Pedro Carneiro

Pedro Carneiro
University College London | UCL · Department of Economics

About

73
Publications
16,985
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6,773
Citations
Citations since 2016
7 Research Items
3158 Citations
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20162017201820192020202120220100200300400
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400

Publications

Publications (73)
Article
Children in developing countries have deep deficits in math and language. Personalized coaching for teachers has been proposed as a way of raising teacher quality and child achievement. We designed a coaching program that focused on one aspect of teacher quality—teacher-child interactions—that researchers in education and psychology have argued is...
Article
Full-text available
We assigned two cohorts of kindergarten students, totaling more than 24,000 children, to teachers within schools with a rule that is as-good-as-random. We collected data on children at the beginning of the school year, and applied 12 tests of math, language and executive function (EF) at the end of the year. All teachers were filmed teaching for a...
Book
The effect of increasing school resources on educational outcomes is a central issue in the debate on improving school quality. This paper uses a randomized experiment to analyze the impact of a school grants program in Senegal, which allowed schools to apply for funding for improvements of their own choice. The analysis finds positive effects on t...
Chapter
The effect of increasing school resources on educational outcomes is a central issue in the debate on improving school quality. This paper uses a randomized experiment to analyze the impact of a school grants program in Senegal, which allowed schools to apply for funding for improvements of their own choice. The analysis finds positive effects on t...
Chapter
The effect of increasing school resources on educational outcomes is a central issue in the debate on improving school quality. This paper uses a randomized experiment to analyze the impact of a school grants program in Senegal, which allowed schools to apply for funding for improvements of their own choice. The analysis finds positive effects on t...
Article
We extend the standard intergenerational mobility literature by modeling individual outcomes as a function of the whole history of parental income, using data from Norway. We find that, conditional on permanent income, education is maximized when income is balanced between the early childhood and middle childhood years. In addition, there is an adv...
Article
Full-text available
We evaluate the large scale pilot of an innovative and major welfare intervention in Colombia, which combines homes visits by trained social workers to households in extreme poverty with preferential access to social programs. We use a randomized control trial and a very rich dataset collected as part of the evaluation to identify program impacts o...
Article
Full-text available
The impact of school resources on the quality of education in developing countries may depend crucially on whether resources are targeted efficiently. In this paper we use a randomized experiment to analyze the impact of a school grants program in Senegal, which decentralized a portion of the country's education budget. We find large positive effec...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The frequency of labor inspections in Brazil increased in the late 90s. In the years that followed (namely, from 2003 to 2007) formal employment in Brazil expanded significantly. This paper examines whether city level changes in in labor inspections (starting from the late 90s) are correlated with city level changes in the number of formal labor co...
Article
We study the intergenerational effects of maternal education on children’s cognitive achievement, behavioral problems, grade repetition, and obesity, using matched data from the female participants of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79) and their children. We address the endogeneity of maternal schooling by instrumenting it with...
Article
It is often argued that engaging in indoor residual spraying (IRS) in areas with high coverage of mosquito bed nets may discourage net ownership and use. This is just a case of a public program inducing perverse incentives. We analyze new data from a randomized control trial conducted in Eritrea which surprisingly shows the opposite: IRS encouraged...
Article
Full-text available
This paper provides new estimates of the medium and long-term impacts of Head Start on the health and behavioral problems of its participants. We identify these impacts using discontinuities in the probability of participation induced by program eligibility rules. Our strategy allows us to identify the effect of Head Start for the set of individual...
Article
This paper estimates average and marginal returns to schooling in Indonesia using a non-parametric selection model estimated by local instrumental variables, and data from the Indonesia Family Life Survey. The analysis finds that the return to upper secondary schooling varies widely across individual: it can be as high as 50 percent per year of sch...
Article
Enforcement of labor regulations in the formal sector may drive workers to informality because they increase the costs of formal labor. But better compliance with mandated benefits makes it attractive to be a formal employee. We show that, in locations with frequent inspections workers pay for mandated benefits by receiving lower wages. Wage rigidi...
Article
It is sometimes argued that introducing Indoor Residual Spray (IRS) in areas with high cov-erage of mosquito bed nets may discourage net ownership and use, which would hinder Malaria eradication rather than promote it. We analyze new data from a Randomized Control Trial con-ducted in Eritrea in 2009, and we show that this does not happen in practic...
Article
Full-text available
We study the impact on children of increasing maternity leave benefits using a reform that increased paid and unpaid maternity leave in Norway in July 1977. Mothers giving birth before this date were eligible only for 12 weeks of unpaid leave, while those giving birth after were entitled to 4 months of paid leave and 12 months of unpaid leave. This...
Article
This paper investigates whether labor market regulations involve a trade-off be- tween efficiency and equity. We use city level data on efficiency and equity outcomes, and we explore the regional variation in the enforcement of labor regulation across 5,513 Brazilian cities. Although not all of the variation in enforcement can be consid- ered exoge...
Article
It is sometimes argued that introducing Indoor Residual Spray (IRS) in areas with high coverage of mosquito bed nets may discourage net ownership and use, which would hinder Malaria eradication rather than promote it. We analyze new data from a Randomized Control Trial conducted in Eritrea in 2009, and we show that this does not happen in practice....
Book
This paper estimates average and marginal returns to schooling in Indonesia using a non-parametric selection model estimated by local instrumental variables, and data from the Indonesia Family Life Survey. The analysis finds that the return to upper secondary schooling varies widely across individual: it can be as high as 50 percent per year of sch...
Chapter
This paper estimates average and marginal returns to schooling in Indonesia using a non-parametric selection model estimated by local instrumental variables, and data from the Indonesia Family Life Survey. The analysis finds that the return to upper secondary schooling varies widely across individual: it can be as high as 50 percent per year of sch...
Chapter
This paper estimates average and marginal returns to schooling in Indonesia using a non-parametric selection model estimated by local instrumental variables, and data from the Indonesia Family Life Survey. The analysis finds that the return to upper secondary schooling varies widely across individual: it can be as high as 50 percent per year of sch...
Chapter
This paper estimates average and marginal returns to schooling in Indonesia using a non-parametric selection model estimated by local instrumental variables, and data from the Indonesia Family Life Survey. The analysis finds that the return to upper secondary schooling varies widely across individual: it can be as high as 50 percent per year of sch...
Article
We study the impact on children of increasing the time that the mother spends with her child in the first year by exploiting a reform that increased paid and unpaid maternity leave in Norway. The reform increased maternal leave on average by 4 months and family income was unaffected. The increased time with the child led to a 2.7 percentage points...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents new evidence that increases in college enrollment lead to a decline in the average quality of college graduates between 1960 and 2000, resulting in a decrease of 8 percentage points in the college premium. The standard demand and supply framework (Katz and Murphy, 1992, Card and Lemieux, 2001) can qualitatively account for the t...
Article
Full-text available
This paper estimates marginal returns to college for individuals induced to enroll in college by different marginal policy changes. The recent instrumental variables literature seeks to estimate this parameter, but in general it does so only under strong assumptions that are tested and found wanting. We show how to utilize economic theory and local...
Article
Full-text available
This paper develops methods for evaluating marginal policy changes. We characterize how the effects of marginal policy changes depend on the direction of the policy change, and show that marginal policy effects are fundamentally easier to identify and to estimate than conventional treatment parameters. We develop the connection between marginal pol...
Article
This paper extends the method of local instrumental variables developed by Heckman and Vytlacil [Heckman, J., Vytlacil E., 2005. Structural equations, treatment, effects and econometric policy evaluation. Econometrica 73(3), 669-738] to the estimation of not only means, but also distributions of potential outcomes. The newly developed method is ill...
Article
This paper investigates how the enforcement of labor regulation affects firm size and other firm characteristics in Brazil. We explore firm level data on employment, capital, and output, city level data on economic characteristics and new administrative data measuring enforcement of regulation at the city level. Since enforcement may be endogenous,...
Article
In this paper we estimate the rate of return to firm investments in human capital in the form of formal job training. We use a panel of large firms with detailed information on the duration of training, the direct costs of training, and several firm characteristics. Our estimates of the return to training are substantial (8.6%) for those providing...
Article
This paper studies the effect of enforcing labor regulation in an economy with a dual labor market. The analysis uses data from Brazil, a country with a large informal sector and strict labor law, where enforcement affects mainly the degree of compliance with mandated benefits (severance pay and health and safety conditions) in the formal sector, a...
Article
Full-text available
Identification in errors-in-variables regression models was recently extended to wide models classes by S. Schennach (Econometrica, 2007) (S) via use of generalized functions. In this paper the problems of non- and semi- parametric identification in such models are re-examined. Nonparametric identification holds under weaker assumptions than in (S)...
Article
Identification in errors-in-variables regression models was recently extended to wide models classes by S. Schennach (Econometrica, 2007) (S) via use of generalized functions. In this paper the problems of non- and semi- parametric identification in such models are re-examined. Nonparametric identification holds under weaker assumptions than in (S)...
Article
Portugal has one of the highest levels of income inequality in Europe, and low wages and unemployment are concentrated among low skill individuals. Education is an important determinant of inequality. However, there are large differences in the educational attainment of different individuals in the population, and the sources of these differences e...
Article
Increases in college enrollment cause changes in the distribution of ability among college and high school graduates. This paper estimates a semiparametric selection model of schooling and wages to show that a 14% increase in college participation, which is analogous to the increase observed in the 1980s, reduces the college premium by 11% and incr...
Article
This paper studies the impact of an increase in the enforcement of labor regulations on unemployment and inequality, using city level data from Brazil. We find that stricter enforcement (affecting the payment of mandated benefits to formal workers) leads to: higher unemployment, less income inequality, a higher proportion of formal employment, and...
Article
This paper investigates how enforcement of labour regulation affects the firm's use of informal labour, firm size and firm performance. Using firm level data on employment, capita, and output, census data on informal employment at the city level, and administrative data on enforcement of regulation at the city level, we show that in areas where law...
Article
In this paper we estimate the rate of return to firm investments in human capital in the form of formal job training. We use a panel of large firms withun usually detailed information on the duration of training, the direct costs of training, and several firm characteristics such as their output,workforce characteristics and capital stock. Our esti...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we examine the importance of heterogeneity and self-selection into schooling for the study of inequality. Changes in inequality over time are a combination of price changes, selection bias and composition effects. To distinguish them, we estimate a semiparametric selection model for a sample of white males surveyed (during the 1990s)...
Article
This paper investigates how enforcement of labor regulation affects the firm's use of informal employment and its impact on firm performance. Using firm level data on informal employment and firm performance, and administrative data on enforcement of regulation at the city level, we show that in areas where law enforcement is stricter firms employ...
Article
This paper investigates the relative significance of differences in cognitive skills and discrimination in explaining racial/ethnic wage gaps. We show that cognitive test scores for exams taken prior to entering the labor market are influenced by schooling. Adjusting the scores for racial/ethnic differences in education at the time the test is take...
Chapter
Full-text available
Previous studies show that controlling for ability measured in the teenage years eliminates young adult wage gaps for all groups except Black males, for whom the gap is reduced by approximately three-fourths. This suggests that disparity in skills, rather than the differential treatment of such skills in the market, produces racial and ethnic wage...
Chapter
Full-text available
Previous studies show that controlling for ability measured in the teenage years eliminates young adult wage gaps for all groups except Black males, for whom the gap is reduced by approximately three-fourths. This suggests that disparity in skills, rather than the differential treatment of such skills in the market, produces racial and ethnic wage...
Article
Full-text available
his paper presents formal models of child development that capture the essence of recent findings from the empirical literature on child development. The goal is to provide theoretical frameworks for interpreting the evidence from a vast empirical literature, for guiding the next generation of empirical studies and for formulating policy. We start...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we empirically study how individuals sort across different levels of schooling using a sample of white males from the 1979 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. We find that individuals select into the level of schooling in which they have an absolute advantage. Had high school graduates enrolled in college their wages...
Article
This paper considers alternative policies for promoting skill formation that are targeted to different stages of the life cycle. We demonstrate the importance of both cognitive and noncognitive skills that are formed early in the life cycle in accounting for racial, ethnic and family background gaps in schooling and other dimensions of socioeconomi...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper I examine the empirical importance of accounting for heterogeneity (and selection) in the estimation of the returns to schooling and in the evaluation of education policy. I study white males and females in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth and High School and Beyond, and white males in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. I fi...
Article
This article uses factor models to identify and estimate the "distributions" of counterfactuals. We extend "LISREL" frameworks to a dynamic treatment effect setting, extending matching to account for unobserved conditioning variables. Using these models, we can identify all pairwise and joint treatment effects. We apply these methods to a model of...
Article
Full-text available
This paper uses factor models to identify and estimate distributions of counterfactuals. We extend LISREL frameworks to a dynamic treatment effect setting, extending matching to account for unobserved conditioning variables. Using these models, we can identify all pairwise and joint treatment effects. We apply these methods to a model of schooling...
Article
This paper uses factor models to identify and estimate distributions of counterfactuals. We extend LISREL frameworks to a dynamic treatment effect setting, extending matching to account for unobserved conditioning variables. Using these models, we can identify all pairwise and joint treatment effects. We apply these methods to a model of schooling...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper I summarize some recent developments in the literature on the econometrics of program evaluation. In particular, I consider the estimation of mean and distributional treatment effects when the impact of the program varies across individuals. I focus the exposition on the study of the returns to education (therefore, education is the p...
Article
This article uses factor models to identify and estimate the distributions of counterfactuals. We extend LISREL frameworks to a dynamic treatment effect setting, extending matching to account for unobserved conditioning variables. Using these models, we can identify all pairwise and joint treatment effects. We apply these methods to a model of scho...
Article
Full-text available
This paper summarizes our recent research on evaluating the distributional consequences of social programs. This research advances the economic policy evaluation literature beyond estimating assorted mean impacts to estimate distributions of outcomes generated by different policies and determine how those policies shift persons across the distribut...
Article
This paper examines the family income—college enrolment relationship and the evidence on credit constraints in post--secondary schooling. We distinguish short run liquidity constraints from the long term factors that promote cognitive and noncognitive ability. Long run factors crystallised in ability are the major determinants of the family income...
Article
Full-text available
This paper develops and applies new methods for estimating marginal and average returns to economic activities when returns vary in the population and people sort into these activities with at least partial knowledge of their returns. Different valid instruments identify different parameters which do not, in general, answer well-posed economic ques...
Article
Full-text available
Book description: The surge of inequality in income and wealth in the United States over the past twenty-five years has reversed the steady progress toward greater equality that had been underway throughout most of the twentieth century. This economic development has defied historical patterns and surprised many economists, producing vigorous debat...
Article
Full-text available
nos proporcionaron una asistencia de investigación valiosa, por la cual les agradecemos. Este trabajo toma y amplia de manera substancial Heckman (2000), y Heckman y Lochner (2000). Correspondencia a: James J. Heckman, el Síntesis Este trabajo considera unas políticas alternas para la promoción de la formación de habilidades, políticas que son diri...
Article
The objective of this paper is to investigate mother's education as a driving force behind children's schooling outcomes and to explore channels through which the eect of mother's schooling is transmitted. Using matched data from the female participants of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) and their children, we study the causal ee...
Article
We estimate heterogeneity in returns to schooling in Indonesia using a non-parametric method of local instrumental variables. In this paper we estimate average and marginal returns to upper secondary schooling in Indonesia, using data from the Indonesia Family Life Survey (IFLS). In order to account for the fact that schooling is unlikely to be exo...

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