Pedro Gullón

Pedro Gullón
University of Alcalá | UAH · Department of Surgery, Medical and Social Sciences

PhD

About

73
Publications
6,391
Reads
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916
Citations
Citations since 2017
63 Research Items
901 Citations
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2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250
Additional affiliations
May 2017 - present
University of Alcalá
Position
  • Project Manager
May 2013 - May 2017
Instituto de Salud Carlos III
Position
  • Medical Resident in Public Health
Education
February 2015 - September 2017
University of Alcalá
Field of study
  • Epidemiology
September 2013 - July 2014
University of Alcalá
Field of study
September 2006 - June 2012
University of Alcalá
Field of study

Publications

Publications (73)
Article
Introduction: The state of alarm was declared in Spain due to the COVID-19 epidemic on March 14, 2020, and established population confinement measures. The objective is to describe the process of lifting these mitigation measures. Methods: The Plan for the Transition to a New Normality, approved on April 28, contained four sequential phases with...
Article
Research shows mental health is impacted by poor-quality physical and social-environmental conditions. Subsequently state-led redevelopment/regeneration schemes focus on improving the physical environment, to provide better social-environmental conditions, addressing spatial and socioeconomic inequities thus improving residents' health. However, re...
Article
Full-text available
Patterns of exposure and policies aiming at reducing physical contact might have changed the social distribution of COVID-19 incidence over the course of the pandemic. Thus, we studied the temporal trends in the association between area-level deprivation and COVID-19 incidence rate by Basic Health Zone (minimum administration division for health se...
Article
Full-text available
Aims/hypothesis We aimed to study the association between the availability of exercise facilities and the likelihood of obesity and type 2 diabetes in the adult population of Madrid, Spain. Methods We analysed the electronic medical records of all 1,270,512 residents of Madrid aged 40–75 years in 2017. Exercise facility availability was defined as...
Conference Paper
Background While there is much research that focuses on the association between cold spell and their impacts on daily mortality at the city level, we analyze the impact related to social context and demographic variables at levels lower than the municipal. Methods The objective of this study was to determine the role of the percentage of people ov...
Conference Paper
The results obtained in this study show that there are factors below the municipal level (district level) that should be considered as focus areas for health policy in order to decrease the impact of heat and promote the process of adaptation to heat in the context of climate change.
Article
The role of urban parks has gained interest in urban health research. However, there are currently no clear definitions of these urban assets as exposure variable across the literature, which do have implications for the analysis. In this study, we exhibit an approach to design a comprehensive spatial database of urban parks in cities, using the ex...
Article
Parks are potential key urban assets for improved population health; however, their use is not equal among all social groups. Individual and contextual factors could influence residents' perceptions of parks and how they interact with and, eventually, benefit from them. The use of complementary methodologies provides a deeper understanding of the r...
Article
Background This research aims to: (1) explore the contribution of physical activity supportive environments to income inequities in coronary heart disease (CHD) incidence, and (2) investigate whether income inequities in CHD incidence are modified by physical activity supportive environments. Methods We used data from the REGARDS study, which recr...
Article
Background The influence of area-level socioeconomic status (SES) on Body Mass Index (BMI) and adiposity is well known. There is an unequal distribution of exercise facilities (EF), which is dependent on area-level SES. However, is unclear whether EF intervenes on the relationship between SES and BMI. Methods BMI data were obtained from baseline o...
Article
The objective of our study was to identify neighbourhood factors which prevent and encourage physical activity, according to the residents' perspective. We used qualitative methods, conducting 37 semi-structured interviews and 29 focus groups. The main results were that the type of physical activity that took place in every neighbourhood was differ...
Article
Spain has been one of the most affected regions by the COVID-19 worldwide, and Madrid its most affected city. In response to this, the Spanish government enacted a strict lockdown in late March 2020, that was gradually eased until June 2020. We explored differentials in mobility by area-level deprivation in the functional area of Madrid, before, du...
Article
Objective The SUECO study examines the relationship between urban obesogenic environments and health outcomes among school-age children in the city of Madrid, Spain. We will study how features of the urban environment (related to the food- and the physical activity environment) associate with children's anthropometrics, eating habits, and physical...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose of Review Many neighborhoods which have been unjustly impacted by histories of uneven urban development, resulting in socioeconomic and racial segregation, are now at risk for gentrification. As urban renewal projects lead to improvements in the long-neglected built environments of such neighborhoods, accompanying gentrification processes m...
Article
Full-text available
RESUMEN La pandemia por COVID-19 ha representado una de las crisis sanitarias más importantes del último siglo en España y en todo el mundo. Entre las medidas desplegadas para mitigarla se encuentran específicamente las de reducción de movilidad para disminuir la transmisión comunitaria. Estas medidas pueden tener un impacto desigual en la població...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: The state of alarm was declared in Spain due to the COVID-19 epidemic on March 14 2020, and established population confinement measures. The objective is to describe the process of lifting these mitigation measures. Methods: The Plan for the Transition to a New Normality, approved on April 28, contained four sequential phases with pro...
Article
Lockdowns have been widespread used to limit social interaction and bend the epidemic curve. However, their intensity and geographical delimitation have been variable across different countries. Madrid (Spain) implemented perimeter lockdowns in September with the purpose of bending the COVID-19 curve. In this paper we compared, using join point reg...
Article
Full-text available
RESUMEN Objetivo: Revisar la literatura científica disponible para resumir la evidencia epidemiológica al respecto del impacto de la hostelería en la incidencia y la mortalidad de la COVID-19. Método: Se incluyeron estudios en cualquier población, que describieran tanto el impacto del cierre o la reapertura de la hostelería como la exposición a neg...
Article
Full-text available
Neighborhood greenspace may attract new residents and lead to sociodemographic or housing cost changes. We estimated relationships between greenspace and gentrification-related changes in the 43 largest metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) of the United States (US). We used the US National Land Cover and Brown University Longitudinal Tracts databa...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Differences in complications and multimorbidity for people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) have been found according to patient sex and socioeconomic status (SES). We analysed the association between sex and SES with glycaemic and cardiovascular control in diabetic primary care patients from the whole city of Madrid. Methods: This w...
Preprint
Objective: To review the scientific epidemiologic evidence on the role of hospitality venues in the incidence or mortality from COVID-19. Methods: We included studies conducted in any population, describing either the impact of the closure or reopening of hospitality venues, or exposure to these venues, on the incidence or mortality from COVID-19....
Preprint
Lockdowns have been widespread used to limit social interaction and bend the epidemic curve. However, their intensity and geographical delimitation have been variable across different countries. Madrid (Spain) implemented perimeter lockdowns in September with the purpose of bending the COVID-19 curve. In this paper we compared, using join point reg...
Preprint
Spain has been one of the most affected regions by the COVID-19 worldwide, and Madrid its most affected city. In response to this, the Spanish government enacted a strict lockdown in late March, that was gradually eased until June. We explored differentials in mobility by area-level deprivation in the functional area of Madrid, before, during, and...
Article
Puntos para una lectura rápida •La participación de los profesionales y las profesionales de medicina y enfermería familiar y comunitaria en las tareas de estudio de casos sospechosos y contactos debería aportar algunos aspectos basados en las características fundamentales de la atención primaria y su cercanía con el entorno comunitario. •El estud...
Article
Background Efforts to reduce socioeconomic inequities in cardiovascular disease include interventions to change the built environment. We aimed to explore whether socioeconomic inequities in coronary heart disease (CHD) incidence are ameliorated or exacerbated in environments supportive of physical activity (PA). Methods We used data from the Reas...
Article
The role of immunosuppression among coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) patients has not been elucidated and management may be challenging. This observational study included confirmed COVID‐19 patients. The primary endpoint was the development of moderate–severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Time to moderate–severe ARDS, the need for...
Article
Although there is significant scientific evidence on the impact of heat waves, there are few studies that analyze the effects of sociodemographic factors on the impact of heat waves below the municipal level. The objective of this study was to analyze the role of income level, percent of the population over age 65, existence of air conditioning uni...
Article
Full-text available
Objective To describe social inequities in cardiovascular risk factors in women and men by autonomous regions in Spain. Method We used data from 20,406 individuals aged 18 or older from the 2017 Spanish National Health Survey. We measured socioeconomic position using occupational social class and used data on self-reported cardiovascular risk fact...
Article
Full-text available
Background There are no large reported series determining the Covid-19 cancer patient’s characteristics. We determine whether differences exist in cumulative incidence and mortality of Covid-19 infection between cancer patients and general population in Madrid.Material and methodsWe reviewed 1069 medical records of all cancer patients admitted at O...
Preprint
Full-text available
BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging infectious disease that has spread rapidly worldwide. The role of immunosuppression among COVID-19 patients has not been elucidated and management may be challenging. OBJECTIVE: To assess differences in severe outcomes of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 according to immune system st...
Preprint
Full-text available
BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging infectious disease that has spread rapidly worldwide. The role of immunosuppression among COVID-19 patients has not been elucidated and management may be challenging. OBJECTIVE: To assess differences in severe outcomes of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 according to immune system s...
Article
Introduction An increased incidence of stroke in HIV-infected patients has already been reported, suggesting that HIV infection may be a cerebrovascular risk factor. The objective of this study was to assess temporal trends in the proportion of HIV infection among patients with stroke in Spain. Methods Data were obtained from the minimum basic dat...
Article
Background Currently there are no reported series determining the Covid-19 infected lung cancer patient´s characteristics and outcome that allow us to clarify strategies to protect our patients. In our study we determine whether exists differences in cumulative incidence and severity of Covid-19 infection between lung cancer patients visiting our M...
Article
Full-text available
Immunotherapy is an effective treatment in advanced cancer, although predictors of response are limited. We studied whether excess weight influences the efficacy outcomes of immunotherapy. We have also evaluated the combined prognostic effect of excess weight and immune-related adverse events (irAEs). Efficacy of anti-PD-1 treatment was evaluated w...
Article
The objective of this study is to quantify, using virtual audits in Madrid and Philadelphia, cross-city differences in the walking environment and to test whether differences vary by sampling method. We used two sampling methods; first, a contiguous area combining census units (~15.000 population area for each setting) was selected using the Median...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between the density of green spaces at different buffer sizes (300, 500, 1000 and 1500 m) and cardiovascular risk factors (obesity, hypertension, high cholesterol, and diabetes) as well as to study if the relationship is different for males and females. We conducted cross-sectional analyses usin...
Article
Introduction: An increased incidence of stroke in HIV-infected patients has already been reported, suggesting that HIV infection may be a cerebrovascular risk factor. The objective of this study was to assess temporal trends in the proportion of HIV infection among patients with stroke in Spain. Methods: Data were obtained from the minimum basic...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction The Royal Decree 639/2014 (‘Core Curriculum’ Decree) has amongst its objectives to modify Specialist Training in Medicine Disciplines. The aim of this project is to elaborate a proposal of specific skills for the specialty of Preventive Medicine and Public Health using a comparative and participative approach. Methods 1)Comparative an...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background Immunotherapy is a new and effective form of therapy in several types of cancer, although molecular predictors of response are limited. Recently, we have described that immune-related adverse-events (irAEs) are significantly associated with immunotherapy efficacy, and it has been suggested that body mass index (BMI) might be a favourable...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Identifying socioeconomic determinants that are associated with access to and availability of exercise facilities is fundamental to supporting physical activity engagement in urban populations, which in turn, may reduce health inequities. This study analysed the relationship between area-level socioeconomic status (SES) and access to, a...
Article
e14064 Background: Cancer immune therapy has shown benefit in many cancer types, although it may initiate autoimmune-related disorders in some patients. We have attempted to establish whether the incidence of irAEs after the use of nivolumab or pembrolizumab in advanced malignancies is associated with anti-PD-1 treatment efficacy. Methods: We retro...
Article
Background Cancer immune therapy has shown remarkable benefit in the treatment of a range of cancer types, although it may initiate autoimmune-related disorders in some patients. We have attempted to establish whether the incidence of irAEs after the use of anti–PD-1 antibodies nivolumab or pembrolizumab in advanced malignancies is associated with...
Article
Full-text available
A current challenge in physical activity research is engaging citizens with co-creating policies that support physical activity participation. Using Photovoice, a participatory action research method, the objectives of this study were to: 1) Identify community perceptions of urban built, social, and political/economic environment factors associated...
Article
Previous studies have examined the built environment mostly focusing on a single exposure construct (e.g. walkability) to examine its association with health outcomes. This study developed a multicomponent Heart Healthy Hoods Index to characterize heart-healthy urban environments and examined its relationship with the prevalence of cardiovascular d...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background: Cancer immune therapy has shown remarkable benefit in the treatment of a range of cancer types, although it may initiate autoimmune-related disorders in some patients. We have attempted to establish whether the incidence of irAEs after the use of anti–PD-1 antibodies nivolumab or pembrolizumab in advanced malignancies is associated with...
Article
Full-text available
A large volume of public health literature has shown how the social and physical features of a neighbourhood affect residents' health, and how they contribute to health inequalities. In this article, we argue that citizens, researchers, policy makers and health professionals should engage in creating a common, policy-relevant neighbourhood and heal...
Article
Full-text available
Stroke is the second most frequent neurologic finding in postmortem studies of cancer patients. It has also been described as the first expression of an occult cancer. We have studied patients diagnosed with cancer after an ischemic stroke (IS) and we analyze differences with non-tumor patients. Single cohort longitudinal retrospective study of pat...
Article
Full-text available
There is an increasing research interest in targeting interventions at the neighborhood level to prevent obesity. Healthy urban environments require including residents’ perspectives to help understanding how urban environments relate to residents’ food choices and physical activity levels. We describe an innovative community-driven process aimed t...
Article
Full-text available
Antecedentes/Objetivos: Medicina Preventiva y Salud Pública (MPSP) ha sido identificada como una de las especialidades más afectadas por el Real Decreto de Troncalidad, que supone una reorganización de la formación sanitaria especializada y la adaptación de losprogramas vigentes. La Asociación de Residentes de MPSP decidió elaborar una propuesta de...
Poster
Full-text available
Antecedentes/Objetivos: Medicina Preventiva y Salud Pública (MPSP) ha sido identificada como una de las especialidades más afectadas por el Real Decreto de Troncalidad, que supone una reorganización de la formación sanitaria especializada y la adaptación de los programas vigentes. La Asociación de Residentes de MPSP decidió elaborar una propuesta d...
Poster
Full-text available
Antecedentes/Objetivos: El actual programa formativo de Medicina Preventiva y Salud Pública (MPSP) entró en vigor en 2006. Desde entonces los estudios sobre la empleabilidad han arrojado distintas tasas de desempleo en MPSP: Ministerio de Sanidad, Servicios Sociales e Igualdad-MSSSI- 10% (2009-2012) y Organización Médica Colegial-OMC- desde 15% en...
Article
Full-text available
Background Previous studies found a complex relationship between area-level socioeconomic status (SES) and walkability. These studies did not include neighborhood dynamics. Our aim was to study the association between area-level SES and walkability in the city of Madrid (Spain) evaluating the potential effect modification of neighborhood dynamics....
Article
Background: There is growing concern of how climate change could affect public health, due to the increase number of extreme climate events. Hence, the study of the role that climate events play on the distribution of waterborne diseases, like Hepatitis A, could be key for developing new prevention approaches. Objective: To investigate the assoc...
Article
Full-text available
Background Healthier urban environments influence the distribution of cardiovascular risk factors. Our aim was to design and implement a multicomponent method based on Geographic Information Systems to characterize and evaluate environmental correlates of obesity: the food and the physical activity urban environments. Methods Study location compri...
Article
Full-text available
Background Our aim is to conduct an exploratory study to provide an in-depth characterization of a neighborhood’s social and physical environment in relation to cardiovascular health. A mixed-methods approach was used to better understand the food, alcohol, tobacco and physical activity domains of the urban environment. Methods We conducted this st...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Healthier urban environments may influence the distribution of cardiovascular risk factors therefore the aim of the present study was to design and implement a multivariate method based on a Geographic Information System (GIS) to characterize and evaluate the environmental correlates of obesity: the food and the physical activity urban environments...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: The purpose of the Core Training Law (CTL) is to amend specialised medical training to include 24 months of common training. The aim of this study is to assess its potential impact on the Preventive Medicine and Public Health (PM&PH) training programme and other medical specialties. Method: The programmes of the 21 common medical spec...
Article
The economic crisis has prompted the debate on how to regulate health coverage of undocumented migrants in publicly funded healthcare systems. Spain, as one of the most heavily affected countries in Europe, can be considered a case of particular interest. In 2012 the Spanish Government issued a Royal Decree Law (RDL 16/2012) which revoked their pre...
Article
Full-text available
Audit tools are useful for exploring the urban environment and its association with physical activity. Virtual auditing options are becoming increasingly available potentially reducing the resources needed to conduct these assessments. Only a few studies have explored the use of virtual audit tools. Our objective is to test if the Madrid Systematic...
Article
Introduction: Physical inactivity is a major risk factor for Cardiovascular Diseases. Research on environmental determinants of Physical Activity aims at designing population-wide interventions and related policy. Our objective was to validate the virtual assessment of the walking and cycling functions of the streets of a European City as Madrid us...
Article
Introduction: Several features of the residential environment have been related to cardiovascular risk. This pilot study tested the feasibility of measuring four specific domains of the urban environment (food, tobacco, alcohol and physical activity) in 12 census sections within the Heart Healthy Hoods Study in Madrid, Spain. Methods: 12 census sec...

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Projects (3)
Project
Neighborhood physical disorder is a common measure used in urban health research in the United States and Europe but has not been employed in Latin America. Further, traditional in-person systematic social observation can be cost-prohibitive and logistically complex. This project seeks to understand the applicability of the existing concept of physical disorder to the Latin American context by using virtual audits from Google Street View imagery to quickly and easily gather observational data across widely-dispersed geographies both within and outside Latin America and the United States.
Project
Evaluación de la calidad de la formación sanitaria especializada y la empleabilidad de los posgraduados en Medicina Preventiva y Salud Pública
Project
HHH project proposes to measure the food, physical activity, alcohol and tobacco environments of hundreds of neighbourhoods in Madrid, a city with similar historical and demographic profile as many other European cities, and to correlate the results with cardiovascular primary care health records.