Pedro C. Magalhães

Pedro C. Magalhães
University of Lisbon | UL · Institute of Social Sciences

PhD Political Science, Ohio State University

About

159
Publications
43,661
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Introduction
Pedro C. Magalhães currently works at the Institute of Social Sciences, University of Lisbon. Pedro does research in Law and Courts, Elections, Public Opinion and Voting Behavior and Comparative Politics.
Additional affiliations
June 2012 - present
University of Lisbon
Position
  • Researcher
August 2011 - June 2012
Georgetown University
Position
  • Professor
May 2002 - January 2015
University of Lisbon
Position
  • Researcher

Publications

Publications (159)
Preprint
Full-text available
A vast literature in social and organizational psychology suggests that support for authorities is driven both by the outcomes they deliver to people and by the extent to which they employ fair decision-making processes. Furthermore, some of that literature describes a process-outcome interaction, through which the effect of outcome favorability is...
Preprint
Full-text available
In this study, we investigate how socioeconomic status is related to people's commitment to liberal democracy. Based on sociological and psychological theories of social conflict and dominance, we argue that those who enjoy a more privileged position in the social hierarchy tend to develop stronger preferences for the existing social and political...
Article
Government transparency has been discussed both as a way to decrease informational asymmetries between officeholders and citizens and as part of what makes for procedurally fair governance. These two different lines of argument generate predictions about how transparency should change voters’ reactions to economic and policy outcomes. First, under...
Article
Two findings stand out in the literature on public attitudes vis-à-vis courts. The first is that judicial independence increases public trust. The second is that ‘to know courts is to love them’. In this study, these stylised facts are used as a starting point to ask three questions. First, is there also a role for judicial accountability in foster...
Article
Full-text available
Ineffective governance is known to weaken support for governments and leaders. However, it is less clear whether these effects spill over to the regime and erode support for the democratic system. This article returns to this classic question, now using time-series, cross-sectional data to test whether the effectiveness of governments in sustaining...
Preprint
Full-text available
We study how political elites and voters respond to intra-party reforms to promote transparency and ethical conduct. Evidence from a paired conjoint analysis from politicians and voters in Portugal and Spain.
Article
The movement of personnel between roles in regulation, politics, and regulated industries is thought to affect the risks of politicization and industry capture of independent regulatory agencies. To test whether such movements are better explained by formal rules or by sector‐specific patterns, we employ an original dataset of the 152 appointees to...
Article
Full-text available
Does ideological polarization undermine or strengthen people’s principled support for democracy? In this study, we suggest that different manifestations of ideological polarization have different implications in this respect. Using data from 11 surveys conducted with representative samples of the adult populations of a group of liberal democratic c...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report offers several points for reflection with regard to a study on the Political Participation of Youth in Portugal for the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation, supported by five key components: 1. Secondary data from the European Social Survey from 2002 to 2019; 2. An original survey of the Portuguese population aged 15 and up; 3. Interviews of...
Technical Report
Full-text available
O Inquérito que agora se apresenta pretende oferecer um retrato da diversidade das práticas culturais em Portugal. Este estudo encomendado pela Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian ao Instituto de Ciências Sociais (ICS) tem como objetivo primeiro fornecer às instituições culturais uma grelha de leitura sobre os seus públicos, atuais e de futuro, e dar um c...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The results of the European Values Study (EVS: www.europeanvaluesstudy.eu) reflect the values, attitudes and opinions of citizens with regard to a variety of topics central to day-today life, such as family, religion, politics, and work. However, issues involving perceived well-being and happiness, morality, human migration, the role of the welfare...
Chapter
An introduction to constitutions, courts and judicial behaviour in the European countries.
Article
Full-text available
Many political systems with direct democracy mechanisms have adopted rules preventing decisions from being made by simple majority rule. The device most commonly added to majority rule in national is a quorum requirement. The two most common are the participation and the approval quora. Such rules are a response to three major concerns: the legitim...
Article
Objective: Determining the existence of a relationship between judicial performance and citizens’ trust in the legal system. Method: Cross‐classified multilevel models, using data from more than 20 European countries, 80 surveys, and 100,000 respondents, over a decade. Results: The longer the time that lower courts take, on average, to dispose of...
Chapter
The Great Recession and the Eurozone crisis are frequently treated as having led to a breakdown in democratic representation in Europe, as deeply constrained governments became unable to translate the preferences of citizenry into actual policy. However, after reviewing the available evidence, we find that the crisis seems to have contributed to in...
Chapter
What executives are and what they do in democratic regimes should obviously be affected by public opinion. This occurs not only through the electoral process, but also through the influence that, in the interim, public attitudes exert on (re)election-minded politicians. But what drives public support for executives? This chapter focuses on four typ...
Article
Mobilization efforts by parties and candidates during election campaigns tend to reach those who are more likely to vote in the first place. This is thought to be particularly consequential for turnout among the young. Harder and less cost-effective to reach, young adults are less mobilized and vote less often, creating a vicious circle of demobili...
Chapter
In this chapter, we discuss the judicial politics within the Spanish Constitutional Court from three main points of view. First, we discuss the origins and institutional design of the Court from a comparative perspective. Second, by making use of the standard approaches (attitudinal, strategic and legalist models of judicial behaviour), we examine...
Article
The 2019 Portuguese general elections have led to the formation of another minority government of the Socialist Party. Right-wing parties suffered a resounding defeat. The election had two key consequences. First, after four years of contract parliamentarism with an extreme-left party, the Socialists returned to their historical position of pivotal...
Data
The available file presents only basic information about the database. To request access to the database, please go to <http://hdl.handle.net/10400.20/2086>. Database on corruption surveys has a completed collection and systematisation of all major survey questionnaires related to corruption and integrity available online. This DB has 3050 entries...
Article
In this study, we investigate how socioeconomic status is related to people's commitment to liberal democracy. Based on sociological and psychological theories of social conflict and dominance, we argue that those who enjoy a more privileged position in the social hierarchy tend to develop stronger preferences for the existing social and political...
Article
In 2015, for the first time in the history of Portuguese democracy, radical left parties relinquished their status as outsiders and lent their support to a Socialist Party cabinet. Defying the expectations of many, this government survived its first years. In fact, it did more than survive: while largely fulfilling the interparty agreements that or...
Article
A vast literature in social and organizational psychology suggests that support for authorities is driven both by the outcomes they deliver to people and by the extent to which they employ fair decision making processes. Furthermore, some of that literature describes a process‐outcome interaction, through which the effect of outcome favorability is...
Article
Full-text available
Economic performance is thought to be a powerful driver of incumbent electoral performance, and gdp growth and unem- ployment to be the “big two” factors involved. However, while in the 2011 elections, under a profound economic recession and growing unemployment, the Socialist incumbents lost about one-fourth of the electorate, the center-right coa...
Chapter
The notion that domestic responses to financial crises are constrained in a way that limits the options available to national governments is not new. However, the European Parliamentary (EP) term that ended in 2014 was a period when this reality was brought home to European electorates with previously unseen potency. This study explores the implica...
Article
The austerity policies pursued in several countries during the Eurozone crisis began to call attention to the role played by courts as relevant actors in the context of budgetary and financial stress. The case of the Portuguese Constitutional Court has often been singled out in national and international forums as one characterized by particularly...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Portugal initiated the third wave of democratization in 1974, after forty years of authoritarian regime. 1 The " rules of the game " which were agreed to in 1976 largely reflect the historical and political circumstances of that period, which was characterized by a strong presence of the military in the political life of the country, an ascendancy...
Article
For the very first time in EU history, the 2014 EP elections provided citizens with the opportunity to influence the nomination of the Commission President by casting a vote for the main Europarties’ ‘lead candidates’. By subjecting the position of the Commission President to an open political contest, many experts have formulated the expectation t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Citizens’ satisfaction with the way democracy works in practice in their country seems to be driven by, among other factors, short-term economic performance. However, this effect seems to be unstable, and in some cases has even failed to be confirmed. This paper suggests a cause for that instability. It takes as its starting point a fundamental ins...
Article
Although support for political authorities, institutions, and even regimes is affected by the delivery of positive economic outcomes, we know that judgments on authorities are also made on the basis of several other aspects that fall into the general theme of “procedural fairness.” So far, most of the literature examining satisfaction with democrac...
Article
The notion that domestic responses to financial crises are constrained in a way that limits the options available to national governments is not new. However, the last term of the European Parliament was a period when this reality was brought home to European electorates with previously unseen potency. This study explores the implications of this f...
Article
On the fortieth anniversary of the Carnation Revolution, it is pertinent to ask how Portuguese citizens understand their transition to democracy. In this article, some of the main findings concerning the meanings and legacies of 25 April 1974 are presented, drawing on the findings of two surveys focusing on Portuguese attitudes towards 25 April and...
Chapter
Full-text available
Em 1974, depois do 25 de Abril, ocorreram mudanças profundas em Portugal. O regime democrático, instituído com a aprovação da Constituição em 1976, desenvolveu-se sustentado em políticas públicas que mudaram o país em setores como a educação, básica e secundária, a saúde, a segurança social, a ciência o ensino superior. Também na justiça, as mudanç...
Article
As semi-presidentialism has become increasingly common in European democracies, so have the debates about the consequences of several of its political and institutional features. In particular, in those regimes, cohabitation between presidents and cabinets of different parties and cabinet dismissal powers on the part of presidents are thought to be...
Book
"Voting in Old and New Democracies" examines voting behavior and its determinants based on 26 surveys from 18 countries on five continents between 1992 and 2008. It systematically analyzes the impact on voting choice of factors rooted in the currently dominant approaches to the study of electoral behavior, but adds to this analysis factors introduc...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Portugal initiated the third wave of democratization in 1974, after forty years of authoritarian regime. The " rules of the game " which were agreed to in 1976 largely reflect the historical and political circumstances of that period, which was characterized by a strong presence of the military in the political life of the country, an ascendancy of...
Book
This book examines the domestic electoral consequences of the economic and financial crisis in Europe, particularly in those countries where the crisis manifested itself more devastatingly: the Southern European countries of Greece, Italy, Portugal, and Spain, as well as Iceland and Ireland. On the surface, the electoral consequences of the crisis...
Chapter
Fundacao para a Ciencia e Tecnologia (FCT), DER funds through Programa Operacional Factores de Competitividade - COMPETE" and by Portuguese national funds through FCT: project FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-037268 (PEst-C/EGE/UI3182/2013)
Conference Paper
Termination is one of the most important moments in the government life cycle. Political science developed several accounts explaining why and how governments face early termination in European democracies (King et al. 1990; Strøm and Swindle 2002). Recently, Schleiter and Morgan-Jones (2009) made a strong case for the inclusion of the Head of Stat...
Chapter
What does "democracy" mean to people? Do different individuals hold different views about what democracy is or should be? What explains those differences? This article looks into these questions and gives an account of the sources and explanations of different understandings of democracy among Europeans. We advance a basic and simple argument. Indi...
Article
Cleavage-voting" – the extent to which voters' membership in stable social groups leads them to choose parties that are politically aligned with those groups – seems to have experienced a significant decline in Western democracies, which has been generically linked to several consequences of social modernization. However, this emphasis on the searc...
Article
International economic crises are critical periods for any political regime. The 2008 global financial crisis brought to the surface several weak spots in the institutional performance of various southern European democracies. Portugal was no exception. Government attempts to tackle its negative externalities through a series of austerity measures...
Article
This article discusses the basic patterns of voting behaviour in the most recent elections in Portugal. These elections were fought under one of the most profound economic crises in the country's four decades of democracy, after a bailout agreement with the EU and the IMF, and under an unusually high level of campaign polarization around the issues...
Book
Full-text available
Sabemos, de muitos estudos anteriores, que os portugueses não estão particularmente satisfeitos com a maneira como funciona a nossa democracia. Mas «democracia» é um conceito e uma realidade multidimensional. Dela esperamos que represente a diversidade de preferências das pessoas, que faça cumprir as leis e dê acesso à justiça, que responsabilize q...
Article
Full-text available
The World Mental Health Survey Initiative was designed to evaluate the prevalence, the correlates, the impact and the treatment patterns of mental disorders. This paper describes the rationale and the methodological details regarding the implementation of the survey in Portugal, a country that still lacks representative epidemiological data about p...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In most instances of collective decision-making, it cannot be expected that all persons who are entitled to vote will end up doing so. This has led institutional designers, out of concerns with the “legitimacy” of decisions, to introduce quorum requirements. A prominent example of this can be found in the context of direct democracy mechanisms, suc...
Article
Diffuse support for democracy, as captured in mass surveys, tends to be treated as impervious to regime performance. Such a finding is often presented as confirmation of the basic distinction between ‘diffuse’ and ‘specific’ support as proposed by David Easton. This study argues that this line of argument stems from an incomplete reading of importa...
Article
We take a new look at electoral sectionalism and dynamic nationalization in presidential elections. We treat this problem as one of synchronism of electoral cycles, which we estimate by using wavelets. After providing a self-contained introduction to wavelet analysis, we use it to assess the degree and the dynamics of electoral synchronization in t...
Book
O livro “Portugal Social de A a Z” discute a sociedade portuguesa contemporânea. “O que tem sido, o que pode ser e o que quer ser”.
Chapter
This chapter starts by describing the features of domestic, national-level and European Union-level politics that the previous chapters have sought to illuminate. It then summarizes the fundamental Europe-wide trends that have been observed in recent decades concerning the basic attitudinal and behavioural phenomena analysed in the previous chapter...
Article
Full-text available
This article introduces a discussion on defining, measuring, and assessing the quality of democracy. Providing a short overview of the papers of the Symposium, it places them within a broader context of current academic debate on various methodological, theoretical, and policy outreach dimensions of the topic.
Book
Full-text available
Entrevistas a empresas, advogados, juízes e entidades representativas do setor sobre os problemas e desafios da justiça económica em Portugal. Este volume apresenta uma divisão por temas: i) metodologia, seleção do entrevistados e métodos de análise; ii) problemas gerais da justiça; iii) ações em tribunal; iv) recuperação do IVA; v) ação declarativ...
Article
The behavior of the individual Spanish voter has come to be rather well-understood, thanks to a growing body of literature. However, no models have appeared to explain or forecast national election outcomes. This gap in the research contrasts sharply with the extensive election forecasting work done in other leading Western democracies. Here, we fi...
Book
This book provides a broad overview of the main trends in mass attitudes towards domestic politics and European integration from the 1970s until today. Particularly in the last two decades, the 'end of the permissive consensus' around European integration has forced analysts to place public opinion at the centre of their concerns. The book faces th...
Article
Full-text available
This paper focuses on citizens' attitudes towards the transfer of policy prerogatives from the national government to European institutions on specific domains. We approach this issue from two different perspectives. First, using a cross-sectional analysis of Eurobarometer and Candidate Eurobarometer data on all EU27 member states, we tests hypothe...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter presents the volume, its fundamental motivation, and contents. It argues that the end of 'permissive consensus' and the entry of mass publics as relevant actors in the dynamics of European integration require a deeper and more comprehensive analysis of how attitudes towards domestic and European politics are linked, especially in the c...
Article
Full-text available
This article discusses the 2011 legislative election results in Portugal and the context in which they took place. After describing how the economic and financial crisis unfolded, leading to the European Union/International Monetary Fund bailout, it analyses the campaign strategies of the major parties. On the basis of a post-election survey, the a...
Article
This chapter discusses our third dimension of EU citizenship - Scope of Government. It analyses people's perceptions of and expectations for current and further EU policymaking capacity. It argues that Scope captures mainly a political, prospective and inputoriented dimension of citizenship. Accordingly, instrumental rationality - perceptions of th...
Article
Spectral analysis and ARMA models have been the most common weapons of choice for the detection of cycles in political time series. Controversies about cycles, however, tend to revolve around an issue that both techniques are badly equipped to address: the possibility of irregular cycles without fixed periodicity throughout the entire time series....
Article
Full-text available
This article looks into the factors that explain foreign direct investment (FDI) in Brazil by country of origin. We collected a sample of 180 countries with and without FDI in Brazil. We use multiple estimation techniques and controls to isolate the effect of country political risk on outward foreign direct investment and show that countries with l...
Article
Full-text available
This article looks into the factors that explain foreign direct investment (FDI) in Brazil by country of origin. We collected a sample of 180 countries with and without FDI in Brazil. We use multiple estimation techniques and controls to isolate the effect of country political risk on outward foreign direct investment and show that countries with l...
Article
The electoral performance of incumbent parties in legislative elections in Europe since the beginning of the "Great Recession" has been described in two contrasting ways. For some, it has been characterized by an "anti-leftist" wave, signalling a change in voters fundamental preferences against leftist parties and policies. For others, ideology has...
Article
Full-text available
This paper approaches euroscepticism from the perspective of party positions and mass-level attitudes. It documents the nature and evolution of party euroscepticism from 1976 to 2005. Although the poles of party-based euroscepticism can be found, predictably, at the extremes of the party system, there is also a dynamic and contingent element to par...
Article
The most enduring originality of the Portuguese Constitution promulgated in 1976 was the extent to which it recognized and entrenched social welfare rights. The constitutionalisation of these rights has been mostly discussed in terms of its consequences, both in normative and (less often) empirical terms. In this paper, we shift attention to the ca...
Article
In many jurisdictions, whether referendum results are binding depends on legally defined quorum requirements. We use a pivotal voter model to examine the consequences of such requirements. We find that, although quorum rules differ in consequences, a status quo bias that is usually attributed need not be present and that quorum rules may work again...
Article
Full-text available
The role of national, sectional, state, and local forces in driving electoral outcomes in the United States has remained a matter of considerable indeterminacy in the American politics literature. In what concerns House elections, different approaches and methods have yielded widely divergent results. In what concerns presidential elections, consid...
Article
Full-text available
What is the impact of different referenda designs on the willingness of the electorate to vote? In this article, we focus on quorum requirements. We use a rational choice, decision theoretic model to demonstrate that certain types of quorum requirements change the incentives some electors face. In particular, participation quorums induce electors w...
Chapter
Full-text available
How do the Portuguese perceive the National Health Service in absolute terms and compared to other European perceptive standards. A specific survey was conducted to answer this question in which about 2000 Portuguese adults were interviewed. The information is complemented by other related studies produced at the Catholic University in the previous...
Article
Full-text available
The importance of the left–right divide for party choice is well established, both for legislative and European Parliament (EP) elections. However, the conditions under which left–right self‐placement becomes more or less important in explaining the vote in both legislative and EP elections are clearly understudied. The article uses the 2004 EP ele...
Book
Full-text available
This research is focused on the Satisfaction and perceived Quality of 1600 persons that return to the school in adult age. This was part of INO where more than half milion persons return to the school in Portugal
Book
Full-text available
This 4th volume of INO evaluation is dedicated to evaluate the answers of 1500 persons that return to the school in adult age with similar number of persons that don't take the decision. Wish was the contribute of the family for the decision? How it was the primary schools of those persons, those familiar context, etc.