on from a very successful first event in Brussels in 2016, was held in Berlin in association with the Max Delbrück Centre for Molecular M...
Article
Full-text available
It is widely recommended to group-house male laboratory mice because they are 'social animals', but male mice do not naturally share territories and aggression can be a serious welfare problem. Even without aggression, not all animals within a group will be in a state of positive welfare. Rather, many male mice may be negatively affected by the str...
Preprint
Full-text available
It is widely recommended to group house male laboratory mice because they are ‘social animals’, but male mice do not naturally share territories and aggression can be a serious welfare problem. Even without aggression, not all animals within a group will be in a state of positive welfare. Rather, many male mice may be negatively affected by the str...
Data
In recent years the concept of a ‘Culture of Care’ has steadily gained momentum within the scientific community. Whilst it has become an important principle, and is referred to in legislation and guidance documents, there is a risk that Culture of Care could be perceived (or used) as a buzzword unless efforts are made to assess and monitor the exte...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Most Animal Welfare and Ethical Review Bodies (AWERBs), and establishments in general, devote considerable time to the Three Rs, which are concerned with the practical aspects regarding the use of animals; there is a great deal of factual information available to help implement these. However, AWERB members have consistently said that they find ide...
Article
Rodents, particularly rats and mice, are the most commonly used laboratory animals and are extensively used in neuroscience research, including as translational models for human disorders. It is common practice to carry out scientific procedures on rats and mice during the daytime, which is the inactive period for these nocturnal species. However,...
Article
Full-text available
This is a report of a one-day meeting jointly convened by the RSPCA and the Animal and Plant Health Agency (APHA), which brought together around 70 researchers, veterinarians, animal technologists, regulators and others with an interest in the welfare of wild animals used in regulated procedures, either in the wild or in captivity. The meeting, whi...
Book
Full-text available
Animal research in the UK is regulated by the Home Office via the Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986. The Animal Welfare and Ethical Review Body (AWERB), required at each research, breeding and supplying establishment, is an important part of this governance system. The AWERB has a number of tasks. One of these is to ‘provide a forum for disc...
Article
Full-text available
Plenty of information is available on potential refinements to procedures, housing, husbandry and care but achieving buy-in from colleagues and implementation in practice is not always straightforward. This paper discusses how animal technologists and named persons can communicate effectively about refinement which will contribute towards a positiv...
Article
Full-text available
The Three Rs principle of Replacement, Reduction and Refinement developed by William M. S. Russell and Rex L. Burch in the 1950s has achieved worldwide recognition as a means of reducing the impact of science on animals and improving their welfare. However, application of the Three Rs is still far from universal, and evidence-based methods to imple...
Article
Full-text available
A meeting on Contemporary Topics in Zebrafish Husbandry and Care was held in the United Kingdom in 2014, with the aim of providing a discussion forum for researchers, animal technologists, and veterinarians from academia and industry to share good practice and exchange ideas. Presentation topics included protocols for optimal larval rearing, implem...
Article
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Simple Millions of laboratory animals are killed each year worldwide. However, there is a lack of consensus regarding what methods of killing are humane for many species and stages of development. This report summarises research findings and discussions from an international meeting of experts and stakeholders, with recommendations to inform good...
Article
Full-text available
On 16 and 17 June 2016, 150 delegates from 24 countries gathered in Brussels for a unique event aiming to share knowledge, discuss new ideas, and promote approaches and practical steps, to help reduce or avoid "severe" suffering in animals used in research and testing. The event was part of an ongoing RSPCA initiative focusing on severe suffering....
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This meeting provided a forum for Animal Welfare and Ethical Review Body (AWERB) members to discuss how they have made progress with respect to achieving all of the AWERB's tasks, compare experiences, discuss relevant topics and identify any training needs. It was attended by 106 participants representing a range of AWERB members including animal t...
Research
Full-text available
This is additional background material to a survey of current practice for recognising and assessing pain, suffering and distress in laboratory animals in the UK. The shorter, published version appeared in Laboratory Animals (2002): 36: 378-395.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Surveys have shown that vets are in general highly trusted by the public, because of their role to ensure the health and welfare of animals committed to their care, as stated in their declaration to the RCVS. However, there do not seem to be any published surveys regarding the public's views on, or expectations of, laboratory animal vets. For this...
Book
Full-text available
These ‘Guiding Principles’ are intended to help interpret the requirements for UK local Animal Welfare and Ethical Review Bodies (AWERBs) and share good practices. They should help AWERBs to continue to: develop their role in improving animal welfare and the quality of science; further the application of all 3Rs; and promote a ‘culture of care’ at...
Article
Full-text available
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a painful, chronic disorder and there is currently an unmet need for effective therapies that will benefit a wide range of patients. The research and development process for therapies and treatments currently involves in vivo studies, which have the potential to cause discomfort, pain or distress. This Working Group rep...
Article
This report aims to facilitate the implementation of the Three Rs (replacement, reduction and refinement) in the use of animal models or procedures involving sepsis and septic shock, an area where there is the potential of high levels of suffering for animals. The emphasis is on refinement since this has the greatest potential for immediate impleme...
Book
Full-text available
This Resource Book is one of a series of RSPCA publications designed to facilitate the work of ethical review and similar bodies, and especially their lay members. The first edition was published in 2003, and a second updated and revised edition followed in 2009. Both were written from a UK perspective, but have been used by lay members and other p...
Article
Full-text available
This meeting was jointly convened by the RSPCA and AHVLA, to bring together animal technologists, researchers, veterinarians and students with an interest in the welfare of cattle, pigs, sheep and poultry used in research and testing, for a programme of talks and discussion sessions. The meeting, which was held in September 2014, addressed a range...
Article
Full-text available
Ending severe suffering is desirable and achievable. In this article we have outlined a 'road map', or series of steps, that can be used to evaluate the extent to which severe suffering occurs within establishments, and some practical principles that can be employed in order to work toward ending it. We urge researchers to act upon these principles...
Article
Recent revisions to international legislation and guidelines on the care and use of animals in research and testing emphasise the importance of minimising suffering and improving welfare. Achieving this requires effective systems for recognising, recording, analysing and assessing animal behaviour, in order to identify relevant indicators of pain,...
Article
Full-text available
Biotelemetry can contribute towards reducing animal numbers and suffering in disciplines including physiology, pharmacology and behavioural research. However, the technique can also cause harm to animals, making biotelemetry a 'refinement that needs refining'. Current welfare issues relating to the housing and husbandry of animals used in bioteleme...
Article
Full-text available
The RSPCA and AHVLA jointly convened a meeting to bring together animal technologists, researchers, veterinarians and students with an interest in the welfare of cattle, goats, pig and sheep used in research and testing, for a programme of talks and discussion sessions. The meeting, which was held in June 2013, addressed a range of topics including...
Article
At the beginning of the third millennium, many contemporary issues are influencing the scientific community to promote and adopt laboratory animal welfare initiatives more vigorously. These issues include increased emphasis on a balanced and ongoing ethical review of animal research, globalization of research and ease of sharing information via the...
Article
Full-text available
A workshop on reducing severe (substantial) suffering was held at a UK meeting for animal technologists and laborator y animal veterinarians in March 2013. Delegates discussed the roles that they were able to play in refining severe procedures, including identifying any scientific or practical obstacles to reducing suffering and how these might be...
Article
Full-text available
The RSPCA/UFAW Rodent Welfare Group holds a one-day meeting every autumn so that its members can discuss current welfare research, exchange views on rodent welfare issues and share experiences of the implementation of the 3Rs of replacement, reduction and refinement with respect to rodent use. A key aim of the Group is to encourage people to think...
Article
This report is based on discussions and submissions from an expert working group consisting of veterinarians, animal care staff and scientists with expert knowledge relevant to the field. It aims to facilitate the implementation of the Three Rs (replacement, reduction and refinement) in the use of animal models or procedures involving experimental...
Article
Article is available (behind a paywall) via: http://caod.oriprobe.com/articles/31826013/Refining_scientific_procedures_involving_animals_t.htm
Article
Full-text available
The severity classification of procedures using animals is an important tool to help focus the implementation of refinement and to assist in reporting the application of the 3Rs (replacement, reduction and refinement). The recently revised Directive that regulates animal research and testing within the European Union requires Member States to ensur...
Article
Full-text available
The workshop on Three Rs Approaches in the Production and Quality Control of Fish Vaccines aimed a) to identify animal tests currently stipulated for the production and quality control of fish vaccines and to highlight animal welfare concerns associated with these tests; b) to identify viable options to replace, reduce, and refine animal use for fi...
Article
Full-text available
The refinement of husbandry and procedures to reduce animal suffering and improve welfare is an essential component of humane science. Successful refinement depends upon the ability to assess animal welfare effectively, and detect any signs of pain or distress as rapidly as possible, so that any suffering can be alleviated. This document provides p...
Chapter
Most captive birds spend their entire lives confined in accommodation that has been designed by humans. While this is obvious, it is important to recognise that the requirements of birds and humans are fundamentally different and so there will inevitably be conflicts of interest with respect to housing and care. In some situations, human interests...
Article
Full-text available
Researchers who measure animal behaviour have already contributed to the ability to assess animal welfare and recognise indicators of pain, suffering and distress. There are a number of areas where more research is needed to enable further progress to be made. A "wish list" of behavioural research topics can be drawn up on the basis of working grou...
Book
Full-text available
This document is intended to help interpret the requirements for UK local Ethical Review Processes (ERPs) and, by sharing good practices, to develop more efficient and effective processes. It has been produced in response to comments that there is “scope for improvement in this area” made by the Home Office, the Animal Procedures Committee (APC) an...
Article
Full-text available
The RSPCA/UFAW Rodent Welfare Group holds a one day meeting every autumn so that its members can discuss current welfare research, exchange views on rodent welfare issues and share experiences of the implementation of the 3Rs of replacement, reduction and refinement with respect to rodent use. A key aim of the Group is to encourage people to think...
Article
Full-text available
Preface Whenever animals are used in research, minimizing pain and distress and promoting good welfare should be as important an objective as achieving the experimental results. This is important for humanitarian reasons, for good science, for economic reasons and in order to satisfy the broad legal principles in international legislation. It is po...
Article
Despite considerable research, effective and safe treatments for human pain disorders remain elusive. Understanding the biology of different human pain conditions and researching effective treatments continue to be dominated by animal models, some of which are of limited value. British and European legislation demands that non-animal approaches sho...
Article
Full-text available
The RSPCA/UFAW Rodent Welfare Group holds a one-day meeting every autumn to discuss current welfare research and to exchange views on rodent welfare issues. A key aim of the group is to encourage people to think about the lifetime experience of laboratory rodents, ensuring that every potential influence on their well-being has been reviewed and ref...
Book
Full-text available
This resource was produced by members of the UFAW/RSPCA Rabbit Behaviour and Welfare Group. It is intended for use by animal technicians, facility managers, veterinarians and scientists and provides guidelines to help meet the needs of the laboratory rabbit and improve upon the husbandry standards set out by national guidelines or legislation. The...
Article
Full-text available
Lab Animal is a peer-reviewed journal offering information, ideas, methods, and materials for the animal research professional
Article
Full-text available
The RSPCA/UFAW Rodent Welfare Group holds a one-day meeting every autumn for its members to discuss current welfare research and exchange views on rodent welfare issues. A key aim of the group is to encourage people to think about the whole lifetime experience of laboratory rodents, ensuring that every potential impact on their well-being has been...