Pedro Luis Gambús

Pedro Luis Gambús
University of Barcelona | UB · Hospital Clinic

PhD MD

About

115
Publications
19,121
Reads
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4,413
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2014 - present
University of Barcelona
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
June 2013 - present
IDIBAPS August Pi i Sunyer Biomedical Research Institute
Position
  • Investigator
Description
  • Ongoing research on Neuroinflammatory Response to Surgery and Anesthesia: Modeling inflammation and resolution of inflamation with respect to initial agression, short and long term outcomes and factors that an affect it
January 2013 - present
Hospital Clínic de Barcelona
Position
  • Consultant
Description
  • Associate Researcher to Dr. P. Villoslada in the Neuroimmunology Research Group. Research Line "Neuroimmune Responses to Surgery and Anesthesia"
Education
January 2012 - December 2012
University of California, San Francisco
Field of study
  • Mechanisms of Sedation and Neuroinflammatory Response to Surgery
January 1996 - February 2002
University of Barcelona
Field of study
  • EEG effects of intravenous anesthetics
January 1993 - July 1995
Stanford University
Field of study
  • Pharmacology of Anesthetics

Publications

Publications (115)
Article
Full-text available
Intraoperative targeting of the analgesic effect still lacks an optimal solution. Opioids are currently the main drug used to achieve anti‐nociception, and while underdosing can lead to an increased stress response, overdose can also lead to undesirable side‐effects. To better understand how to achieve the optimal analgesic effect of opioids, we st...
Article
Full-text available
Pupillary reflex dilation (PRD) is triggered by noxious stimuli and diminished by opioid administration. In the postoperative period, PRD has been shown to be correlated with pain reporting and a useful tool to guide opioid administration. In this study we assessed whether pupillary measurements taken before extubation were related with the patient...
Article
Background: The aim of this observational study was to determine whether bilateral bispectral index (BIS) monitoring can detect seizures in epileptic patients. Methods: Four-channel frontal BIS monitoring and standard 40-channel electroencephalography monitoring were conducted in epileptic patients undergoing evaluation for epilepsy surgery. The...
Chapter
IntroductionMartínez-Vázquez, Pablo toGambús, Pedro L. depthWeber Jensen, Erik of anaesthesiaAnaesthesia monitoring, a crucial tool to guide anaesthesiologist for safer surgical procedures. Description of the main EEG activity changes induced by hypnotic anaesthetic agents and the distinct analysis perspectives in their characterizations. Design pr...
Article
Anaesthesiologists and non-anaesthesiologist sedationists have a limited set of available i.v. hypnotics, further reduced by the withdrawal of thiopental in the USA and its near disappearance in Europe. Meanwhile, demand for sedation increases and new clinical groups are using what traditionally are anaesthesiologists' drugs. Improved understanding...
Article
Full-text available
Using a targeted controlled infusion of remifentanil during total intravenous anesthesia, we investigated the effect-site concentrations of remifentanil that correlate with different values of the Pupillary Pain Index and which concentrations were necessary for achieving a Pupillary Pain Index ≤ 4 and its usefulness in titrating opioids. The Pupill...
Book
Full-text available
Personalized Anaesthesia presents a modern vision of anaesthesia. Integrating technology and knowledge from leading experts in the field, this book will change the way anaesthesia is both taught and practiced. Modern practice requires the anaesthetist to provide patient-specific management. This is the first resource to be organised by the desired...
Article
Background: Clinicians can optimize propofol titration by using 2 sources of pharmacodynamic (PD) information: the predicted effect-site concentration for propofol (Ceprop) and the electroencephalographically (EEG) measured drug effect. Relation between these sources should be time independent, that is, perfectly synchronized. In reality, various...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Perioperative blood loss is an essential parameter in research into Patient Blood Management. However, currently there is no "gold standard" method to quantify it. Direct measurements of blood loss are considered unreliable methods, and the formulae to estimate it have proven to be significantly inaccurate. Given the need for better re...
Article
Full-text available
The refined multiscale entropy (RMSE) approach is commonly applied to assess complexity as a function of the time scale. RMSE is normally based on the computation of sample entropy (SampEn) estimating complexity as conditional entropy. However, SampEn is dependent on the length and standard deviation of the data. Recently, fuzzy entropy (FuzEn) has...
Article
Full-text available
Rheoencephalography (REG) is a simple and inexpensive technique that intends to monitor cerebral blood flow (CBF), but its ability to reflect CBF changes has not been extensively proved. Based on the hypothesis that alterations in CBF during apnea should be reflected in REG signals under the form of increased complexity, several entropy metrics wer...
Article
Full-text available
The use of sedation for diagnostic procedures including gastrointestinal endoscopy is rapidly growing. Recovery of cognitive function after sedation is important because it would be important for most patients to resume safe, normal life soon after the procedure. Computerized tests have shown being accurate descriptors of cognitive function. The pu...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Rheoencephalography is a simple and inexpensive technique for cerebral blood flow assessment, however, it is not used in clinical practice since its correlation to clinical conditions has not yet been extensively proved. The present study investigates the ability of Poincaré Plot descriptors from rheoencephalography signals to detect ap...
Article
Background and objective Analgesia in ambulatory surgery (AS) needs to evolve in parallel with surgical complexity. We designed a study to try to improve analgesia in painful surgery using an intravenous elastomeric pump. As a novelty, methadone was included. Patients and methods An observational study, physical status ASA I–II, underwent ambulato...
Article
Cognition is essential to all aspects of our everyday life. Although we take our cognitive function for granted, the perioperative period is prone to several aggressions that might impair it. Postoperative cognitive dysfunction, has been the aim of many studies recently, and was shown to be very common with an incidence that can reach 40%, yielding...
Article
Background and objective: Analgesia in Ambulatory Surgery (AS) needs to evolve in parallel with surgical complexity. We designed a study to try to improve analgesia in painful surgery using an intravenous elastomeric pump. As a novelty, methadone was included. Patients and methods: An observational study, physical status ASA I-II, underwent ambu...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: This works investigates the time-frequency content of impedance cardiography signals during a propofol-remifentanil anesthesia. Materials and Methods: In the last years, impedance cardiography (ICG) is a technique which has gained much attention. However, ICG signals need further investigation. Time-Frequency Distributions (TFDs) with 5...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this work is to compare the performances of two electroencephalogram based indices for detecting loss of consciousness and loss of response to nociceptive stimulation. Specifically, their behaviour after drug induction and during recovery of consciousness was pointed out. Data was recorded from 140 patients scheduled for general an...
Article
Full-text available
Second generation supraglottic airway devices providing high seal airway pressures are suitable for patients undergoing gynecologic laparoscopy. We compared the seal pressure achieved by the new Ambu AuraGain™ versus LMA Supreme™ following pneumoperitoneum in the Trendelenburg position. Sixty female patients were randomly allocated to ventilation w...
Article
Ketamine is an important component of multimodal treatment and a commonly used anesthetic drug. However, its analgesic effects have not been fully assessed intraoperatively because of difficulties in measuring this effect. In this case report, a woman underwent general anesthesia with ketamine and its pupillary reflexes were measured to detect auto...
Article
Full-text available
The exact role of the brainstem in the control of body functions is not yet well known and the same applies to the influence of general anaesthesia on brainstem functions. Nevertheless in all general anaesthesia the anaesthesiologist should be aware of the interaction of anaesthetic drugs and brainstem function in relation to whole body homeostasis...
Article
Full-text available
The exact role of the brainstem in the control of body functions is not yet well known and the same applies to the influence of general anaesthesia on brainstem functions. Nevertheless in all general anaesthesia the anaesthesiologist should be aware of the interaction of anaesthetic drugs and brainstem function in relation to whole body homeostasis...
Conference Paper
Monitoring the levels of sedation-analgesia may be helpful for managing patient stress on minimally invasive medical procedures. Monitors based on EEG analysis and designed to assess general anesthesia cannot distinguish reliably between a light and deep sedation. In this work, the Poincaré plot is used as a nonlinear technique applied to EEG signa...
Article
Full-text available
The level of sedation in patients undergoing medical procedures is decided to assure unconsciousness and prevent pain. The monitors of depth of anesthesia, based on the analysis of the electroencephalogram (EEG), have been progressively introduced into the daily practice to provide additional information about the state of the patient. However, the...
Article
Background: Respiratory depression is a common adverse effect of propofol and remifentanil. We aimed to develop a model for respiratory depressant effects of propofol with remifentanil in patients undergoing endoscopy with sedation. Methods: Data were available for 136 patients undergoing endoscopy with sedation. Participants randomly received i...
Article
The relationship between persistent postoperative cognitive decline and the more common acute variety remains unknown; using data acquired in preclinical studies of postoperative cognitive decline we attempted to characterize this relationship. Low capacity runner (LCR) rats, which have all the features of the metabolic syndrome, were compared post...
Article
Full-text available
The level of sedation in patients undergoing medical procedures evolves continuously, affected by the interaction between the effect of the anesthetic and analgesic agents and the pain stimuli. The monitors of depth of anesthesia, based on the analysis of the electroencephalogram (EEG), have been progressively introduced into the daily practice to...
Article
The purpose of this study was to identify optimal target propofol and remifentanil concentrations to avoid a gag reflex in response to insertion of an upper gastrointestinal endoscope. Patients presenting for endoscopy received target-controlled infusions (TCI) of both propofol and remifentanil for sedation-analgesia. Patients were randomized to 4...
Poster
qNOX is a measure of peroperative nociception. However it responds to hypnotic effects evoked by propofol. This poster presents an adaptation of the qNOX algorithm to decrease the influence of propofol on qNOX
Article
The level of sedation in patients undergoing medical procedures is affected by the interaction between the effect of the anesthetic and analgesic agents and the pain stimuli. The presence of the A118G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the OPRM1 gene affects the requirements of opioids for patients undergoing sedation-analgesia. The purpose of...
Article
Background: The objective of the present study was to validate the qCON index of hypnotic effect and the qNOX index of nociception. Both indices are derived from the frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) and implemented in the qCON 2000 monitor (Quantium Medical, Barcelona, Spain). Methods: The study was approved by the local ethics committee, incl...
Conference Paper
The level of sedation in patients undergoing medical procedures evolves continuously since the effect of the anesthetic and analgesic agents is counteracted by noxious stimuli. The monitors of depth of anesthesia, based on the analysis of the electroencephalogram (EEG), have been progressively introduced into the daily practice to provide additiona...
Article
The level of sedation in patients undergoing medical procedures evolves continuously, such as the effect of the anesthetic and analgesic agents is counteracted by pain stimuli. The monitors of depth of anesthesia, based on the analysis of the electroencephalogram (EEG), have been progressively introduced into the daily practice to provide additiona...
Article
Full-text available
Anaesthesiologists adjust drug dosing, administration system and kind of drug to the characteristics of the patient. Then observe the expected response and adjust dosing to the specific requirements according to the difference between observed response, expected response and the context of the surgery and the patient. The approach above can be achi...
Article
The level of sedation in patients undergoing medical procedures evolves continuously, such as the effect of the anesthetic and analgesic agents is counteracted by pain stimuli. The monitors of depth of anesthesia, based on the analysis of the electroencephalogram (EEG), have been progressively introduced into the daily practice to provide additiona...
Article
Background: The presence of the A118G single nucleotide polymorphism in the OPRM1 gene as well as noxious stimulation might affect the requirements of remifentanil for patients undergoing ultrasonographic endoscopy under sedation-analgesia with propofol and remifentanil. Bispectral index (BIS) was used as a surrogate measure of effect. Method: A...
Article
Background To compare 3 combinations of 0.5% levobupivacaine (L) and 1% mepivacaine (M) for popliteal block for hallux valgus surgery.Methods Prospective, double blind study of 120 patients undergoing unilateral hallux valgus outpatient surgery with posterior popliteal block with ultrasound-guided single injection. Patients were randomly allocated...
Article
Monitoring cardiac output for a variety of patient conditions is essential to ensure tissue perfusion and oxygenation. Cardiac output can be measured either invasively using a pulmonary artery catheter or non-invasively using impedance cardiography (ICG). The objective of the present study was to validate a cardiac output monitor, the qCO (Quantium...
Article
The onset and offset of action of anesthetic gases might be delayed by respiratory changes and gas exchange alterations present in obese patients. In this study, we assessed the influence of obesity on the hysteresis between sevoflurane and its effect as measured by the bispectral index (BIS). Because the use of positive end-expiratory pressure (PE...
Article
Full-text available
The laryngeal mask airway (LMA) has been successfully used in patients in the prone position either for rescue or elective airway management. The reusable Proseal™ LMA (PLMA) and the single use Supreme™ LMA (SLMA) have been reported to be suitable for this purpose but few comparative data are available. In this study, we compared the clinical use o...
Article
Full-text available
The increasing demand for anesthetic procedures in the gastrointestinal endoscopy area has not been followed by a similar increase in the methods to provide and control sedation and analgesia for these patients. In this study, we evaluated different combinations of propofol and remifentanil, administered through a target-controlled infusion system,...
Article
Full-text available
Microdialysis is used to determine the concentrations of substances in the extracellular fluid of tissues. To date, it has not been used to measure rocuronium concentrations in human muscle. We determined the ability of microdialysis to recover rocuronium from muscle interstitial tissue for the purpose of assessing the effect of chronic phenytoin t...
Article
Age is an important determinant of the pharmacokinetic profile of inhaled anesthetics. The influence of age on the dynamic profile of sevoflurane's effect has not been well described. We performed this study to characterize the influence of age and other covariates on the dynamic relationship between sevoflurane end-tidal concentration (C(ET)) and...
Article
Full-text available
Antiepileptic drugs decrease the intensity of the effect of neuromuscular blocking agents. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of chronic phenytoin therapy (CPT) on the pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of rocuronium. A total of 21 patients undergoing intracranial surgery were enrolled in the study. Ten of these...
Article
The level of consciousness of patients undergoing surgery evolves continuously as the effect of the anesthetic agents is counteracted by the surgical stimuli. The monitors of depth of anesthesia, based on the analysis of the electroencephalogram (EEG), have been progressively introduced into the daily practice to provide additional information abou...
Article
The incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting in the general population has been estimated to have remained constant at around 20% to 30% in recent years, but it can reach 80% in high-risk patients. A wide range of risk factors related to patient variables, anesthetic technique, or surgery have been described. However, risk can be classified b...