Peder Wolkoff

Peder Wolkoff
National Research Centre for the Working Environment

D.Sc.(Med), Ph.D.(Chem), M.Sc.

About

190
Publications
58,369
Reads
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9,884
Citations
Introduction
Research interest: Impact of indoor air chemistry on health effects in eyes and airways. Risk factors for eye symptoms. Impact of ozone/nitrogen dioxide from reactions with pollutants emitted from materials/products/fragrances. Indoor air humidity, health, and comfort. Formaldehyde: non-cancer effects. Indoor environmental risk factors, acute effects, and deteriorated work performance. Cleaning chemistry and associated respiratory effects. Health-based guidelines for indoor air.
Additional affiliations
June 2019 - June 2023
National Research Centre for the Working Environment
Position
  • Researcher
November 2015 - June 2023
National Research Centre for the Working Environment
Position
  • "Named Person"
April 2010 - June 2012
University of Copenhagen
Position
  • Adjunct professor (full)
Description
  • Risk Assessment, Danish Technical University
Education
January 1990 - August 1996
University of Copenhagen, Faculty of Medicine
Field of study
  • Occupational hygiene, indoor environmental science
September 1973 - April 1976
University of Copenhagen, Faculty of Natural Science
Field of study
  • Organic chemistry and mass spectrometry
- January 1972
University of Copenhagen, Faculty of Natural Science
Field of study
  • Organic Chemistry

Publications

Publications (190)
Article
Full-text available
Irritated, stinging, tired, and dry eyes continue to be among top-two reported acute symptoms in modern office-like environments, despite use of new ventilation strategies and low-emitting building materials. In this perspective, we disentangle why the prevalence of external eye symptoms has remained stable without a noticeable decline over the las...
Article
Full-text available
Reactive chemistry is ubiquitous indoors with a wealth of complex oxidation reactions; some of these are initiated by both homogeneous and heterogeneous reaction of ozone with unsaturated organic compounds and subsequent the hydroxyl radical, either in the gas-phase or on reactive surfaces. One major focus has been the reaction of common and abunda...
Article
Full-text available
Spray cleaning and disinfection products have been associated with adverse respiratory effects in professional cleaners and among residents doing domestic cleaning. This review combines information about use of spray products from epidemiological and clinical studies, in vivo and in vitro toxicological studies of cleaning chemicals, as well as huma...
Article
Epidemiological and experimental studies have revealed the effects of the room temperature, indoor air humidity, and ventilation on human health, work and cognitive performance, and risk of infection. In this overview, we integrate the influence of these important microclimatic parameters and assess their influence in offices based on literature se...
Article
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Exposure to spray cleaning products constitutes a potential risk for asthma induction. We set out to review whether substances in such products are potential inducers of asthma. We identified 101 spray cleaning products for professional use. Twenty-eight of their chemical substances were selected. We based the selection on (a) positive prediction f...
Article
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Objective: This study aimed to investigate the risk of asthma among professional cleaners in a nationwide population-based study. Methods: Professional cleaners, aged 16-50 years, were identified according to the yearly assigned administrative job and industrial codes in a register-based, matched cohort study with other manual workers as referen...
Article
The aim of this study was to identify determinants of aldehyde and volatile organic compound (VOC) indoor air concentrations in a sample of more than 140 office rooms, in the framework of the European OFFICAIR research project. A large field campaign was performed, which included (i) the air sampling of aldehydes and VOCs in 37 newly built or recen...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of the study was to compare measured air and surface concentrations after application of biocidal spray products with concentrations simulated with the ConsExpo Web spray simulation tool. Three different biocidal spray products were applied in a 20 m³ climate test chamber with well-controlled environmental conditions (22 ± 1 °C, 50 ± 2%...
Article
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) emission and Secondary Organic Aerosols (SOA) formation from a water-based carpet deodorizer were investigated in a 20 m3 walk-in climate chamber with and without a textile carpet installed. The deodorizer was tested under near-realistic user conditions at low (< 2 ppbv) and high (~50 ppbv) ozone concentrations and...
Article
Full-text available
“Dry air” is a major and abundant indoor air quality complaint in office-like environments. The causality of perceived “dry air” and associated respiratory effects continues to be debated, despite no clear definition of the complaint, yet, has been provided. The perception of “dry air” is semantically confusing without an associated receptor but mi...
Article
Full-text available
There is a long-standing dispute about indoor air humidity and perceived indoor air quality (IAQ) and associated health effects. Complaints about sensory irritation in eyes and upper airways are generally among top-two symptoms together with the perception "dry air" in office environments. This calls for an integrated analysis of indoor air humidit...
Article
Full-text available
There is an increasing concern about indoor air quality (IAQ) and its impact on health, comfort, and work-performance in office-like environments and their workers, which account for most of the labor force. The Scientific Committee on Indoor Air Quality and Health of the ICOH (Int. Comm. Occup. Health) has discussed the assessment and management o...
Article
Full-text available
Background In most reported cases of lung trauma with water proofing products, volatile organic compounds (VOC) have a prominent role. Here we report on a case involving ten workers exposed to a sprayed product containing nanoparticles in a water solution with only a few percent VOC. Case presentationTen workers suffered from respiratory symptoms f...
Article
The chemical composition of indoor air changes due to the reactive nature of the indoor environment. Historically, only the stable parent compounds were investigated due to their ease of measurement by conventional methods Today, however, scientists can better characterize oxidation products (gas and particulate-phase) formed by indoor chemistry. A...
Article
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Sensory irritation of eyes and upper airways is an important endpoint for setting occupational exposure limits (OELs) and indoor air guidelines. Sensory irritants cause a painful burning, stinging and itching sensation. Controlled chamber studies are the "golden standard" for evaluations. Well conducted workplace studies offer another possibility....
Article
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Odorous compounds (odors) like fragrances may cause adverse health effects. To assess their importance by inhalation, we have reviewed how the four major abundant and common airborne fragrances (α-pinene (APN), limonene (LIM), linalool (LIL), and eugenol (EUG)) impact the perceived indoor air quality as odor annoyance, sensory irritation and sensit...
Article
Full-text available
Eye irritation, e.g. dry or irritated eyes, is generally among top-3 reported symptoms in office-like environments; in particular, among workplaces with cognitive demanding visual display unit (VDU) work. The symptoms are especially among middle and advanced ages and particularly among women more than men. The symptoms are also among the most commo...
Article
The European project OFFICAIR aimed to broaden the existing knowledge regarding indoor air quality (IAQ) in modern office buildings, i.e., recently built or refurbished buildings. Thirty-seven office buildings participated in the summer campaign (2012), and thirty-five participated in the winter campaign (2012-2013). Four rooms were investigated pe...
Article
Indoor air quality (IAQ) measurements were carried out in two field campaigns (summer and winter) in European office buildings (approximately 140 office rooms) in eight countries, as part of the EU-funded OFFICAIR project. A source identification study was performed with principal component analysis (varimax rotation) on a database containing volat...
Article
Full-text available
In 2010, the World Health Organization (WHO) established an indoor air quality guideline for short- and long-term exposures to formaldehyde (FA) of 0.1 mg/m(3) (0.08 ppm) for all 30-min periods at lifelong exposure. This guideline was supported by studies from 2010 to 2013. Since 2013, new key studies have been published and key cancer cohorts have...
Article
Full-text available
Inhalation of indoor air pollutants may cause airway irritation and inflammation and is suspected to worsen allergic reactions. Inflammation may be due to mucosal damage, upper (sensory) and lower (pulmonary) airway irritation due to activation of the trigeminal and vagal nerves, respectively, and to neurogenic inflammation. The terpene, d-limonene...
Article
Full-text available
In the indoor environment, people are exposed to several fungal species. Evident dampness is associated with increased respiratory symptoms. To examine the immune responses associated with fungal exposure, mice are often exposed to a single species grown on an agar medium. The aim of this study was to develop an inhalation exposure system to be abl...
Article
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Sensory effects in eyes and airways are common symptoms reported by aircraft crew and office workers. Neurological symptoms, such as headache, have also been reported. To assess the commonality and differences in exposures and health symptoms, a literature search of aircraft cabin and office air concentrations of non-reactive volatile organic compo...
Article
In the framework of the EU EPHECT project (Emissions, Exposure Patterns and Health Effects of Consumer Products in the EU), irritative and respiratory effects were assessed in relation to acute (30-min) and long-term (24-h) inhalation exposure to key and emerging indoor air pollutants emitted during household use of selected consumer products. A de...
Article
A wide range of consumer and personal care products may, during their use, release significant amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOC) into the air. The identification and quantification of the emissions from such sources is typically performed in emission test chambers. A major question is to what degree the obtained emissions are reproducible...
Article
Cleaning agents often emit terpenes that react rapidly with ozone. These ozone-initiated reactions, which occur in the gas-phase and on surfaces, produce a host of gaseous and particulate oxygenated compounds with possible adverse health effects in the eyes and airways. Within the European Union (EU) project OFFICAIR, common ozone-initiated reactio...
Article
Ozone reacts with C-C double bonds in common indoor VOCs and SVOCs contained in indoor dust and may be catalytically degraded on dust surfaces. The reaction between floor dust and ozone was investigated in the FLEC emission cell at different ozone concentrations and relative humidities (0%, 25%, and 50% RH). One gram of dust was spread on a clean s...
Article
Full-text available
Emissions of volatile organic compounds and ultrafine particles from a kitchen cleaning agent (cream) and plug-in air freshener were investigated in a 20 m3 walk-in climate chamber at low (~ 5 ppb) and high ozone (~ 50 ppb) test concentrations and 0.6 air exchange rate. The products emitted terpenes, inter alia limonene, dihydromyrcenol, geraniol,...
Article
Full-text available
Context: Coating products are widely used for making surfaces water and dirt repellent. However, on several occasions the use of these products has been associated with lung toxicity. Objective: In the present study, we evaluated the toxic effects of an aerosolized tile-coating product. Methods: Thirty-nine persons, who reported respiratory an...
Article
Full-text available
A number of cases of pulmonary injury by use of aerosolized surface coating products have been reported world-wide. The aerosol from a commercial alcohol-based nanofilm product (NFP) for coating of non-absorbing surfaces was found to induce severe lung damage in a recent mouse bio-assay. The NFP contained a 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyl trialkoxysilan...
Book
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This report describes a harmonised procedure for establishing a list of compounds and their associated LCI (Lowest Concentration of Interest) values for the evaluation of emissions from construction products (EU-LCI) taking into account existing procedures used in some Member States (i.e. ANSES in France and AgBB in Germany). It provides an appropr...
Article
Inhalation of ozone (O3), a highly toxic environmental pollutant, produces airway inflammation and exacerbates asthma. However, in indoor air, O3 reacts with terpenes (cyclic alkenes), leading to formation of airway irritating pollutants. The aim of the study was to examine whether inhalation of the reaction products of O3 and the terpene, limonene...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This document addresses the strategy to measure and model product emissions, related to the household use of consumer products. This is based on the EPHECT project experience and the available expertise. The strategy more specifically applies to the following 15 product classes, selected for testing in the EPHECT project. Table 1.1: Selection of EP...
Article
Concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in office environments are generally too low to cause sensory irritation in the eyes and airways on the basis of estimated thresholds for sensory irritation. Furthermore, effects in the lungs, e.g. inflammatory effects, have not been substantiated at indoor relevant concentrations. Some VOCs, incl...
Article
Limonene and its ozone-initiated reaction products were investigated in situ by low temperature plasma (LTP) ionization quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) mass spectrometry. Helium was used as discharge gas and the protruding plasma generated ~850 ppb ozone in front of the glass tube by reaction with the ambient oxygen. Limonene applied to filter pap...
Technical Report
Full-text available
CHAPTER 1 Product testing strategy 1.1. Structure of the report “Part II product testing experiments” 1.2. Test chamber experiments of the 15 product classes CHAPTER 2 Assessment of the composition of selected consumer products (TUM) 2.1 Information on product composition 2.1.1 Information on product label 2.1.2 Information directly by company...
Article
We investigated the role of air humidity and allergic sensitization on the acute airway response to inhaled formaldehyde (FA) vapour. Mice were sensitized to the immunogen ovalbumin (OVA) by three intraperitoneal injections followed by three aerosol challenges, giving rise to allergic airway inflammation. Control mice were sham sensitized by saline...
Article
Full-text available
Ozone-initiated monoterpene reaction products have been hypothesized to cause eye and airway complaints in office environments and some have been proposed to cause skin irritation and sensitization. The respiratory effects of 60min exposures to five common oxidation products from abundant terpenoids (e.g. limonene), used as solvent and fragrance in...
Article
Full-text available
Studies about formaldehyde (FA) published since the guideline of 0.1 mg/m(3) by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2010 have been evaluated; critical effects were eye and nasal (portal-of-entry) irritation. Also, it was considered to prevent long-term effects, including all types of cancer. The majority of the recent toxicokinetic studies showe...
Article
A low temperature plasma (LTP) ionization interface between a gas chromatograph (GC) and an atmospheric pressure inlet mass spectrometer, was constructed. This enabled time-of-flight mass spectrometric detection of GC eluting compounds. The performance of the setup was evaluated by injection of mixtures of common indoor volatile organic compounds....
Research
Full-text available
Cleaning Reduce the sources of pollution Ventilation General policy recommendations OFFICAIR website: http://www.officair-project.eu/ Tips
Research
Full-text available
Reduce the sources of pollution Cleaning Ventilation Sources of pollution Health Impacts OFFICAIR website: http://www.officair-project.eu/ Tips
Technical Report
Full-text available
INTRODUCTION Each human activity is related to emissions of chemicals into the air. In an industrialized society, the majority of the population spends more than 90% of the time indoors. Indoor air pollution may be becoming worse due to certain recent initiatives to conserve energy. One common method is to make buildings more energy-efficient to "...
Article
To assist health professionals dealing with the complex clinical picture of "outer" eye symptoms-among top-two in office environments--by an ergophthalmologic approach. The terms "precorneal tear film" (PTF) and eye/ocular discomfort and irritation symptoms were searched together with a number of environmental and personal factors in databases such...
Article
Repeated low-level indoor air exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) may influence the reporting of sensory irritation in the eyes and airways. The ozone-initiated reaction products of limonene, an abundant VOC, were used as a model of indoor air mixtures to study upper airway (sensory) irritation, bronchoconstrictive and alveolar level effe...
Technical Report
Full-text available
EPHECT work package 6 (WP6) involves 4 different laboratories that will perform lab testing experiments in product test chambers of different dimensions. The main aim of this document is to tune the laboratory activities of these research institutes for obtaining meaningful emission data. Several aspects of the laboratory work are addressed and des...
Article
Emissions of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) from one type of polyvinylchloride (PVC) flooring with approximately 13% (w/w) DEHP as plasticizer were measured in the Field and Laboratory Emission Cell (FLEC). The gas-phase concentrations of DEHP versus time were measured at air flow rate of 450 mL·min(-1) and five different temperatures: 23 °C, 3...
Article
Three different and recently developed desorption ionization techniques, transmission-mode desorption electrospray ionization (TM-DESI), low temperature plasma (LTP) ionization and nano-assisted laser desorption ionization (NALDI), are compared with electrospray ionization (ESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) for the analysis o...
Article
Ocular discomfort (e.g. burning, dry and itching eyes) is among top 2 symptoms in office environments. The ophthalmological explanation is aqueous-deficient dry eye and evaporative dry eye and exposure to allergens, while indoor air pollutants causing chemesthesis generally is the rationale of the indoor environmental community. Review of salient e...
Chapter
Full-text available
This book presents WHO guidelines for the protection of public health from risks due to a number of chemicals commonly present in indoor air. The substances considered in this review, i.e. benzene, carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, naphthalene, nitrogen dioxide, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (especially benzo[a]pyrene), radon, trichloroethylene and...
Article
Full-text available
There is considerable recent focus and concern about formaldehyde (FA). We have reviewed the literature on FA with focus on chemosensory perception in the airways and lung effects in indoor environments. Concentrations of FA, both personal and stationary, are on average in the order of 0.05 mg/m(3) or less in Europe and North America with the excep...
Article
The use of nanofilm spray products (NFPs) has been associated with a number of severe cases of airway injuries; however, the causative agents are unknown. To identify possible causative agents, 10 products from three different suppliers have been analysed using two mass spectrometric methods: (1) ESI-MS and ESI-MS/MS; (2) GC-MS and GC-MS/MS. The 10...
Article
Full-text available
Formaldehyde is a ubiquitous indoor air pollutant that is classified as "Carcinogenic to humans (Group 1)" (IARC, Formaldehyde, 2-butoxyethanol and 1-tert-butoxypropanol-2-ol. IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans, vol 88. World Health Organization, Lyon, pp 39-325, 2006). For nasal cancer in rats, the exposure-response...
Article
Full-text available
Exposures to two commercial nanofilm spray products (NFPs), a floor sealant (NFP 1) and a coating product for tiles (NFP 2), were investigated for airway irritation, airway inflammation, and lung damage in a mouse inhalation model. The particle exposure was characterized by particle number, particle size distribution, and gravimetric analysis. BALB...
Article
Here, we present emission data on VOCs and particles emitted during simulated use of four commercial nanofilm spray products (NFPs) used for making easy-to-clean or self-cleaning surfaces on floors, ceramic tiles, and windows. The aim was to characterize the emitted VOCs and to provide specific source strength data for VOCs and particles released t...
Article
The secondary ozonide (SOZ) of limonene is a potential indoor pollutant from the gas-phase limonene/ozone-reaction. A screening in the liquid phase was performed to investigate the yield and stability of SOZs from ten cyclic monoterpenes. They were cryo-ozonolyzed in pentane, and the reaction mixtures were analyzed with GC-MS with negative and posi...
Article
The emission of odor active volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from a floor oil based on linseed oil, the linseed oil itself and a low-odor linseed oil was investigated by thermal desorption gas chromatography combined with olfactometry and mass spectrometry (TD-GC-O/MS). The oils were applied to filters and conditioned in the micro emission cell, F...
Article
There are concerns about ozone-initiated chemistry, because the formation of gaseous oxidation products and ultrafine particles may increase complaints, morbidity and mortality. Here we address the question whether the gaseous products or the ultrafine particles from the ozone-initiated chemistry of limonene, a common and abundant indoor pollutant,...
Article
Eye irritation symptoms, e.g. dry eyes, are common and abundant symptoms reported in office-like environments, e.g. aircraft cabins. To improve the understanding of indoor related eye symptomatology, relevant knowledge from the ophthalmological and indoor environmental science literature has been merged. A number of environmental (relative humidity...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to investigate how the ocular surface area (OSA) and the eye blink frequency (BF) are affected by a high versus a low-monitor position during visual display unit (VDU) work with varying cognitive demands. In a balanced randomized (2 x 2) design ten healthy subjects (five males, five females) completed two different tas...
Article
Recent studies indicate that secondary ozonides of cyclic alkenes are formed in atmospheric reactions and may be relatively stable. The secondary ozonides (SOZs) of cyclohexene (1), 1-methylcyclohexene (2), 4-isopropyl-1-methylcyclohexene (3) and 4-isopropenyl-1-methylcyclohexene (limonene) (4) have been characterized by rapid gas chromatography el...