Pedro Cardoso

Pedro Cardoso
University of Helsinki | HY · Finnish Museum of Natural History

PhD, Docent (Habilitation)
1. Biodiversity conservation 2. Phylogenetic/functional diversity 3. Software development

About

637
Publications
163,359
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
7,936
Citations
Introduction
Curator at the Finnish Museum of Natural History (arachnids, myriapods and terrestrial molluscs). Adjunct Professor in Ecology at the University of Helsinki. Research Associate of the Azorean Biodiversity Group. Founder and former chair of the IUCN's Spider & Scorpion Specialist Group. My research interests go from biodiversity informatics and biogeography to conservation biology and spider taxonomy. http://biodiversityresearch.org
Additional affiliations
September 2012 - present
University of Helsinki
Position
  • Curator, Docent
January 2010 - December 2012
January 2010 - December 2012

Publications

Publications (637)
Article
Full-text available
The use of functional diversity analyses in ecology has grown exponentially over the past two decades, broadening our understanding of biological diversity and its change across space and time. Virtually all ecological sub‐disciplines recognize the critical value of looking at species and communities from a functional perspective, and this has led...
Preprint
Full-text available
Online open databases are increasing in number, usefulness, and ease of use. There are currently two main global databases exclusive for spiders, the World Spider Catalogue (WSC) and the World Spider Trait (WST) database. Both are regularly used by thousands of researchers. Computational tools that allow effective processing of large data are now p...
Article
Author-level performance metrics do not account for collaboration and knowledge transfer between people, institutions, and countries. We propose the i-index and r-index, publication metrics that aim to incentivize the collaboration between researchers and research institutions across borders. These indices promote benefit-sharing among countries of...
Article
Full-text available
Subterranean ecosystems are among the most widespread environments on Earth, yet we still have poor knowledge of their biodiversity. To raise awareness of subterranean ecosystems, the essential services they provide, and their unique conservation challenges, 2021 and 2022 were designated International Years of Caves and Karst. As these ecosystems h...
Article
Full-text available
Aim: Understanding the variation in community composition and species abundances (i.e., β-diversity) is at the heart of community ecology. A common approach to examine β-diversity is to evaluate directional variation in community composition by measuring the decay in the similarity among pairs of communities along spatial or environmental distance...
Article
Ladybirds (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) are an important beneficial group that, as other insects, are negatively affected by many human-mediated threats, including climate change, agricultural intensification, habitat loss, pollution, and biological invasions. Ecological impacts from these threats have altered the richness, abundance, and distributio...
Article
Full-text available
Species traits are an essential currency in ecology, evolution, biogeography, and conservation biology. However, trait databases are unavailable for most organisms, especially those living in difficult-to- access habitats such as caves and other subterranean ecosystems. We compiled an expert-curated trait database for subterranean spiders in Europe...
Article
Full-text available
Wildlife trade is a major driver of biodiversity loss, yet whilst the impacts of trade in some species are relatively well-known, some taxa, such as many invertebrates are often overlooked. Here we explore global patterns of trade in the arachnids, and detected 1,264 species from 66 families and 371 genera in trade. Trade in these groups exceeds mi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Many ecological and evolutionary studies require to quantify the degree of adaptation of subterranean species to caves or other subterranean systems. In 1962, Kenneth A. Christiansen (1924-2017) coined the term "troglomorphism" to illustrate the process of subterranean adaptation and the suite of adaptive traits of organisms ("troglomorphic traits"...
Preprint
Full-text available
Island biota are in imminent threat from anthropogenic impacts. Of these impacts the negative effects of exotic species on the taxonomic and functional diversity of the local fauna are of particularly major concern. Aside from their impact on the diversity of native fauna, exotics may also have a detrimental effect on native interactions which, in...
Article
Full-text available
For humans, caves are dark, moist, and often dangerous places. However, caves are also home to many animals that live strange lives: blind beetles that eat bat poop and appreciate it; tiny spiders that spin webs to catch insects, also known as flying food; and white salamanders that swim in cave ponds without getting lost, at least not all the time...
Article
We analyse the consequences of species extinctions and introductions on the functional diversity and composition of island bird assemblages. Specifically, we ask if introduced species have compensated the functional loss resulting from species extinctions. Seventy‐four oceanic islands (> 100 km2) in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans. Late Hol...
Article
Full-text available
Mass media plays an important role in the construction and circulation of risk perception associated with animals. Widely feared groups such as spiders frequently end up in the spotlight of traditional and social media. We compiled an expert-curated global database on the online newspaper coverage of human-spider encounters over the past ten years...
Preprint
Our current understanding of ecological and evolutionary processes underlying island biodiversity is heavily shaped by empirical data from plants and birds, although arthropods comprise the overwhelming majority of known animal species. This is due to inherent problems with obtaining high-quality arthropod data. Novel high throughput sequencing app...
Article
Brazil’s caves, home to diverse species and minerals, were stripped of protections by a recent presidential decree.
Preprint
Full-text available
In the Internet era, the digital architecture that keeps us connected and informed may collaterally amplify the spread of misinformation and falsehood1,2. The magnitude of this problem is gaining global relevance3, as evidence accumulates that misinformation interferes with democratic processes and undermines collective responses to environmental a...
Article
Full-text available
Because of their ability for aerial dispersal using silk and preference for open habitats, many wolf spiders are formidable colonisers. Pioneering arachnologists were already aware of the large and colourful wolf spiders in the Madeira archipelago, currently included in the genus Hogna Simon, 1885. The origins were investigated and species boundari...
Article
Full-text available
How a particular threat influences extinction risk may depend on biological traits. Empirical studies relating threats and traits are needed, but data are scarce, making simulations useful. We implemented an eco-evolutionary model to analyse how five threat types influence the extinction risk of virtual organisms differing in body size, maturity ag...
Article
Worldwide, natural ecosystems have been replaced by intensive productive systems. This has led to an extreme simplification of habitat structure and loss of ecosystem heterogeneity but also might reduce the opportunities for species co‐occurrence. Anthropogenic disturbances offer an opportunity to explore how the functional diversity of spiders wit...
Article
The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species is central in biodiversity conservation, but insufficient resources hamper its long-term growth, updating, and consistency. Models or automated calculations can alleviate those challenges by providing standardised estimates required for assessments, or prioriti...
Chapter
The trade in a wildlife species is driven by a unique combination of economic, cultural, and societal motivations, which fluctuate over time and space. Although the wildlife trade is vital for the livelihood of millions of people worldwide, it can bring serious consequences for the environment, economy, and human health when it is not well managed...
Preprint
Wildlife trade is a major driver of biodiversity loss. Here we explore global patterns of trade in the arachnids. Trade in these groups exceeds millions of individuals, with 67% coming directly from the wild, and up to 99% of individuals in some genera. Up to 50% of species in popular taxa such as tarantulas are in trade, including 25% of species d...
Preprint
Full-text available
Author-level metrics (number of publications, citations, h-index) remain prime yet controversial measures of academic performance. Among other issues, they do not account for collaboration and knowledge transfer between people, institutions and, ultimately, countries. They also do nothing to contradict the oblivion to which knowledge and data provi...
Article
Full-text available
Aim Species distribution models (SDMs) have emerged as essential tools in the equipment of many ecologists, useful to explore species distributions in space and time and answering an assortment of questions related to biogeography, climate change biology and conservation biology. Historically, most SDM research concentrated on well‐known organisms,...
Preprint
Full-text available
The widespread use of species traits to infer community assembly mechanisms or to link species to ecosystem functions has led to an exponential increase in functional diversity analyses, with >10,000 papers published in 2010–2019, and >1,500 papers only in 2020. This interest is reflected in the development of a multitude of theoretical and methodo...
Article
Full-text available
Illegal or unsustainable wildlife trade (IUWT) currently presents one of the most high-profile conservation challenges. There is no "one-size-fits-all" strategy, and a variety of disciplines and actors are needed for any counteractive approach to work effectively. Here, we detail common challenges faced when tackling IUWT, and we describe some avai...
Article
Full-text available
Spiders are a highly diversified group of arthropods and play an important role in terrestrial ecosystems as ubiquitous predators, which makes them a suitable group to test a variety of eco-evolutionary hypotheses. For this purpose, knowledge of a diverse range of species traits is required. Until now, data on spider traits have been scattered acro...
Article
Full-text available
Illegal or unsustainable wildlife trade (IUWT) currently presents one of the most high-profile conservation challenges. There is no "one-size-fits-all" strategy, and a variety of disciplines and actors are needed for any counteractive approach to work effectively. Here, we detail common challenges faced when tackling IUWT, and we describe some avai...
Preprint
Aim We analyse the consequences of species extinctions and introductions on the functional diversity and composition of island bird assemblages. Specifically, we ask if introduced species have compensated the functional loss resulting from species extinctions. Location Seventy-four oceanic islands (> 100 km2) in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oc...
Article
Full-text available
Illegal or unsustainable wildlife trade is growing at a global level, threatening the traded species and coexisting biota, and promoting the spread of invasive species. From the loss of ecosystem services to diseases transmitted from wildlife to humans, or connections with major organized crime networks and disruption of local to global economies,...
Article
Full-text available
Research in Macaronesia has led to substantial advances in ecology, evolution and conservation biology. We review the scientific developments achieved in this region, and outline promising research avenues enhancing conservation. Some of these discoveries indicate that the Macaronesian flora and fauna is composed of rather young lineages, not Terti...
Article
Full-text available
Aim Habitat diversity has been linked to the diversity and structure of island communities, however, little is known about patterns and processes within habitats. Here we aim to determine the contributions of habitat type and inferred dispersal frequency to the differences in taxonomic structure between assemblages in the same island habitat. Loca...
Article
Full-text available
The 15th UN Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) (COP15) will be held in Kunming, China in October 2021. Historically, CBDs and other multilateral treaties have either alluded to or entirely overlooked the subterranean biome. A multilateral effort to robustly examine, monitor, and incorporate the subterranean biome into future conservation targ...
Article
Full-text available
• Caves and other subterranean habitats fulfill the requirements of experimental model systems to address general questions in ecology and evolution. Yet, the harsh working conditions of these environments and the uniqueness of the subterranean organisms have challenged most attempts to pursuit standardized research. • Two main obstacles have syner...
Article
To better understand the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, it is increasingly accepted that the focus of study needs to shift from taxonomic identity to the diversity of functional traits displayed by species within a community. Such an approach allows species to be grouped according to particular functional characteristi...
Chapter
More than 1 million insects have been scientifically described, with an estimated five times that number probably still to be discovered. With this diversity of species, it comes as no surprise that various insect groups play significant roles in human food production. Aboveground, many help crop production through pollination, decomposition, and m...
Article
Full-text available
While several recent studies have focused on global insect population trends, all are limited in either space or taxonomic scope. As global monitoring programs for insects are currently not implemented, inherent biases exist within most data. Expert opinion, which is often widely available, proves to be a valuable tool where hard data are limited....
Article
Full-text available
The sharp increase in tourist visitation of the Azores Archipelago from 2015 onwards raised concerns about the impacts of recreational tourism on native habitats. In response, a project was financed by the Azorean Government to investigate the drivers of biodiversity erosion associated with recreational tourism. Here, we present the data on spider...
Article
Despite their ecological importance and diversity, spiders (Arachnida: Araneae) are underrepresented in conservation policies in comparison to other groups. We review all extant conservation tools focusing on spiders in Europe, highlighting general patterns, limitations, gaps, and future directions. We assembled a comprehensive online database repo...
Preprint
Full-text available
Understanding the variation in community composition and species abundances, i.e., β-diversity, is at the heart of community ecology. A common approach to examine β-diversity is to evaluate directional turnover in community composition by measuring the decay in the similarity among pairs of communities along spatial or environmental distances. We p...
Article
Full-text available
Ecology, biogeography and conservation biology, among other disciplines, often rely on species identity, distribution and abundance to perceive and explain patterns in space and time. Yet, species are not independent units in the way they interact with their environment. Species often perform similar roles in networks and their ecosystems, and at l...
Preprint
Full-text available
(1) Caves and other subterranean habitats fulfill the requirements of experimental model systems to address general questions in ecology and evolution. Yet, the harsh working conditions of these environments and the uniqueness of the subterranean organisms have challenged most attempts to pursuit standardized research (2) Two main obstacles have sy...
Preprint
Full-text available
Species distribution models (SDMs) are emerging as essential tools in the equipment of many ecologists; they are useful in exploring species distributions in space and time and in answering an assortment of questions related to historical biogeography, climate change biology and conservation biology. Given that arthropod distributions are strongly...
Preprint
Full-text available
The use of functional analyses in ecology has grown exponentially over the past two decades, broadening our understanding of biological diversity and its change across space and time. Virtually all ecological sub-disciplines recognize the critical value of looking at species and communities from a functional perspective, and this has led to a proli...
Article
Full-text available
Ecological systems are the quintessential complex systems, involving numerous high-order interactions and non-linear relationships. The most commonly used statistical modelling techniques can hardly reflect the complexity of ecological patterns and processes. Finding hidden relationships in complex data is now possible through the use of massive co...
Article
Full-text available
Through the Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC) and the financial investments of the LIFE projects, Europe has become an experimental arena for biological conservation. With an estimated annual budget of €20 billion, the EU Biodiversity Strategy for 2030 has set an ambitious goal of classifying 30% of its land and sea territory as Protected Areas and en...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the causes behind species richness and endemicity is fundamental to explain biodiversity and assist conservation management, especially in biodiversity hotspots like the Mediterranean Basin. Here we investigate the patterns in Iberian forest spider communities and the processes behind their assembly, by testing hypotheses about the ef...
Article
Dysdera is a highly speciose genus of mid-sized, nocturnal hunting spiders, mostly circumscribed to the Mediterranean. The genus managed to colonize all Macaronesian archipelagos, and underwent major diversification in the Canary Islands. Here, we report on an independent diversification event on the Madeira archipelago. Based on the integration of...
Article
Five decades ago, a landmark paper in Science titled The Cave Environment heralded caves as ideal natural experimental laboratories in which to develop and address general questions in geology, ecology, biogeography, and evolutionary biology. Although the 'caves as laboratory' paradigm has since been advocated by subterranean biologists, there are...
Preprint
Full-text available
How a particular threat influences extinction risk may depend on biological traits. Empirical studies relating threats and traits are needed, but data are scarce, making simulations useful. We implemented an eco-evolutionary model to analyse how five threat types influence the extinction risk of virtual organisms differing in body size, maturity ag...
Preprint
Full-text available
Ecosystems are under unprecedented and accelerating pressures. Much work on understanding resilience to these pressures has, so far, focussed on the ecosystem. However, understanding a system’s behaviour also requires knowledge of its component parts and their interactions. Here we present a framework for understanding ‘biological resilience’, or t...
Article
Full-text available
Despite the prominent role of spiders in most ecosystems, these invertebrates are still notably endangered as well as underrepresented in current conservation efforts. We sent a survey to spider experts and enthusiasts belonging to arachnological societies across the globe to determine the general consensus on globally relevant threats to spiders a...
Article
Full-text available
A main goal of ecological and evolutionary biology is understanding and predicting interactions between populations and both abiotic and biotic environments, the spatial and temporal variation of these interactions, and the effects on population dynamics and performance. Trait-based approaches can help to model these interactions and generate a com...