Pedro W Crous

Pedro W Crous
Westerdijk Fungal Biodiversity Institute · Crous Lab of Evolutionary Phytopathology

BSc, MSc, PhD, DSc

About

2,476
Publications
966,669
Reads
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70,464
Citations
Introduction
PDFs of all my research papers can be downloaded from the CBS website, under research, Group Crous
Additional affiliations
November 2012 - present
University of the Free State
Position
  • Professor
January 2010 - present
Utrecht University
Position
  • Professor
January 2004 - present
University of Pretoria
Position
  • Professor
Education
January 2008 - December 2009
University of Pretoria
Field of study
  • Fungal Systematics
January 1990 - December 1992
University of the Free State
Field of study
  • Plant Pathology
January 1986 - December 1988
Stellenbosch University
Field of study
  • Plant Pathology

Publications

Publications (2,476)
Article
Full-text available
Seven Fusarium species complexes are treated, namely F. aywerte species complex (FASC) (two species), F. buharicum species complex (FBSC) (five species), F. burgessii species complex (FBURSC) (three species), F. camptoceras species complex (FCAMSC) (three species), F. chlamydosporum species complex (FCSC) (eight species), F. citricola species compl...
Article
The genus Morchella has gone through turbulent taxonomic treatments. Although significant progress in Morchella systematics has been achieved in the past decade, several problems remain unresolved and taxonomy in the genus is still in flux. In late 2019, a paper published in the open-access journal Scientific Reports raised serious concerns about t...
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AimsUnderstanding the contributions of abiotic and biotic conditions to soil microbial diversity, structure, and function, remains a central focus in soil biology and biogeochemistry. Here we aim to determine how geography and host plant identity influence these different components of rhizosphere bacterial communities and endosymbionts associated...
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The genus Botryosphaeria includes more than 200 epithets, but only the type species, Botryosphaeria dothidea and a dozen or more other species have been identified based on DNA sequence data. The taxonomic status of the other species remains unconfirmed because they lack either morphological information or DNA sequence data. In this study, types or...
Article
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Marine fungi remain poorly covered in global genome sequencing campaigns; the 1000 fungal genomes (1KFG) project attempts to shed light on the diversity, ecology and potential industrial use of overlooked and poorly resolved fungal taxa. This study characterizes the genomes of three marine fungi: Emericellopsis sp. TS7, wood-associated Amylocarpus...
Article
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Summary. Citrus is one of the most important fruit crops cultivated in South Africa. Internationally, citrus dry root rot is a common disease in major citrus production areas. Several abiotic and biotic factors are involved in disease development, in which Neocosmospora species are important biotic agents. The diversity of Neocosmospora species ass...
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An order, family and genus are validated, seven new genera, 35 new species, two new combinations, two epitypes, two lectotypes, and 17 interesting new host and / or geographical records are introduced in this study. Validated order, family and genus: Superstratomycetales and Superstratomycetaceae (based on Superstratomyces). New genera: Haudseptori...
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This study represents the first survey studying the occurrence, genetic diversity, and pathogenicity of Botryosphaeriaceae species associated with symptomatic citrus species in citrus-production areas in five European countries. Based on morphological features and phylogenetic analyses of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (...
Article
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Gymnosporangium species ( Pucciniaceae , Pucciniales , Basidiomycota ) are the causal agents of cedar-apple rust diseases, which can lead to significant economic losses to apple cultivars. Currently, the genus contains 17 described species that alternate between spermogonial/aecial stages on Malus species and telial stages on Juniperus or Chamaecyp...
Article
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The genus Calonectria includes many important plant pathogens with a wide global distribution. In order to better understand the reproductive biology of these fungi, we characterised the structure of the mating type locus and flanking genes using the genome sequences for seven Calonectria species. Primers to amplify the mating type genes in other s...
Article
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The taxonomy of Oculimacula, Rhynchosporium and Spermospora is re-evaluated, along with that of phylogenetically related genera. Isolates are identified using comparisons of DNA sequences of the internal transcribed spacer ribosomal RNA locus (ITS), partial translation elongation factor 1-alpha (tef1), actin (act), DNA-directed RNA polymerase II la...
Article
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The Genera of Fungi series, of which this is the sixth contribution, links type species of fungal genera to their morphology and DNA sequence data. Five genera of microfungi are treated in this study, with new species introduced in Arthrographis , Melnikomyces , and Verruconis . The genus Thysanorea is emended and two new species and nine combinati...
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Seven new genera, 26 new species, 10 new combinations, two epitypes, one new name, and 20 interesting new host and / or geographical records are introduced in this study. New genera are: Italiofungus (based on Italiofungus phillyreae ) on leaves of Phillyrea latifolia (Italy); Neolamproconium (based on Neolamproconium silvestre ) on branch of Tilia...
Article
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Species of Raffaelea ( Ophiostomatales : Ascomycota ) are obligate symbionts of ambrosia beetles, some of which pose a substantial threat to forest trees. Leucaena leucocephala is a small mimosoid tree species that is considered as an invasive weed in most of its introduced range globally. During a field expedition on the French island of Réunion,...
Article
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Calonectria represents a genus of phytopathogenic ascomycetous fungi with a worldwide distribution. In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of taxonomic studies on these fungi. Currently, there are 169 described species of Calonectria based on comparisons of DNA sequence data, combined with morphological characteristics. However,...
Article
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Mycorrhizal fungi are mutualists that play crucial roles in nutrient acquisition in terrestrial ecosystems. Mycorrhizal symbioses arose repeatedly across multiple lineages of Mucor-omycotina, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota. Considerable variation exists in the capacity of mycorrhizal fungi to acquire carbon from soil organic matter. Here, we present...
Article
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Plantation forestry is expanding rapidly in China to meet an increasing demand for wood and pulp products globally. Fungal pathogens including species of Calonectria represent a serious threat to the growth and sustainability of this industry. Surveys were conducted in the Guangdong, Guangxi and Hainan Provinces of South China, where Eucalyptus tre...
Article
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Scientific discovery, including naming new taxa, is important because without a scientific name, a species is invisible to science and the possibilities of researching its ecology, applications and threats, and conserving it, are greatly reduced. We review new scientific discoveries in the plant and fungal kingdoms, based largely on new names of ta...
Book
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Kew’s State of the World’s Plants and Fungi project provides assessments of our current knowledge of the diversity of plants and fungi on Earth, the global threats that they face, and the policies to safeguard them. Produced in conjunction with an international scientific symposium, Kew’s State of the World’s Plants and Fungi sets an important inte...
Article
Currently, eight Phyllosticta species are known to be associated with several Citrus hosts, incorporating diverse lifestyles: while some of them are endophytic (P. capitalensis and P. citribraziliensis), others are pathogenic (P. citriasiana, P. citricarpa, P. citrichinaensis and P. paracitricarpa). Sexual reproduction plays a key role in the inter...
Article
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True fungi (Fungi) and fungus-like organisms (e.g. Mycetozoa, Oomycota) constitute the second largest group of organisms based on global richness estimates, with around 3 million predicted species. Compared to plants and animals, fungi have simple body plans with often morphologically and ecologically obscure structures. This poses challenges for a...
Article
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Novel species of fungi described in this study include those from various countries as follows: Antarctica, Cladosporium arenosum from marine sediment sand. Argentina, Kosmimatamyces alatophylus (incl. Kosmimatamyces gen. nov.) from soil. Australia, Aspergillus banksianus, Aspergillus kumbius, Aspergillus luteorubrus, Aspergillus malvicolor and Asp...
Article
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Mycological investigation of various foods (mainly cowpea, groundnut, maize, rice, sorghum) and agricultural soils from two states in north-central Nigeria (Nasarawa and Niger), was conducted in order to understand the role of filamentous fungi in food contamination and public health. A total of 839 fungal isolates were recovered from 84% of the 25...
Article
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Eight diketopiperazines including five previously unreported derivatives were isolated from an endophytic fungus cultured from the medicinal plant Globularia alypum collected in Algeria. The strain was characterised by means of morphological studies and molecular phylogenetic methods and was found to represent a species of a new genus in the Chaeto...
Article
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Curvularia is a cosmopolitan genus that includes species associated with plants, animals and humans, several of which are of clinical significance. Some of these species are important pathogens of grasses, causing devastating diseases on cereal crops in the family Poaceae. In the present multi-locus study, ex-type and reference strains of Curvulari...
Article
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Ecological diversity in fungi is largely defined by metabolic traits, including the ability to produce secondary or "specialized" metabolites (SMs) that mediate interactions with other organisms. Fungal SM pathways are frequently encoded in biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs), which facilitate the identification and characterization of metabolic path...
Preprint
Full-text available
Currently, eight Phyllosticta species are known to be associated with Citrus hosts, incorporating endophytic and pathogenic lifestyles. As sexual reproduction is a key factor involved in host-interaction, it could be related to the differences in lifestyle. To evaluate this hypothesis, we characterized the mating-type loci of six Citrus-associated...
Preprint
Full-text available
Eight diketopiperazines including five previously unreported derivatives were isolated from an endophytic fungus cultured from the medicinal plant Globularia alypum collected in Algeria. The strain was characterised by means of morphological studies and molecular phylogenetic methods and was found to represent a species of a new genus in the Chaeto...
Article
Full-text available
Fungal communities play a crucial role in maintaining the health of managed and natural soil environments, which directly or indirectly affect the properties of plants and other soil inhabitants. As part of a Citizen Science Project initiated by the Westerdijk Fungal Biodiversity Institute and the Utrecht University Museum, which aimed to describe...
Article
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The Capnodiales, which includes fungi known as the sooty moulds, represents the second largest order in Dothideomycetes, encompassing morphologically and ecologically diverse fungi with different lifestyles and modes of nutrition. They include saprobes, plant and human pathogens, mycoparasites, rock-inhabiting fungi (RIF), lichenised, epi-, ecto- a...
Article
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Members of Venturiales (Dothideomycetes) are widely distributed, and comprise saprobes, as well as plant, human and animal pathogens. In spite of their economic importance, the general lack of cultures and DNA data has resulted in taxa being poorly resolved. In the present study five loci, ITS, LSU rDNA, tef1, tub2 and rpb2 are used for analysing 1...
Article
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The Diaporthales (Sordariomycetes) includes many important families of plant pathogenic fungi, such as the notorious Cryphonectriaceae. The aim of the present study was to re-evaluate this family, along with others in Diaporthales. Based on phylogenetic analyses using combined sequence data of ITS, 28S, tef1-α and rpb2, Cryphonectriaceae separated...
Article
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Species of Diaporthe (syn. Phomopsis ) are important endophytes, saprobes and pathogens, infecting a wide range of plants and resulting in important crop diseases. However, the species occurring on pear remain largely unresolved. In this study, a total of 453 Diaporthe isolates were obtained from branches of Pyrus plants (including P. bretschneider...
Article
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Dothideomycetes is the largest class of kingdom Fungi and comprises an incredible diversity of lifestyles, many of which have evolved multiple times. Plant pathogens represent a major ecological niche of the class Dothideomycetes and they are known to infect most major food crops and feedstocks for biomass and biofuel production. Studying the ecolo...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Ecological diversity in fungi is largely defined by metabolic traits, including the ability to produce secondary or “specialized” metabolites (SMs) that mediate interactions with other organisms. Fungal SM pathways are frequently encoded in biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs), which facilitate the identification and characterization of met...
Article
Carpetgrass (Axonopus compressus) is a creeping, stoloniferous, perennial warm-season grass that is adapted to humid tropical and subtropical climates. Recently, outbreaks of anthracnose disease of A. compressus caused by an unidentified Colletotrichum sp. were observed in the Hainan and Guangdong provinces in southern China. In late winter and ear...
Article
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Fusarium species are well known for their abundance, diversity and cosmopolitan life style. Many members of the genus Fusarium are associated with plant hosts, either as plant pathogens, secondary invaders, saprotrophs, and/or endophytes. We previously studied the diversity of Fusarium species in the Fusarium oxysporum species complex (FOSC) associ...
Article
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The Fusarium incarnatum-equiseti species complex (FIESC) is a phylogenetically species-rich complex that includes over 30 cryptic phylogenetic species, making identification based on phenotypic characters problematic. Several established Fusarium species known to reside in the FIESC lack type material, further complicating the use of Latin binomial...
Article
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Novel species of fungi described in this study include those from various countries as follows: Antarctica , Apenidiella antarctica from permafrost, Cladosporium fildesense from an unidentified marine sponge. Argentina , Geastrum wrightii on humus in mixed forest. Australia , Golovinomyces glandulariae on Glandularia aristigera , Neoanungitea eucal...
Article
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We surveyed eight banana farms planted with cultivar “Lakatan” in Central Visayas, Philippines, for fungal diseases in 2014. A rotting disease on the corm and leaf sheaths, splitting of the pseudostem and yellowing of the leaves were observed only in Toledo City, Cebu province. These symptoms were associated with sclerotial bodies and mycelial grow...
Article
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During a survey of diseases affecting pomegranate in the southeastern USA we identified a unique species of Diaporthales causing leaf spotting and fruit rot. Objectives of this study were to provide a morphological description of the putative new species, use DNA sequence data of three gene loci (LSU, ITS and rpb2) to accurately place the fungus wi...
Article
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Anthracnose of chili (Capsicum spp.) causes major production losses throughout Asia where chili plants are grown. A total of 260 Colletotrichum isolates, associated with necrotic lesions of chili leaves and fruit were collected from chili producing areas of Indonesia, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Taiwan. Colletotrichum truncatum was the most c...
Article
Fusarium chlamydosporum represents a well-defined morpho-species of both phytopathological and clinical importance. Presently, five phylo-species lacking Latin binomials have been resolved in the F. chlamydosporum species complex (FCSC). Naming these phylo-species is complicated due to the lack of type material for F. chlamydosporum. Over the years...
Article
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Abstract Dothideomycetes is the most diverse fungal class in Ascomycota and includes species with a wide range of lifestyles. Previous multilocus studies have investigated the taxonomic and evolutionary relationships of these taxa but often failed to resolve early diverging nodes and frequently generated inconsistent placements of some clades. Here...
Article
Species of Septoria are commonly associated with leaf spot diseases of a broad range of plant hosts worldwide. During our investigation of fungi associated with leaf spot diseases in northern and northwestern Iran, several Septoria isolates were recovered from symptomatic leaves on different herbaceous and woody plants in the Asteraceae, Betulaceae...
Article
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Several Phyllosticta species are known as pathogens of Citrus spp., and are responsible for various disease symptoms including leaf and fruit spots. One of the most important species is P. citricarpa, which causes a foliar and fruit disease called citrus black spot. The Phyllosticta species occurring on citrus can most effectively be distinguished...
Article
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During 2017, the Westerdijk Fungal Biodiversity Institute (WI) and the Utrecht University Museum launched a Citizen Science project. Dutch school children collected soil samples from gardens at different localities in the Netherlands, and submitted them to the WI where they were analysed in order to find new fungal species. Around 3000 fungal isola...
Article
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The genus Neocosmospora (Fusarium solani species complex) contains saprobes, plant endophytes and pathogens of major economic significance as well as opportunistic animal pathogens. Advances in biological and phylogenetic species recognition revealed a rich species diversity which has largely remained understudied. Most of the currently recognised...
Article
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Species of eucalypts are commonly cultivated for solid wood and pulp products. The expansion of commercially managed eucalypt plantations has chiefly been driven by their rapid growth and suitability for propagation across a very wide variety of sites and climatic conditions. Infection of foliar fungal pathogens of eucalypts is resulting in increas...
Article
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The genus Thielavia is morphologically defined by having non-ostiolate ascomata with a thin peridium composed of textura epidermoidea, and smooth, singlecelled, pigmented ascospores with one germ pore. Thielavia is typified with Th. basicola that grows in close association with a hyphomycete which was traditionally identified as Thielaviopsis basic...