Pedro Pinho

Pedro Pinho
University of Lisbon | UL · Faculty of Science

Ph.D in Biology - Ecology

About

105
Publications
39,151
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Introduction
I currently work on the use of vegetation functional groups and spatial patterns to assess the effect of environmental changes, with both natural and human origin: desertification and land degradation, climate alterations, eutrophication and land-use/cover. I also work on lichen biodiversity and ecology. In general I’m interested in considering the spatial characteristics of ecological data to study the relation of biological and environmental variables.

Publications

Publications (105)
Article
Full-text available
Urbanization poses threats and opportunities for the biodiversity of wild bees. At the same time, cities can harbour diverse wild bee assemblages, partily due to the unique plant assemblages providing resources. While bee dietary preferences have been investigated in different studies, bee dietary studies have been done mostly in non urban ecosyste...
Article
Urbanization transforms environments in ways that alter biological evolution. We examined whether urban environmental change drives parallel evolution by sampling 110,019 white clover plants from 6169 populations in 160 cities globally. Plants were assayed for a Mendelian antiherbivore defense that also affects tolerance to abiotic stressors. Urban...
Article
Full-text available
Forests contribute directly to ecosystem structure and functioning, maintaining biodiversity, acting as a climate regulator and reducing desertification. To better manage forests, it is essential to have high-resolution forest models and appropriate spatial-explicit variables able to explain tree cover at different scales, including the management...
Article
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Urban ecosystems can sustain populations of wild bees, partly because of their rich native and exotic floral resources. A better understanding of the urban bee diet, particularly at the larval stage, is necessary to understand biotic interactions and feeding behaviour in urban ecosystems, and to promote bees by improving the management of urban flo...
Article
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Water in the city is typically exploited in a linear process, in which most of it is polluted, treated, and discharged; during this process, valuable nutrients are lost in the treatment process instead of being cycled back and used in urban agriculture or green space. The purpose of this paper is to advance a new paradigm to close water cycles in c...
Article
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This article summarizes the data of a survey of flowering plants in 80 sites in five European cities and urban agglomerations (Antwerp, Belgium; greater Paris, France; Poznan, Poland; Tartu, Estonia; and Zurich, Switzerland). Sampling sites were selected based on a double orthogonal gradient of size and connectivity and were urban green areas (e.g....
Article
Adaptation Pathways is a decision support tool designed to create adaptation policies under different climate change scenarios. This tool has been used successfully in several sectors and contexts such as coastal and river adaptation, urban heat waves, floods and rural livelihoods but its use in natural resource management, has faced several challe...
Article
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Community ecology has experienced a major transition, from a focus on patterns in taxonomic composition, to revealing the processes underlying community assembly through the analysis of species functional traits. The power of the functional trait approach is its generality, predictive capacity such as with respect to environmental change, and, thro...
Article
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Cities are challenging environments for human life, because of multiple environmental issues driven by urbanization. These can sometimes be mitigated through ecosystem services provided by different functions supported by biodiversity. However, biodiversity in cities is affected by numerous factors, namely habitat loss, degradation, and fragmentati...
Article
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Animal biodiversity in cities is generally expected to be uniformly reduced, but recent studies show that this is modulated by the composition and configuration of Urban Green Areas (UGAs). UGAs represent a heterogeneous network of vegetated spaces in urban settings that have repeatedly shown to support a significant part of native diurnal animal b...
Article
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Green roofs can be an innovative and effective way of mitigating the environmental impact of urbanization by providing several important ecosystem services. However, it is known that the performance of green roofs varies depending on the type of vegetation and, in drier climates, without resorting to irrigation, these are limited to xerophytic plan...
Article
Aridity is a critical driver of the diversity and composition of plant communities. However, how aridity influences the phylogenetic structure of functional groups (i.e. annual and perennial species) is far less understood than its effects on species richness. As perennials have to endure stressful conditions during the summer drought, as opposed t...
Article
Tsunamis and storms cause considerable coastal flooding, numerous fatalities, destruction of structures, and erosion. The characterization of energy and frequency associated with each wave contribute to the risk assessment in coastal regions. Coastal boulder deposits represent a physical proof of extreme inundation and allow us to study the effects...
Article
The urban heat island effect creates warmer and drier conditions in urban areas than in their surrounding rural areas. This effect is predicted to be exacerbated in the future, under a climate change scenario. One way to mitigate this effect is to use the urban green infrastructure as a way to promote the cooling island effect. In this study we aim...
Article
Species abundance data is essential to understand ecosystems structure and functioning and to support species and habitat conservation. However, most regional to global databases provide only presence or presence/ab-sence data. The main aim of this paper is to develop a methodology to estimate plant species abundances from a presence/absence databa...
Article
Air quality affects both ecosystems and human health. To assess the effects of air pollution, spatially explicit information of pollutants is needed. Atmospheric chemistry transport models are the best option to estimate concentrations and deposition of pollutants, from local to regional scales. However, concentration and deposition maps derived fr...
Article
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The objective of this review paper is to survey the state-of-the-art on nature-based solutions (NBS) in the built environment, which can contribute to a circular economy (CE) and counter the negative impacts of urbanization through the provision of ecosystem services. NBS are discussed here at three different levels: (i) green building materials, i...
Chapter
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Land restoration and rehabilitation in the urban context can help countries attain SDG 11 targets by restoring important ecosystem services in the urban, as well as peri-urban, and rural areas that support urban areas with food, water, energy and raw materials for dwellings and infrastructure. These ecosystem services support a more resilient urban...
Technical Report
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An IRP think piece is a technical or policy paper based on IRP scientific studies and assessments and other relevant literature. It is not a full study and assessment but a collection of science-based reflections, which may catalyze the generation of new scientific knowledge and highlight critical topics to be considered in policy discourse
Article
Human populations living in volcanically active areas are chronically exposed to volcanogenic air pollution, potentially contributing to long-term adverse health effects. However, mapping chronic exposure is difficult due to low spatial resolution of monitoring data on air pollutants and the need for time integration. To overcome these problems, li...
Chapter
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Understanding and predicting the impact of global change drivers on biodiversity, the basis of the delivery of goods and services to humans, is a critical task in the Anthropocene Era. This has led to the development of international monitoring networks and frameworks to evaluate changes in biodiversity, the Essential Biodiversity Variables, though...
Article
Urban environments are densely populated areas buzzing with a wide range of anthropic activities that cause disturbances like air pollution or the heat island effect, threatening both human and environmental health. Mitigating its impacts implies understanding the integrated effects that those disturbances exert on urban environments. Lichen biodiv...
Article
In an increasingly urbanized world, urban green spaces (UGS) are critical for ensuring residents’ health and well-being, due to the ecosystem services provided. Urban planning is being instigated to maximize the potential of UGS to increase responsiveness to major societal and environmental challenges and emerging policy demands. While city-wide pe...
Article
Full-text available
The impact of allergens emitted by urban green spaces on health is one of the main disservices of ecosystems. The objective of this work is to establish the potential allergenic value of some tree species in urban environments, so that the allergenicity of green spaces can be estimated through application of the Index of Urban Green Zones Allergeni...
Poster
Full-text available
N2O emission from agriculture and livestock production in Portugal, estimated for 2016 at Nuts II level (last year of statistical data available) and spatially disaggregated (1x1 grid) for the municipality level. Identification of emission hotspots where mitigation polity measures should be priority.
Article
The UN Sustainable Development Goals states that urban air pollution must be tackled to create more inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable cities. Urban green infrastructures can mitigate air pollution, but a crucial step to use this knowledge into urban management is to quantify how much air-quality regulation can green spaces provide and to u...
Article
Full-text available
As a Nature-Based Solution, urban forests deliver a number of environmental ecosystem services (EESs). To quantify these EESs, well-defined, reliable, quantifiable and stable indicators are needed. Based on literature analysis and expert knowledge gathered within COST Action FP1204 GreenInUrbs, we propose a classification of urban forest EESs into...
Article
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Shrub encroachment influences several ecosystem services in drylands worldwide. Yet, commonly used strategies to reduce encroachment show a low medium-term success, calling for a better understanding of its causes. Previous works identified multiple drivers responsible for this phenomenon, including anthropogenic and environmental causes. However,...
Article
Air pollution and the urban heat island effect are known to directly affect ecosystems in urban areas. Lichens, which are widely known as good ecological indicators of air quality and of climatic conditions, can be a valuable tool to monitor environmental changes in urban environments. The objective of this work was to select lichen functional trai...
Article
Full-text available
Drylands are very susceptible to the effects of climate change due to water stress. One possible climate change adaptation measure is the construction of lakes to increase water availability for drinking and irrigation (food production) and decrease fire risk. These lakes can also increase local biodiversity and human well-being. However, other non...
Article
To protect human health and the environment (namely ecosystems), international air quality protocols and guidelines, like the Gothenburg protocol (1999) and the 2001 EU Air Quality Directive (NECD), conveyed national emission ceilings for atmospheric pollutants (Directive 2001/81/EC), including the reduction of sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) emissions...
Article
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In this paper, we assess and map the risk that atmospheric nitrogen (atN) pollution poses to biodiversity in Natura 2000 sites in mainland Portugal. We first review the ecological impacts of atN pollution on terrestrial ecosystems, focusing on the biodiversity of Natura 2000 sites. These nature protection sites, especially those located within the...
Data
Final map as kml (google earth). Map showing all Natura 2000 sites in mainland Portugal classified according to the relative risk from nitrogen pollution. Blue represent the lowest potential risk, red represents the highest risk. (7Z)
Conference Paper
Nitrogen (N) pollution resulting from intensive anthropogenic activities has been recognized as an important driver that threatens the functioning of ecosystems and their floristic diversity at a global scale. Bryophytes are among the most sensitive components of the vegetation with respect to N pollution, as they obtain most nutrients directly fro...
Article
In High Nature Value Farmland areas such as the woodlands locally known as 'montado', increasing tree cover is a nature-based solution to mitigate land degradation which leads to loss of productivity and increase susceptibility to climate change. In the Mediterranean dryland areas, native tree species such as Holm-oak provide important ecosystem se...
Article
Full-text available
São João da Caparica (Portugal) slow-growing dune system was investigated using field-based GPS and UAV surveying methods. Here, vegetation may preclude straightforward extraction of ground surface data from DSM and low sedimentation rates demand high accuracy. The approach used comprised acquisition of UAV-derived DSM and RGB orthomosaics at fligh...
Article
The growing human population concentrated in urban areas lead to the increase of road traffic and artificial areas, consequently enhancing air pollution and urban heat island effects, among others. These environmental changes affect citizen's health, causing a high number of premature deaths, with considerable social and economic costs. Nature-base...
Article
Tree bark has proven to be a reliable tool for biomonitoring deposition of metals from the atmosphere. The aim of the present study was to test if bark magnetic properties can be used as a proxy of the overall metal loads of a tree bark, meaning that this approach can be used to discriminate different effects of pollution on different types of urba...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we investigated whether growth form and substrate in lichens influence their physiological responses along an aridity gradient. Thalli of the foliose lichen Parmotrema perlatum and the fruticose lichen Ramalina canariensis were transplanted in selected rural/forested sites of Southern Portugal characterized by a different aridity ind...
Article
Reactive nitrogen (Nr) is an important driver of global change, causing alterations in ecosystem biodiversity and functionality. Environmental assessments require monitoring the emission and deposition of both the amount and types of Nr. This is especially important in heterogeneous landscapes, as different land-cover types emit particular forms of...
Article
Full-text available
Urban areas' population has grown during the last century and it is expected that over 60% of the world population will live in cities by 2050. Urban parks provide several ecosystem services that are valuable to the well-being of city-dwellers and they are also considered a nature-based solution to tackle multiple environmental problems in cities....
Article
• Lichens have been used to efficiently track major drivers of global change from the local to regional scale since the beginning of the industrial revolution (sulphur dioxide) to the present (nitrogen deposition and climate change). Currently, the challenge is to universalize monitoring methodologies to compare global change drivers’ simultaneous...
Article
Atmosphere is a major pathway for transport and deposition of pollutants in the environment. In industrial areas, organic compounds are released or formed as by-products, such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F’s). Inorganic chemical elements, including lead and arsenic, are also part of the pollutants mixture, and even...
Article
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In this investigation, Ag@AgCl nanoparticles were synthesized by a green and inexpensive method using Elaeagnus angustifolia leaves, as a reducing and stabilizing agent without using any toxic solvent, external halide source, harsh chemicals, or capping agents. In this protocol, the nanophotocatalyst was synthesized via immobilization of Ag@AgCl NP...
Article
Aridity acts as a strong environmental filter to plants, limiting major ecosystem processes. Climate change models predict an overall increase of aridity in drylands. This could lead to changes in plant communities, particularly in the dominance and range of plant functional traits, which largely determine ecosystem functioning. However, to study h...
Article
Full-text available
Atmospheric dust pollution, especially particulate matter below 2.5 μm, causes 3.3 million premature deaths per year worldwide. Although pollution sources are increasingly well known, the role of ecosystems in mitigating their impact is still poorly known. Our objective was to investigate the role of forests located in the surrounding of industrial...
Article
Mediterranean Basin ecosystems, their unique biodiversity, and the key services they provide are currently at risk due to air pollution and climate change, yet only a limited number of isolated and geographically-restricted studies have addressed this topic, often with contrasting results. Particularities of air pollution in this region include hig...
Article
Full-text available
Despite recent regulations, atmospheric ammonia (NH3) emissions have not changed much over the last decades and excessive nitrogen remains as one of the major drivers for biodiversity changes. To prevent deleterious effects on species and ecosystems, it is very important to establish safety thresholds, such as those defined by the Critical Level (C...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Climate adaptation plan to the agriculture and forestry of the municipality of Mertola, in the southeast of Portugal. The plan was developed with a participary approach using SWAP methodology and was signed in a joint declaration by the president of the Municipality of Mertola Jorge Rosa, the president of the Natural Park, Pedro Rocha, the presiden...
Article
The tree species used in planted forests are highly productive and have an important role in countries economy but the expansion of these trees into habitats outside plantations is a concern for managers and conservationists. Among the most planted forest species worldwide, we can find eucalypts and pines species. Understanding spatial patterns and...
Article
Full-text available
The use of lichens as ecological surrogates has been an important tool to evaluate the impact of air pollution in both ecosystem and human health but remains underused in the subtropics due to lack of knowledge. Aiming to support the application of lichen as ecological surrogates of the effects of air pollution in the subtropics, we hypothesized th...
Poster
Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) is determinant to study long-term ecological processes (e.g. the effect of climate change) and the impact of rare or episodic events (e.g. pollution), impossible to detect in short term. While LTER Sites are local infrastructures of limited size, comprising mainly one habitat type and form of land use, with rese...
Article
Full-text available
Nitrogen is an essential nutrient for all biota, but in excess behaves as a pollutant in the environment. The doubling of total reactive nitrogen (nitrogen not in the form of N 2 gas) pools globally has resulted in many undesirable changes in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. The International Long-Term Ecological Research (ILTER) network, a glob...
Poster
Full-text available
Ecosystems generate a range of benefits and services necessary to support life and human well-being. These benefits referred as ecosystem services (ES), can be classified in to provisioning, regulation and maintenance, and cultural services. With population growth and increasing pressure on natural resources, land use changes have led to substantiv...
Article
In an area with multiple sources of air pollution it is difficult to evaluate the spatial impact of a minor source. Here we describe the use of lichens to track minor sources of air pollution. The method was tested by transplanting lichens from a background area to the vicinity of a cement manufacturing plant that uses alternative fuel and is locat...
Article
Forested areas within cities host a large number of species, responsible for many ecosystem services in urban areas. The biodiversity in these areas is influenced by human disturbances such as atmospheric pollution and urban heat island effect. To ameliorate the effects of these factors, an increase in urban green areas is often considered sufficie...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The aim of this report is to illustrate by means of a series of case studies the implementation of mapping and assessment of forest ecosystem services in different contexts and geographical levels. Methodological aspects, data issues, approaches, limitations, gaps and further steps for improvement are analysed for providing good practices and decis...
Article
Despite reductions in atmospheric sulfur (S) concentrations due to abatement policies in some countries, modelling the dispersion of this pollutant and disentangling anthropogenic sources from natural ones is still of great concern. Lichens have been used as biomonitors of the impacts of S for over 40 years, but their potential as source-tracers of...
Article
Lichens are one of the most useful environmental biomonitors, due to their ability to clearly reflect atmospheric deposition of pollutants. Dioxin and furan (PCDD/F) emissions have been reported to be decreasing in North European countries as a consequence of European regulations. This reduction has been perceptible across several environmental mat...
Book
Full-text available
The aim of this report is to illustrate by means of a series of case studies the implementation of mapping and assessment of forest ecosystem services in different contexts and geographical levels. Methodological aspects, data issues, approaches, limitations, gaps and further steps for improvement are analysed for providing good practices and decis...