Peer van der Helm

Peer van der Helm
University of Applied Sciences Leiden | UAS · Youth Expert Centre

phD

About

92
Publications
34,794
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
1,230
Citations

Publications

Publications (92)
Article
Full-text available
Background A need-supportive group climate is a prerequisite for successful treatment in secure residential youth care. For girls, positive relationships with peers are an essential part of the group climate. Relational aggression threatens the residential group climate. Objectives This study explored whether a group counseling program can activel...
Article
This cross-sectional study examines the psychometric properties of the Albanian version of the Basic Empathy Scale in Kosovo in a sample of 476 students (61.6% female; 38.4% male) aged 18 to 25 years (M = 20.25; SD = 1.61). A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted on the 20 items in R with Lavaan. The best-fitting two-factor model for the data...
Article
Full-text available
This study examines the extent to which secure residential youth care in the Netherlands complies with children’s rights as laid down in the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child ( uncrc ) and the Dutch Youth Act. Residential group climate was measured with the Prison Group Climate Instrument ( pgci ), which assesses quality of group...
Article
There is ample evidence to demonstrate that a positive group climate in juvenile justice centers contributes to improvements in motivation for positive behavior and reducing incidents and even recidivism. Being provided opportunities for growth and development and being actively supported by well-trained staff creates a positive atmosphere and mini...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the present study was to examine construct validity and reliability of the German reactive proactive aggression questionnaire (RPQ) in a sample of delinquent boys ( N = 156). A confirmatory factor analysis with a two-factor model of reactive and proactive aggression showed a good fit to the data. The factor structure of the original RPQ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) are an overlooked risk factor for behavioural, mental and physical health disparities in children with intellectual disabilities (ID) and borderline intellectual functioning (BIF). Aims To gain insight into the presence of the 10 original Wave II ACEs and family context risk variables in a convenienc...
Article
Full-text available
Background This study focused on the cultural and gender differences in the perception of living group climate quality between native Dutch youth and Dutch youth with a Turkish and Moroccan cultural background placed in Dutch residential youth care.Method Living group climate was examined by means of a self-report measure in a sample of 437 youth o...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the present study was to examine differences in perceived living group climate between boys and girls in a sample of 344 youth (68.6% male, M age = 16, SD = 1.58) receiving residential youth care in the Netherlands. Participants filled out self-report measures on living group climate. Results of multilevel regression models indicated tha...
Article
Interactions among peers in residential youth care are an important dynamic factor affecting behavioral adjustment and treatment success. Assessment and monitoring of the quality of peer interactions are potentially important for promoting a positive peer culture at the living group, contributing to a positive social climate. However, currently, th...
Article
There is increasing evidence for the importance of a positive living group climate in residential youth care with regard to treatment and recovery. However, cultural differences in perceived group climate and in particular the experiences of the group climate among youth with Turkish/Moroccan background have not been investigated yet. The main obje...
Article
Most youth in residential youth care institutions have a long history of adverse childhood experiences, and show (severe) emotional, behavioral, and academic problems. The present study used adolescent self-report questionnaires to examine associations between living group climate, classroom climate, identification with school, general self-worth a...
Article
Full-text available
Repression in residential youth care institutions threatens youth’s positive development. When youth experience arbitrary use of power, structure, or coercion, this may cause demotivation, reactance or aggression, and diminished chances of rehabilitation in youth. Because institutional repression may be hard to recognize, a valid and reliable measu...
Article
Full-text available
This study provides an illustration of a research design complementary to randomized controlled trial to evaluate program effects, namely, participatory peer research (PPR). The PPR described in current study was carried out in a small sample (N = 10) of young adults with mild intellectual disabilities (MID) and severe behavioral problems. During t...
Article
Hoe komt het toch dat er vaak zoveel fout gaat in de jeugdzorg? Welk type fouten is hardnekkig? Veelvoorkomende fouten zijn een gevolg van het vasthouden aan een verkeerde diagnose of van het nalaten van handelen. Factoren die dat bepalen zijn deels gelegen in de persoon van de professional, zoals angst voor controleverlies, en deels in groepsproce...
Article
The present study examines the relation between classroom climate in schools for secondary special education and students' perceived social exclusion. A total of 401 Dutch adolescents (70.3% males) with conduct problems, attending schools for special education, filled out questionnaires on classroom climate, problems in social information processin...
Article
Full-text available
It is widely recognized that young children in group care can benefit from a positive group climate. This is usually monitored from the caregiver’s perspective. This study describes the development and validation of the Group Climate Instrument for Children aged 4 to 8 years (GCIC 4–8), which aims to measure the quality of group climate, based on t...
Article
In order to work on qualitatively good residential care it is important to monitor group climate and to act on clients’ feedback. The present study describes how two youth care organizations in the Netherlands implemented group climate monitoring instruments for children (GCIC 4–8 and 8–15) as part of the broader ‘You Matter!’ project (in which N =...
Article
Despite the assumed importance of the residential environment for treatment outcomes, there is a gap in research examining the relation between therapeutic alliance and group climate. Therefore, this prospective study examined the association between positive and negative group climate and child–mentor therapeutic alliance in residential youth care...
Article
Full-text available
Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) are negative childhood events occurring in a child’s family or social environment, that may cause harm or distress. Children with intellectual disabilities (ID) and their families are underrepresented in international ACEs research, while current insights can also contribute to the improvement of their health an...
Article
Full-text available
For advanced cancer patients deliberating early clinical trial participation, adequate information about expected effect on quality of life (HRQoL) and hope, may support decision making. The aim was to assess the potential relation of HRQoL to eligibility for phase‐I trial participation, and to observe the variations in patient‐reported outcomes. P...
Article
Full-text available
The psychometric properties and associations between the Essen Climate Evaluation Schema (EssenCES) and the Group Climate Instrument-revised (GCI-r) were examined. These self-report questionnaires assessing ward climate were filled out by 123 male patients, residing in 3 high-secure forensic psychiatric facilities. Good internal consistency was fou...
Article
Treatment motivation in secure residential youth care is assumed to be a necessary condition for effective treatment, and is therefore a key element in the reduction of problem behavior and criminal recidivism. According to Self-Determination Theory (SDT) three basic psychological needs (autonomy, competence and relatedness) are essential for treat...
Article
Sinds 2015 zijn gemeenten verantwoordelijk voor de zorg voor kinderen tot 18 jaar. De stelselwijziging is er onder andere op gericht dat kinderen (en hun ouders) sneller geholpen worden bij zorg- en ondersteuningsvragen, de zorg en ondersteuning zo veel mogelijk in de eigen leefomgeving van kinderen wordt geboden en zo veel mogelijk aansluit op de...
Article
In residential youth care, a positive living group climate is one of the main pillars for having a child grow up and develop optimally. Despite its importance, the development of a positive living group climate seems to be “under pressure,” due to recent evolutions in residential youth care all over the world. This article describes what could be l...
Article
Full-text available
Background Aggression in residential youth care institutions is a frequent problem. Objective The present short-term longitudinal study examined individual and institutional predictors of aggression in a group of 198 adolescents placed in open, semi-secure and secure residential institutions from the perspective of the importation and deprivation m...
Article
De documentaire Alicia heeft heel wat losgemaakt. De transitie heeft blijkbaar een aantal ouderroutes in de jeugdzorg nog niet verbeterd. Peer van de Helm, lector aan de Hogeschool Leiden, vat zijn lectorale rede van november 2017 samen in dit artikel. Hij noemt daarin drie weeffouten in het jeugdstelsel: 1. het gemis aan focus op intergenerationel...
Article
Full-text available
It is assumed that group climate can have an effect on aggressive behavior in adolescents living in residential facilities, but it is largely unknown whether there are climate differences between the various types of residential institutions, and whether group climate differently affects aggression incidents among adolescents placed in institutions...
Article
The cover image, by Diane A. van der Biessen et al., is based on the Paper Understanding how Coping Strategies and Quality of Life maintain Hope in Patients deliberating Phase-I Trial Participation, DOI 10.1002/pon.4487.
Article
Full-text available
Repression in residential youth institutions can manifest itself openly in coercive measures or may be concealed in staff behavior that is endemic to residential youth care, such as soft power and strict behavioral control (i.e., structure), which threatens rehabilitative goals and might even violate children’s rights. To increase awareness of part...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: This study aimed to understand how hope and motivation of patients considering phase-I trial participation are affected by psychological factors such as coping strategies and locus of control (LoC), and general well-being as measured by the quality of life (QoL). Methods: An exploratory cross-sectional study was performed in patients...
Article
In the current study, the associations between inpatient aggression and the living group climate as perceived by the adolescents admitted to a forensic psychiatric treatment unit, are investigated based on carefully registered longitudinal data. Multilevel regression analyses revealed a significant inverse relation between the number and severity o...
Article
This study examined the internal structure, convergent validity, and reliability of the student self-report Special Education Classroom Climate Inventory (SECCI) in a sample of 325 students attending special education classes in six (semi) secure residential settings and in two youth prisons in the Netherlands. Both exploratory factor analysis (EFA...
Article
In een gezinshuis in Amsterdam-Zuidoost vangen Roeland en Xiomara Henrique Antilliaanse tienermoeders op. De meisjes leren er onder meer hoe ze op een meer respectvolle manier met anderen kunnen omgaan. ‘Veel jonge moeders hebben geen idee hoe ze contact kunnen maken met hun kind.’
Article
Treatment motivation is one of the basic requirements for successful treatment and rehabilitation in youth detention. Treatment motivation is often presumed, but rarely assessed, because there is a lack of reliable and valid measurement instruments to investigate treatment motivation in detained youth, especially in Germany. The Adolescent Treatmen...
Presentation
Full-text available
This presentation reviews current research over what works in prison.
Article
Lack of empathy is related to aggression, delinquency, and criminal offense recidivism. The present study examined construct validity and reliability of the German version of the Basic Empathy Scale (BES) in a sample of 94 detained German male juvenile offenders (aged 14–26). A confirmatory factor analysis with a two-factor model of affective and c...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the longitudinal relation between therapeutic alliance and treatment motivation in a sample of 174 adolescents receiving residential treatment in the Netherlands. Structural equation modeling with a cross-lagged panel design was used to examine the relation between therapeutic alliance and treatment motivation up to 9 months...
Article
Full-text available
Residential youth care settings should provide youth with safe environments where they are supported and treated. However, there are aspects of residential youth care that threaten its effectiveness, and which may also violate children’s rights. Staff members exercise power over the youth, which can be abused to coerce, punish, or limit the autonom...
Article
Full-text available
The present study is a replication in Germany of a study originally performed in the Netherlands regarding the association between a positive living group climate and self-reported empathy in incarcerated adolescent male offenders (n = 49). A structural equation model was fitted to the data and showed a relation between a positive living group clim...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A questionnaire for measuring the quality of peer interactions in residential Youth care was constructed. The questionnaire was validated among a sample of 345 adolescents (male and female) in several Dutch institutions for residential care. Peers not only negatively influence each others’ behavior, but also in positive ways. Peer influence process...
Article
Die Forschung zum Thema Gruppenklima im Wohngruppenvollzug in Jugendstrafvollzugsanstalten bekommt in den Niederlanden und Deutschland, aber auch zum Beispiel in England, Belgien und Estland eine immer grosere Bedeutung. In der aktuellen Forschung zeigen sich Unterschiede zwischen den in den Niederlanden erhobenen Daten und den deutschen Ergebnisse...
Article
Zusammenfassung Die Forschung zum Thema Gruppenklima im Wohngruppenvollzug in Jugendstrafvollzugsanstalten bekommt in den Niederlanden und Deutschland, aber auch zum Beispiel in England, Belgien und Estland eine immer größere Bedeutung. In der aktuellen Forschung zeigen sich Unterschiede zwischen den in den Niederlanden erhobenen Daten und den deut...
Article
Aggression and callous-unemotional (CU) traits are common problems in incarcerated delinquent youth. The present study was conducted to examine whether living group climate was associated with aggression and CU traits in late adolescent male offenders (N = 156) in a German youth prison. A structural equation model was fitted to the data and showed...
Article
There is growing evidence for living group climate research in the Netherlands and Germany but also for instance in England, Belgium and Estonia. Actual research results report differences between the data collected in the Netherlands and in Germany (example NRW). To improve living group climate and treatment in juvenile justice institutions it is...
Article
The present study examined the relation between juvenile delinquents’ responses to social problem situations and empathy in secure juvenile institutions. The sample consisted of 79 delinquent boys (62%) and 49 delinquent girls (38%), aged 12 to 19 years. Results showed problems with accepting authority to be negatively related to both affective and...
Article
Objective The outcome of institutional youth care for children is heavily debated. This multilevel meta-analysis aims to address the outcome of institutional youth care compared to non-institutional youth care for children of primary school age and early adolescence in economically developed countries. A gain of knowledge in this area may help the...
Article
The present study examined the association between living group climate and aversive reactions to social problem situations (e.g., getting angry, bullying or not cooperating with staff) in adolescents in secure residential facilities. The sample consisted of 128 adolescent boys and girls. Results showed an open living group climate—designated as a...
Article
Purpose – Violence is a common problem in secure residential units for young people. Group workers often think that young people have to learn to behave by means of punishment. The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether this approach is effective in these settings, and, if so, under what circumstances. Furthermore, it aims to provide alter...
Article
Purpose Violence is a common problem in secure residential units for young people. Group workers often think that young people have to learn to behave by means of punishment. The purpose of the present review is to investigate whether this approach is effective in these settings, and if so, under what circumstances. Furthermore, it aims to provide...
Article
Full-text available
Recently, Heynen, Van der Helm, Stams & Korebrits (2014a) developed and validated the German Living Group Climate Instrument (PGCI) to investigate living group climate in residential and forensic youth care. First results of German research are positive. In the Netherlands the PGCI is already implemented in residential, forensic and psychiatric you...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
20% of Dutch youth suffer from psychiatric disorders that hamper their daily functioning and their personal development. Clients tend to drop out of school and have problems in their social environment. These clients often suffer from low social competencies and low empathic behavior, resulting in low treatment compliance. The study targets treatme...
Article
Purpose This study examined the construct validity and reliability of a therapeutic alliance measure (Children’s Alliance Questionnaire [CAQ]) for children with psychosocial and/or behavioral problems, receiving therapeutic residential care or day care in the Netherlands. Methods Confirmatory factor analysis of a one-factor model “therapeutic alli...
Article
Purpose This study describes the development and validation of the Group Climate Instrument for Children aged 8 to 15 years (GCIC 8-15), which purports to measure the quality of group climate in residential care. Methods A confirmatory factor analysis was performed on data of 117 children in Dutch residential youth care. Reliability analysis was p...
Article
Recently, Heynen, van der Helm, Stams & Korebrits (2014) developed and validated a German translation of the Prison Group Climate Instrument (PGCI) to investigate living group climate quality in forensic psychiatric institutions and secure residential treatment for delinquent youth. The German version contains 36 items and four scales, measuring pe...
Article
Recently, Heynen, van der Helm, Stams & Korebrits (2014) developed and validated a German translation of the Prison Group Climate Instrument (PGCI) to investigate living group climate quality in forensic psychiatric institutions and secure residential treatment for delinquent youth. The German version contains 36 items and four scales, measuring pe...
Article
This study examined the relationship between detention length, living group climate, coping, and treatment motivation among 59 juvenile delinquents in a Dutch youth correctional facility. Longer detention was associated with the perception of a more open living group climate, but proved to be unrelated to coping and treatment motivation. A repressi...
Article
Full-text available
In secure residential youth care, a negative coercive cycle of aggression and punishment is often detrimental for the children but also for staff as living group climate deteriorates. In this review of the available literature we explore staff perceptions on punishment and conclude punishment can only work when punishment is consistent, clear, does...
Poster
Full-text available
In Dutch secure (forensic and non-forensic) settings, adults and adolescents (hereafter referred to as ‘clients’) with severe psychiatric problems and personality disorders are treated with the aim of rehabilitation and a return to society. Rehabilitation is the most important aim of a (involuntary) stay in a (forensic) psychiatric (youth) hospital...
Article
Full-text available
Hoe kunnen teams in de residentiële jeugdzorg een pedagogisch klimaat realiseren én behouden waarin kinderen zich positief kunnen ontwikkelen? Vijftien teams van jeugdzorgorganisaties Juzt en Maashorst onderzochten in de praktijk wat werkt.
Article
The Prison Group Climate Instrument (PGCI) was developed to investigate group climate quality in forensic psychiatric institutions and secure residential treatment facilities for delinquent juveniles. The present study examined construct validity, convergent validity, and reliability of the German version of the PGCI. A confirmatory factor analysis...
Article
Full-text available
A debate about the effectiveness of secure residential youth care is currently going on. While some continue to support secure residential youth care, others conclude that ‘nothing works’ in secure residential youth care, and argue that non-residential treatment is superior to secure residential treatment. This article reviews recent research on th...
Article
The number of aggressive incidents committed by patients in (secure) mental health care is high. The present study examined the relation between institutional climate (support, growth, atmosphere, and repression) and aggressive incidents using data of 72 patients in a secure (forensic) mental health clinic and a clinic for prolonged intensive care....
Article
Full-text available
The present study examined the construct, concurrent and divergent validity, and reliability of the "Taxonomy of Problematic Social Situations-Adolescent self-report version" (TOPS-A) in a sample of 128 adolescents placed in Dutch secure juvenile facilities. The instrument measures inappropriate responses of adolescents to problematic social situat...
Article
In the Netherlands, a debate about effectiveness of secure residential youth care is currently being con-ducted. Some researchers conclude that 'nothing can work' in secure residential youth care, and argue that non-residential forms of treatment are superior to secure residential treatment. This article reviews recent research on this topic, and c...
Article
A meta-analysis of 27 controlled studies, including 17,038 youth, was conducted to examine the effectiveness of institutional youth care over the past three decades. We compared institutional evidence-based treatment (EBT) with non-institutional EBT, institutional care as usual (CAU) with non-institutional CAU, institutional CAU with non-institutio...
Article
The present study examined the validity and reliability of the Adolescent Treatment Motivation Questionnaire (ATMQ) in a sample of 264 adolescents in Dutch secure juvenile facilities. Confirmatory factor analysis of a single-factor model of "treatment motivation" showed a close fit to the data, indicating construct validity of the ATMQ. Concurrent...