Pedro Souto

Pedro Souto
STEA - Sociedade Torrejana de Espeleologia e Arqueologia · Espeleologia/Arqueologia

Espeleólogo - T. Arqueologia

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23
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Publications (23)
Article
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The European climate during the Holocene period is characterised by frequent changes of temperature and precipitation. The North Atlantic plays a major role as a driver for European climate and is a dominant precipitation source, particularly for the western European and north African realm. Atmospheric pressure gradients over the Atlantic (North A...
Chapter
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We present the results of the first year of the field work carried out at Lapa da Bugalheira (Almonda, Torres Novas) by the ARQEVO research project. We have identified an Early Neolithic occupation featuring a characteristic artefact assemblage with impressed wares (both cardial and “boquique”), geometric microliths and ornaments. The age of the as...
Article
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The site of Gruta da Aroeira (Torres Novas, Portugal), with evidence of human occupancy dating to ca. 400 ka (Marine Isotope Stage 11), is one of the very few Middle Pleistocene localities to have provided a fossil hominin cranium associated with Acheulean bifaces in a cave context. The multianalytic study reported here of the by-products of burnin...
Article
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L Algar da Pena Traseira (Planalto di Santo Antonio) is developed in the Bathonian solid limestones (Dogger). It begins with a -130 pit witch is the main shaft of Portugal (the second one is the Algar do Treiso, -104 m). The total depth is -156 m the second one in the country, after Moinhos Velhos (-180 m). In the lower part of the cave, there are...
Article
Marine food–reliant subsistence systems such as those in the African Middle Stone Age (MSA) were not thought to exist in Europe until the much later Mesolithic. Whether this apparent lag reflects taphonomic biases or behavioral distinctions between archaic and modern humans remains much debated. Figueira Brava cave, in the Arrábida range (Portugal)...
Chapter
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Dated to ca. 400 ka (Marine Isotope Stage 11), the site of Gruta da Aroeira (Torres Novas, Portugal) is one of the very few Middle Pleistocene localities that have yielded a fossil hominin cranium associated with Acheulean bifaces, in a cave context. Our multi-analytical approach to the site’s archaeological record focused on different aspects: the...
Article
Bifaces dominate the Acheulean stone tools recovered during the archaeological excavation of layer X of Gruta da Aroeira, dated to 389–436 ka. Faunal remains and a human cranium were found in association with this lithic assemblage. The raw materials used are mostly quartz and quartzite cobbles available in the vicinity of the site. Technological a...
Article
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The discovery of a Bell Beaker hypogeum in 2012 during archaeological surveying of restauration works at the Convento do Carmo (Torres Novas) triggered systematic excavations which would take place between August 2014 and January 2015. Although severely affected by successive buildings, this hypogeum (formed by a single gallery with a central pilla...
Article
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The Middle Pleistocene is a crucial time period for studying human evolution in Europe, because it marks the appearance of both fossil hominins ancestral to the later Neandertals and the Acheulean technology. Nevertheless, European sites containing well-dated human remains associated with an Acheulean toolkit remain scarce. The earliest European ho...
Poster
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O sítio arqueológico da Portela 1 foi identificado durante o acompanhamento arqueológico da rede de saneamento da localidade da Maceira. Durante este acompanhamento foram identificados vários fragmentos de cerâmica manual concentrados numa pequena área, verificando-se no corte da vala aberta outros fragmentos em estratigrafia. De forma a contextual...
Chapter
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The Gruta da Oliveira is a Middle Paleolithic site discovered in 1989 in the framework of the speleo- -archeological exploration of the karstic system associated with the spring of the Almonda River. Removal of the thick brecciated rubble that sealed its collapsed entrance allowed excavation, between 1992 and 2012, of the underlying, ~9 m -thick ar...
Article
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Hoping to contribute to a better definition of «Cave Megalithism» in the area of Portuguese Estremadura, this paper analyzes two engraved schist plaques collected in the cave of Buraca da Moura da Rexaldia, whose morpho-typological features fall into the funerary practices the ancient peasant communities of the Late Neolithic/Early Chalcolithic in...
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Article
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The discovery of an early Upper Paleolithic human burial at the Abrigo do Lagar Velho, Portugal, has provided evidence of early modern humans from southern Iberia. The remains, the largely complete skeleton of a approximately 4-year-old child buried with pierced shell and red ochre, is dated to ca. 24,500 years B.P. The cranium, mandible, dentition...
Article
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A Gruta do Almonda é uma estação arqueológica conhecida desde há cerca de 50 anos, data em que foi posta a descoberto a entrada pela qual se faz o acesso ao seu interior. Trata-se de uma surgência fóssil do Rio Almonda (embora em Invernos excepcionalmente pluviosos tenha já funcionado igualmente como saída de águas), cuja nascente actual se encontr...

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Projects (2)
Project
Porto Torrão is a prehistoric ditched enclosures in the SW Iberia (Alentejo lowlands). The site is known since the early 1980's for its impressive dimensions and important archaeological occupation, from Late Neolithic to the Bell Beaker period. In 2008, archaeological work at the site was extendend due the implementation of an irrigation system, in connection with and paid by the management of the Alqueva reservoir.
Project
From the late 1990’s onwards, studies on the Late Prehistory of present-day Portugal went through a “true empirical revolution” (Valera, 2008: 112), which concerns ditched enclosures as well. Furthermore, an archaeological discovery boom, along with the issues raised by such sites, turned the whole subject of ditched enclosures into a specific study unit, dated from between the late fourth and the third millennium BC. “Which reasons took societies from late fourth millennium BC to build ditched enclosures in Southwest Iberia?” was the starting question of this project. Building up a coherent answer to that question involved a previous enquiry and the analysis of empirical data gathered at Ponte da Azambuja 2 (Portel, Évora) archaeological site. After a review of the literature, the research focused on that particular archaeological site, including: 1. characterization of settlement location features; 2. description of archaeological works and interpretive reading of stratigraphy and identified structures; 3. material culture analysis, from a perspective that encompasses both the typological scope of artefacts and their manufacture technology; 4. discussion of site formation processes and of social inferences resulting thereof; 5. paleoenvironmental reconstruction and assessment of subsistence strategies, to outline the social groups’ background. A comparison with ten other coeval enclosures resulted in the conclusion that the emergence of this new paradigm of appropriation of space might be related to issues of social aggregation, spurred by a demographic growth (deduced from funerary megalithism), which necessarily requires more efficient and effective production methods. Paleoclimatic conditions associated to population movements that were taking place since previous periods originated a new model of territorial organization, regulating a society that was more complex than is commonly assumed.