Pedro L. Valenzuela

Pedro L. Valenzuela
Hospital 12 de Octubre · Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria

PhD in Health Sciences

About

183
Publications
61,123
Reads
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1,873
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2021 - January 2021
Universidad Europea de Madrid
Position
  • PostDoc Position
March 2019 - June 2019
Schulthess Klinik, Zürich
Position
  • Predoctoral stay
April 2017 - December 2020
University of Alcalá
Position
  • PhD Student
Education
October 2016 - December 2020
University of Alcalá
Field of study
  • Health Sciences
September 2014 - July 2015
University of Barcelona
Field of study
  • Integrative Physiology
September 2010 - July 2014
University of Alcalá
Field of study
  • Sports Sciences

Publications

Publications (183)
Article
Full-text available
Background Exercise training can positively impact the immune system and particularly natural killer (NK) cells, at least in healthy people. This effect would be of relevance in the context of cancer given the prominent role of these cells in antitumor immunity. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we aimed to summarize current evidence on...
Article
Purpose: To compare the prevalence of myocardial fibrosis and coronary calcification in individuals who have performed very high levels of strenuous endurance exercise (SEE) (former male professional cyclists) and sex/age-matched controls. Methods: We used a cross-sectional (case-control) observational design, where cases were former finishers of...
Article
Full-text available
Background There is debate about the magnitude of geometrical remodeling [i.e., left ventricle (LV) cavity enlargement vs. wall thickening] in the heart of elite athletes, and no limits of normality have been yet established for different sports. We aimed to determine sex- and sport-specific normative values of LV dimensions in elite white adult at...
Chapter
Although the benefits of regular physical activity on cardiovascular health are well established, the effects of strenuous endurance exercise (SEE) have been a matter of debate since ancient times. In this article, we aim to provide a balanced overview of what is known about SEE and the heart—from epidemiological evidence to recent cardiac imaging...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: To compare endurance, strength and body composition indicators between cyclists of three different competition age categories. Methods: Fifty-one male road cyclists classified as either junior ( n = 13, age 16.4 ± 0.5 years), under-23 [(U23), n = 24, 19.2 ± 1.3 years] or professional ( n = 14, 26.1 ± 4.8 years) were studied. Endurance (ass...
Article
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Introduction School‐based sport interventions have shown beneficial effects on psychosocial functioning and academic performance in children. However, the inter‐individual variability in response to these types of interventions remains unclear. We aimed to determine which children benefit most from a school‐based sport intervention. Methods This i...
Article
Purpose: To determine the validity of field-derived mean maximum power (MMP) values for monitoring maximal cycling endurance performance. Methods: Twenty-seven male professional cyclists performed 3 timed trials (TTs) of 1-, 5-, and 20-minute duration that were used as the gold standard reference. Field-based power output data (3336 files; 124 [...
Article
TO THE EDITOR: Podlogar et al. (1) have nicely discussed cur- rent methods for classifying athletes in applied physiology studies attending to their training or performance level. We agree with them that relying on a single physiological marker such as maximum oxygen uptake is not without limi- tations and endorse the use of more performance-based...
Article
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Purpose We assessed the occurrence of rhythm alterations in elite athletes with suspected risk using Holter monitoring, and the association of Holter-determined rhythm alterations with echocardiographic findings. Methods A large cohort of Spanish elite athletes ( N = 6,579, 34% female) underwent in-depth cardiological examination (including echoca...
Article
We analyzed the association between self-reported sleep characteristics and the prevalence of major cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors attending to the potential effect of physical activity (PA) and weight status. A large cohort of Spanish workers (n = 527,662; 32% female, 44 ± 9yrs) participated in this cross-sectional study. We assessed pa...
Article
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Physical exercise reduces blood pressure (BP) in patients with hypertension in general but more evidence is needed specifically for a high-risk phenotype associated with intensive medication, resistant hypertension (RH). In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we aimed to summarize current evidence of the exercise effects on BP in patients wit...
Article
Introduction The World Health Organization has introduced the term ‘intrinsic capacity’ (IC) as a marker of healthy ageing. However, controversy exists on the definition and assessment of IC. We aimed to review the definitions and methods used for the assessment of IC in older adults. In addition, we proposed a new IC scoring method. Methods A sys...
Article
Full-text available
Background Professional athletes seem to have a lower overall mortality risk than the general population, but controversy exists about whether athletes in sports associated with repetitive head impacts have a higher risk of mortality from neurodegenerative diseases. Objective We aimed to determine the risk of mortality from neurodegenerative disea...
Article
Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a prevalent cardiovascular disease. The main hallmarks of this condition are atherosclerosis and myopathy in the lower limbs, with progressive deterioration of the functional capacity and quality of life of affected individuals. There is evidence supporting physical exercise as an effective alternative for the t...
Article
Purpose: Ambient temperature affects endurance exercise performance. However, most research has been conducted in a laboratory-based setting, and whether there are sex-specific trends remains unclear. The present study aimed to analyze the influence of ambient temperature on cycling performance in male and female professional cyclists using field-...
Article
Introduction: The long-term effects of exercise in patients with McArdle disease-the paradigm of 'exercise intolerance'-are unknown. This is an important question as the severity of the disease frequently increases with time. Purpose: To study the effects of a long-term exercise intervention on clinical and fitness-related outcomes in McArdle pa...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: The present study aimed to determine the influence of fatigue on the record power profile of professional male cyclists. We also assessed whether fatigue could differently affect cyclists of 2 competition categories. Methods: We analyzed the record power profile in 112 professional cyclists (n = 46 and n = 66 in the ProTeam [PT] and Wor...
Article
Purpose: Some power meters are available in both bilateral and unilateral versions. However, despite the popularity of the latter, their validity remains unknown. We aimed to analyze the validity of a unilateral pedal power meter for estimating actual ("bilateral") power output (PO). Methods: Thirty-three male cyclists were assessed at different...
Article
Introduction Whether diabetes is associated with hypertension risk remains controversial, potentially owing to the confounding effect of lifestyle. This study aims to analyze the association between diabetes and hypertension in adults and the mediating impacts of lifestyle. Methods A cohort of Spanish workers (aged 18–64 years) insured by an occup...
Article
Purpose: To present normative data for the record power profile of male professional cyclists attending to team categories and riding typologies. Methods: Power output data registered from 4 professional teams during 8 years (N = 144 cyclists, 129,262 files, and 1062 total seasons [7 (5) per cyclist] corresponding to both training and competitio...
Article
Purpose: To describe the record power profile of professional female cyclists and to assess potential differences based on the type of rider. Methods: Power output data (32,028 files containing both training and competition sessions recorded) in 44 female professional cyclists during 1-6 years were analyzed. Cyclists were categorized as all-roun...
Article
Introduction: Acute altitude exposure influences exercise performance, although most research, especially regarding altitude natives, comes from laboratory data in non-athletes. Purpose: We analyzed the influence of altitude on real-world cycling performance in top-level professional cyclists attending to whether they were altitude natives or not....
Article
Full-text available
We aimed to determine whether voluntary exercise or surface neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) could enhance recovery after a high-intensity functional training (HIFT) session compared with total rest. The study followed a crossover design. Fifteen male recreational CrossFit athletes (29 ± 8 years) performed a HIFT session and were randomi...
Article
Full-text available
Background Controversy exists on the actual occurrence of exercise-induced cardiac fatigue (EICF) with ultraendurance exercise, as well as on whether factors such as age or training status might predispose to this condition. The present study aimed to assess the occurrence of EICF among recreational ultramarathon runners, as well as to determine po...
Article
Background Sleep is known to affect cardiovascular health, but some controversy exists on the independent association between different sleep characteristics (duration, restfulness, difficulties falling asleep) and specific risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). We aimed to assess the association between self-reported sleep characteristics...
Article
Full-text available
Childhood cancer survivors are at risk of developing important adverse effects, many of which persist for years after the end of treatment. The implementation of interventions aiming at attenuating tumor/treatment-associated adverse effects is therefore a major issue in pediatric oncology, and there is growing evidence that physical exercise could...
Article
Full-text available
Growing evidence supports the importance of lifestyle and environmental exposures—collectively referred to as the ‘exposome’—for ensuring immune health. In this narrative review, we summarize and discuss the effects of the different exposome components (physical activity, body weight management, diet, sun exposure, stress, sleep and circadian rhyth...
Article
Full-text available
The aims of this study were to: 1) provide and compare the height achieved during Smith-machine (SM) and free-weight (FW) loaded jumps executed over a wide spectrum of loads (40-120% of body-mass [BM]); and 2) test the difference between loaded and unloaded squat jump (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ) attempts in ten highly-trained male sprinters...
Article
Full-text available
Objective To determine the risk of mortality from mental disorders and suicide in professional sports associated with repeated head impacts. Methods A systematic search was performed in PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and SPORTDiscus (since inception to June 8, 2021) to find studies comparing the incidence of mortality from mental disorders or sui...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: The optimal power load is defined as the load that maximizes power output in a given exercise. This load can be determined through the use of various instruments, under different testing protocols. Specifically, the "optimum power load" (OPL) is derived from the load-velocity relationship, using only bar force and bar velocity in the powe...
Article
Chronic exercise reduces clinic and ambulatory blood pressure (BP), but the short-term effects of an acute exercise bout on ambulatory BP have not been studied widely. We reviewed the literature regarding the short-term effects of acute exercise on ambulatory BP in patients with hypertension and considered moderating factors (medication status and...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The “second wind” (SW) phenomenon—commonly referring to both an initial period of marked intolerance to dynamic exercise (e.g., brisk walking) that is not followed by perceived improvement and disappearance of previous tachycardia (i.e., the actual “SW”) until 6–10 min has elapsed—is an almost unique feature of McArdle disease that limi...
Article
Purpose To examine the effects of a school-based karate intervention on academic achievement, psychosocial functioning, and physical fitness in children aged 7–8 years. Methods Twenty schools in 5 different European countries (2 second-grade classrooms per school) participated in a cluster randomized controlled trial (Sport at School trial). Parti...
Article
Full-text available
Durability and repeatability (i.e., the ability to sustain high power output values under fatigue and to endure repeated high-intensity efforts, respectively) are emerging as cycling performance determinants. We aimed to analyze whether these markers differ between professional cyclists of two competition levels (WorldTour [WT] and Proteam [PT]) du...
Article
Background Whether a high cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) can attenuate the potential detrimental effect of childhood obesity on academic performance and particularly psychosocial functioning remains unclear. Objectives To analyse the academic performance/psychosocial functioning of schoolchildren attending to their CRF and weight status. Methods...
Article
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Ketogenic diets (KD) have gained popularity in recent years among strength-trained individuals. The present review summarizes current evidence—with a particular focus on randomized controlled trials—on the effects of KD on body composition and muscle performance (strength and power output) in strength-trained individuals. Although long-term studies...
Article
Aims To assess the potential multi-domain benefits of exercise interventions on patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), as well as to determine the specific effects of different exercise modalities (aerobic, strength, or combined training). Methods A systematic search was conducted in PubMed and Web of Science until March 2021 for randomized contr...
Article
Purpose: To compare the physical demands and performance indicators of male professional cyclists of 2 different categories (Union Cycliste Internationale WorldTour [WT] and ProTeam [PT]) during a cycling grand tour. Methods: A WT team (n = 8, 31.4 [5.4] y) and a PT team (n = 7, 26.9 [3.3] y) that completed "La Vuelta 2020" volunteered to partic...
Article
The present study aimed to assess the effects of an injury pre- vention program in CrossFit athletes. Thirty-two CrossFit ath- letes were randomized to either an intervention group (n = 16), that performed mobility and stability exercises during the warm-up of all CrossFit sessions for a 10-week period or to a control group (n = 16) that kept perfo...
Article
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Purpose: To analyze the relationship between critical power (CP) and different lactate threshold (LT2) markers in cyclists. Methods: Seventeen male recreational cyclists [33 ± 5 years, peak power output (PO) = 4.5 ± 0.7 W/kg] were included in the study. The PO associated with four different fixed (onset of blood lactate accumulation) and individual...
Article
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There is substantial experimental evidence for dysregulation of several microRNA (miRNA) expression levels in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). MiRNAs modulate critical brain intracellular signaling pathways and are associated with AD core pathophysiological mechanisms. First, we conducted a real-time quantitative PCR-based pilot study to identify a set of...
Article
Full-text available
Neurodegenerative disorders are associated with reduced levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). We aimed to assess the effect of exercise interventions on plasma BDNF levels in individuals with neurodegenerative disorders. Eighteen randomized controlled trials (RCT) assessing the effects of exercise interventions versus no exercise on p...
Article
Objective To appraise the highest evidence on hip morphology as a risk factor for developing hip osteoarthritis (OA). Design We searched for studies evaluating the association between radiological hip morphology parameters and the prevalence, incidence or progression of hip OA (based on different radiographic and clinical criteria) in the MEDLINE,...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: To examine the effects of a school-based karate intervention on academic achievement, psychosocial functioning, and physical fitness in children aged 7-8 years. Methods: Twenty schools in 5 different European countries (2 second-grade classrooms per school) participated in a cluster randomized controlled trial (Sport at School trial). P...
Article
Exercise interventions have been found safe in acutely hospitalized older adults in general and to attenuate the decline in functional and physical performance that is frequently induced by even short hospital stays. However, controversy exists as to the safety of initiating this type of intervention during hospitalization for patients admitted wit...
Article
Background We aimed to summarize evidence on the safety, adherence and effectiveness of home-based resistance training (UHBRT) for improving health-related endpoints in community-dwelling older adults. Methods Randomized controlled trials of UHBRT in older adults (≥60yrs) were included after a systematic search (PubMed, CINAHL, PsycInfo, SPORTDisc...
Poster
Full-text available
Introducción Existe controversia con respecto a las tasas de lesiones en los deportistas de CrossFit. Así, hay estudios que reportan una tasa de lesiones relativamente baja ( ≤3,3 por 1000 horas de práctica)(da Costa et al., 2019; Feito, Burrows, & Tabb, 2018; Moran, Booker, Staines, & Williams, 2017) y otros con tasas más altas (de 9,5 a 18,9 por...
Article
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by non-linear, genetic-drivenpathophysiological dynamics with high heterogeneity in biological alterations and disease spatial-temporal progression. Human in-vivo and post-mortem studies point out a failure of multi-level biological networks underlying AD pathophysiology, including proteostasis (amyloid-β a...
Article
Full-text available
Cycling power meters enable monitoring external loads and performance changes. We aimed to determine the concurrent validity of the novel Favero Assioma Duo (FAD) pedal power meter compared with the crank-based SRM system (considered as gold standard). Thirty-three well-trained male cyclists were assessed at different power output (PO) levels (100-...
Article
Full-text available
Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the most common form of neurodegenerative dementia in adults worldwide, is a multifactorial and heterogeneous disorder characterized by the interaction of genetic and epigenetic factors and the dysregulation of numerous intracellular signaling and cellular/molecular pathways. The introduction of the systems biology framewo...
Article
The recently developed vaccines against infection with the SARS-Cov-2 virus hold great promise for reducing the burden of COVID-19 and achieving herd immunity, which will hopefully restore normal life in the near future. Yet, there are several unresolved issues regarding actual vaccination efficacy in real life scenarios, especially in the mid to l...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: We studied the association between different levels of physical activity (PA) and major cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in adult people, as well as sex-specific differences. Methods: Medical data from a large Spanish cohort of workers (aged 18-64 years) were prospectively obtained during a five-year period. Participants were...
Article
Full-text available
We assessed the effects of a short-term velocity-based resistance training (VBRT, where exercise intensity is individualized based on the loads and repetitions that maximize power output) program compared with traditional resistance training (TRT, where the same number of repetitions and relative load are used for every individual) on body composit...
Article
Full-text available
Pregnancy exercise can prevent excessive gestational weight gain (EGWG), gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and hypertension (GH), but inter-individual variability has not been explored. We aimed to analyze the prevalence--and potential sociodemographic and medical predictors of--non-responsiveness to gestational exercise, and the association of n...