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There are many reasons to make behavior and performance of retaining walls during earthquakes difficult to evaluate, for example complex response of soil under dynamic loads, insufficiency of pseudo-static analyses, and the necessity for dynamic analyses. In recent years, progressive attention to the concept of performance-based design alleviated t...
In this paper, permanent displacements of gravity retaining walls with back and front fill under seismic excitation due to sliding is investigated. In this regard, by using the upper bound theorem of limit analysis, an expression is presented for obtaining the yield acceleration coefficient and also, critical angles of failure wedges are calculated...
Propose charts which link permanent gravity retaining walls displacements, seismic coefficients and pseudostatic safety factors. This will enable the designers to predict gravity retaining walls displacements based on selected seismic coefficients and safety factor.