Pedro S. Martins

Pedro S. Martins
Nova School of Business and Economics

PhD in Economics, U. Warwick
Professor at Nova School of Business and Economics

About

165
Publications
22,470
Reads
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2,344
Citations
Citations since 2017
69 Research Items
980 Citations
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2017201820192020202120222023050100150
2017201820192020202120222023050100150
2017201820192020202120222023050100150
Introduction
Labour economist. Specific interests include training, employment law, collective bargaining, market concentration, and employment services
Additional affiliations
June 2004 - present
Queen Mary, University of London
Position
  • Professor (Full)
September 2003 - May 2004
University of St Andrews
Position
  • Lecturer
Education
September 2000 - January 2005
The University of Warwick
Field of study
  • Economics

Publications

Publications (165)
Article
Education can generate important externalities that contribute towards economic growth and convergence. In this paper, we study such externalities and their drivers by conducting the first meta-analysis of the social returns to education literature. We analyse over 1,000 estimates from 32 journal articles published since 1993, covering 15 countries...
Article
As work changes more quickly, firm-provided training may become more relevant. However, there is little causal evidence about the effects of training on firms. This paper studies a large training grants programme in Portugal, supported by the European Social Fund, contrasting firms that received the grants and firms that also applied but were unsuc...
Technical Report
This paper examines a labor law reform implemented in Portugal in 2009 which restricted the use of fixed-term contracts to reduce labor market segmentation. The reform targeted establishments created by large firms above a specific size threshold, covering about 15% of total employment. Drawing on linked employer-employee longitudinal data and regr...
Technical Report
Full-text available
We investigate the impact of labour market concentration on two dimensions of job quality, namely wages and job security. We leverage rich administrative linked employer-employee data from Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Portugal and Spain in the 2010s to provide the first comparable cross-country evidence in the literature. Controlling for produc...
Research
This paper studies firm-provided training in a context of potential worker mobility. We argue that such worker mobility may be reduced by employers' associations (EAs) through no-poach agreements. First, we sketch a simple model to illustrate the impact of employer coordination on training. We then present supporting evidence from rich matched pane...
Research
Estimates of the impact of employment protection heavily rely on reduced-form methods, assuming that there are no indirect effects between firms. This paper exploits a labor law reform implemented in Portugal in 2009 which restricted the use of fixed-term contracts for large firms above a specific size threshold, to investigate and quantify spillov...
Research
We investigate the impact of labour market concentration on two dimensions of job quality, namely wages and job security. We leverage rich administrative linked employer-employee data from Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Portugal and Spain in the 2010s to provide the first comparable cross-country evidence in the literature. We show that the elast...
Technical Report
Does employers' association (EA) membership affect the wages paid by firms? Such effects could follow from several channels, including increased productivity, different management practices, or employer collusion promoted by EA affiliation. We test these hypotheses drawing on detailed matched employer-employee panel data, including time-varying EA...
Technical Report
This paper presents a new model of firms' decisions on training in a context of potential worker mobility. Such worker mobility can be influenced by employers coordination, namely through the operation of no-poach agreements and employers' associations (EAs). We then present supporting evidence from rich matched panel data, including firms' EA affi...
Article
Social partners (trade unions and employers' associations) and their representativeness can shape labour institutions and economic and social outcomes in many countries. In this paper, we argue that, when examining social partners' representativeness, it is important to consider both affiliation rates and dissimilarity measures. The latter concerns...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This paper surveys the emerging economics literature on the relationship between employee training and firm performance. Most studies find very high returns to training, at least from the perspective of firms, indicating that the costs of training can be recouped in short periods of time. These results follow from different identification approache...
Article
Full-text available
The importance of self-employment and small businesses raises questions about their health effects and public policy implications, which can only be addressed with suitable data. We explore the relationship between self-employment and health by drawing on comprehensive longitudinal administrative data to explore variation in individual work status...
Article
Fixed-term labour contracts (FTCs) may be an important tool to promote employment, particularly in recessions and when dismissal costs of open-ended contracts are high. In this case, making FTCs more flexible during downturns may be useful. We assess this idea by examining the effects of a law that increased the maximum duration of FTCs in Portugal...
Technical Report
Full-text available
As work changes, firm-provided training may become more relevant. However, there is little causal evidence about the effects of training on firms. This paper studies a large training grants programme in Portugal, supported by the European Social Fund, contrasting firms that received the grants and firms that also applied but were unsuccessful. Comb...
Article
Personnel economics tends be based on single-firm case studies. Here we examine several internal labour market dimensions of nearly 5,000 firms, over a period of 20 years, using detailed matched employer-employee data from Portugal. In the spirit of Baker et al. (1994a,b), we consider worker turnover, the role of job levels and human capital as wag...
Article
Do firms in China share rents with their workers? We address this question by examining firm-level panel data covering virtually all manufacturing firms over the period 2000-2007, representing an average of 52 million workers per year. We find evidence of rent sharing (RS), with wage-profit elasticities of between 4% and 6%. These results are based...
Article
In many countries, jobseekers are entitled to unemployment benefits (UBs) only if they have previously worked a minimum period of time. This institutional feature creates a sharp change in the disutility from unemployment at UB eligibility and may distort the duration of jobs. Our evidence is based on longitudinal social security data from Portugal...
Article
Severance pay may generate employment effects if wages are rigid. We study this by analysing a reform introduced during a recession that reduced severance pay for new hires while leaving it unchanged for previously-hired employees. We exploit this grandfathering dimension using a regression-discontinuity approach and long monthly data. We find that...
Technical Report
Full-text available
As work changes more quickly, firm-provided training may become more relevant. However, there is little causal evidence about the effects of training on firms. This paper studies a large training grants programme in Portugal, supported by the European Social Fund, contrasting firms that received the grants and firms that also applied but were unsuc...
Article
Full-text available
The increasing range and quality of China’s exports is a major development internationally with potentially far-reaching effects. In this paper, on top of the direct labour market effects of imports from China studied in previous research, we also measure the indirect effects stemming from increased export competition in third markets. Our findings...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Social partners (trade unions and employers' associations) shape labour institutions and economic and social outcomes in many countries. In this paper, we argue that, when examining social partners' representativeness, it is important to consider both affiliation and dissimilarity measures. The latter concerns the extent to which affiliated and non...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Education can generate important externalities that contribute towards economic growth and convergence. In this paper, we study the drivers of such externalities by conducting the first meta-analysis of the social returns to education literature. We analyse over 1,000 estimates from 31 articles published since 1993 that cover 15 countries. Our resu...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Politicians can use the public sector to give jobs to cronies, at the expense of the efficiency of those organisations and general welfare. In this paper, we regress monthly hires across all firms in Portugal with some degree of public ownership on the country's 1980-2018 political cycle. We find that public-sector appointments increase significant...
Chapter
Collective bargaining (CB) conducted by trade unions and employer associations (the social partners) plays a key role in the formation of wages in many countries, with potential interactions. This paper investigates the potential interactions of CB with the macroeconomy by estimating the business cycle sensitivity of the many thousands of CB minimu...
Article
Full-text available
In many countries, collective bargaining coverage is enhanced by government-issued extensions that widen the reach of collective agreements beyond their signatory parties to all firms and workers in the sector. This paper analyzes the causal impact of extensions using a natural experiment in Portugal that resulted in a sharp and unanticipated decli...
Article
Many governments extend the coverage of collective agreements to workers and employers that were not involved in their bargaining. These extensions may address co‐ordination issues but may also distort competition by imposing sector‐specific minimum wages and other work conditions that are not suitable for some firms and workers. In this article, w...
Technical Report
Full-text available
As China's firms upgrade their position in the quality ladder, vocational education may become more important. In this paper, we study returns to secondary vocational education in China paying attention to individual heterogeneity. We use instrumental variables based on geographical and longitudinal changes in enrolment to address the selection bet...
Technical Report
Full-text available
While trade unions have been studied in detail, there is virtually no economics research on employer associations (EAs), trade unions' counterparts in many countries. However, besides conducting collective bargaining, EAs perform several other activities that can influence economic outcomes, including training and coordination. This paper studies t...
Technical Report
Full-text available
As work changes, firm-provided training may become more relevant for good economic and social outcomes. However, so far there is little or no causal evidence about the effects of training on firms. This paper studies a large training grants programme in Portugal, contrasting successful firms that received the grants and unsuccessful firms that did...
Article
Labour law can be established both by statutory law and by collective bargaining. How much value does the latter effectively add? In this paper we propose a methodology to address this question: we compare the specific contents of collective agreements (except minimum wages) to their equivalent norms set by statutory law (if any). We illustrate thi...
Article
Full-text available
Collective bargaining has come under renewed scrutiny, especially in Southern European countries, which rely predominantly on sectoral bargaining supported by administrative extensions of collective agreements. Following the global financial crisis, some of these countries have implemented substantial reforms in the context of adjustment programmes...
Article
Employee representatives in firms are a potentially key but not yet studied source of the impact of unions and works councils. Their actions can shape multiple drivers of firm performance, including collective bargaining, strikes, and training. This paper examines the impact of union rep mandates by exploiting legal membership thresholds present in...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Many governments extend the coverage of collective agreements to workers and employers that were not involved in their bargaining. These extensions may address coordination issues but may also distort competition by imposing sector-specific minimum wages and other work conditions that are not suitable for some firms and workers. In this paper, we a...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The growth of self-employment and in particular gig work may explain part of the declining fertility rates observed in many countries. This study examines this question drawing on longitudinal data to compare women's fertility, proxied by maternity leave uptake, when self-employed or wage workers. It considers the case of Portugal, which allows to...
Technical Report
Full-text available
How much value does collective bargaining add to the working conditions already established in general labour law? In this paper we propose a methodology to address this question: we compare the specific contents of collective agreements (except minimum wages) to their equivalent norms set by base law. We illustrate this approach by analysing in de...
Chapter
Full-text available
Active labour market policies are regarded as an important tool to reduce unemployment in several countries. This chapter describes the design, implementation and evaluation of one such policy, based on the strengthening of the activation efforts (in particular job search support and monitoring) conducted by the public employment services of Portug...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Do firms in China share rents with their workers? We address this question by examining firm-level panel data covering virtually all manufacturing firms over the period 2000-2007, representing an average of 200,000 firms and 54 million workers per year. We find robust evidence of rent sharing (RS): workers that would move from low-to high-profit fi...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The subdued wage growth observed over the last years in many countries has spurred renewed interest in monopsony views of the labour market. This paper is the first to measure the extent and robustness of employer labour-market power and its wage implications exploiting comprehensive matched employer-employee data. We find average (employment-weigh...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Employee representatives in firms are a potentially key but not yet studied source of the impact of unions and works councils. Their actions can shape multiple drivers of firm performance, including collective bargaining, strikes, and training. This paper examines the impact of union rep mandates by exploiting legal membership thresholds present in...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The growth of novel flexible work formats raises a number of questions about their effects upon health and the potential public policy implications. However, answering these questions is hampered by data and identification constraints. This is the first paper that draws on comprehensive longitudinal administrative data to examine the impact of self...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The increased range and quality of China's exports is a major ongoing development in the international economy with potentially far-reaching effects. In this paper, on top of the direct effects of increased imports from China studied in previous research, we also measure the indirect labour market effects stemming from increased export competition...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The increased range and quality of China's exports is a major ongoing development in the international economy with potentially far-reaching effects. In this paper, we examine the impact of the China's integration in international trade in the Portuguese labour market. On top of the direct effects of increased imports from China studied in previous...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The growth of novel flexible work formats raises a number of questions about their effects upon health and the potential required changes in public policy. However, answering these questions is hampered by lack of suitable data. This is the first paper that draws on comprehensive longitudinal administrative data to examine the impact of self-employ...
Article
It is well known that, unless worker-firm match quality is controlled for, reduced form estimates of returns to firm tenure will be biased. In this paper we show that there is a further pervasive source of bias, namely the co-movement of firm employment and firm wages. We argue that firm-year fixed effects must be used to eliminate this bias. Estim...
Article
In many countries, notably across Europe, collective bargaining coverage is enhanced by government-issued extensions that widen the reach of collective agreements beyond their signatory parties to all firms and workers in the same sector. This paper analyses the causal impact of such extensions on employment using a natural experiment in Portugal:...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Personnel economics tends be based on single-firm case studies. Here we examine the personnel practices of nearly 5,000 firms, over a period of 20 years, using detailed matched employer-employee panel data from Portugal. In the spirit of Baker et al (1994a, b), we consider different dimensions of personnel management within each firm: worker turnov...
Technical Report
Full-text available
In most countries, the unemployed are entitled to unemployment benefits only if they have previously worked a minimum period of time. This institutional feature creates a sharp change at eligibility in the disutility from unemployment and may distort the duration of jobs. In this paper, we show that this effect can be evaluated using a regression d...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Although activation services such as monitoring, training, job subsidies or workfare have been shown to increase exits from unemployment, there is no evidence about their effects during recessions. We address this policy-relevant question by evaluating a large activation programme introduced in Portugal in early 2012, a time of very high and still...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Several countries extend collective bargaining agreements to entire sectors, therefore binding non-subscriber workers and employers. These extensions may address coordination issues but may also distort competition by imposing sector-specific minimum wages and other work conditions that are not appropriate for many firms. In this paper, we analyse...
Article
The literature on multinationality and firm performance has generally disregarded the role of geography. However, the location of FDI assumes particular importance in terms of the link between multinationality at the firm level. The purpose of this paper is to consider the multinationality-performance relationship within the context of greater emph...
Article
This paper provides the first microeconomic cross-country analysis of the effects of foreign ownership on wages, employment and worker turnover rates. Using firm-level and linked worker-firm data, we apply a standardised methodology for three developed (Germany, Portugal, UK) and two emerging economies (Brazil, Indonesia). We find that wage effects...
Article
Full-text available
Rigidity in real hiring wages plays a crucial role in some recent macroeconomic models. But are hiring wages really so noncyclical? We propose using employer/employee longitudinal data to track the cyclical variation in the wages paid to workers newly hired into specific entry jobs. Illustrating the methodology with 1982-2008 data from the Portugue...
Article
Full-text available
Using matched employer-employee data, we analyse the impact of immigrants on natives' employment in Portugal. Using different model specifications, we show that the natives and immigrants are 'complements' at most occupation levels, in the sense that they are jointly hired and fired. Controlling for different skill-level groups as well as for tempo...