Paxie Chirwa

Paxie Chirwa
University of Pretoria | UP · Department of Plant and Soil Sciences

PhD

About

174
Publications
74,256
Reads
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2,394
Citations
Additional affiliations
September 2009 - present
University of Pretoria
Position
  • Chair
Description
  • Professor of Forest Science Forest Socioecology, Resource use in Forest and Agroecosystems, Climate Change and forest adaptation and mitigation, forests and people
March 2005 - December 2009
Universiteit Stellenbosch
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
Description
  • Associate Professor of Forest Science: Agroforestry, community forestry, natural forest ecosystems
August 1986 - March 2005
Forestry Research Institute of Malawi
Position
  • Research Officer
Description
  • Soil Scientist: Forest nutrition, Water relations, Site Characterization (soil surveys)
Education
September 1998 - July 2002
University of Nottingham
Field of study
  • Resource use (Water, nutrient, light) in agroforestry systems

Publications

Publications (174)
Article
Projected climate change presents many challenges and opportunities for individuals, households and wider society on how to adapt. Local knowledge is key to help smallholder farmers to cope with climate change and variability to attain sustainable forest management. However, there is limited understanding of what shapes human adaptation to climate...
Preprint
Full-text available
Various community groups tend to interact with their environments differently. Understanding how these groups interact with their forests provides important insights for promoting sustainable forest governance. This study focused on understanding community across wealth groups (poor, medium, better-off) of their perceptions on forest management and...
Article
Little attention has been given to local people's perception of and preferences for ES, especially in developing countries. Such disregard of local community's priorities for ecosystem services (ES) can lead to non-coherent development plans and minimise community participation in ES-based conservation. Therefore, this study conducted an ES assessm...
Article
Full-text available
Agroforestry systems hold potential for wood and tree biomass production without the need of felling trees. Branch wood harvesting provides access to considerable amounts of lignocellulosic biomass while leaving the tree standing. Aiming at alternatives for wood provision, we assessed the actual woody structure of a silvopastoral system in the Afri...
Article
African baobab (Adansonia digitata) is an agroforestry species used by local people for many purposes such as food, medicine, craft, etc. It is uncertain how climate change will impact the suitability of the habitat for the species in Benin. This study aimed to assess the present-day distribution and forecast the probable impact of future climate,...
Article
Knowing the community level of awareness and knowledge of village participatory land use plans (VPLUPs) and village land forest reserves (VLFRs) and their perceived importance thereof, can form a way of improving the plans and forests governance in the context of Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+), a global initiati...
Article
Full-text available
This study focused on understanding community perceptions on forest management and conservation under the REDD + initiative along the altitudinal gradient part of the Rubeho Mountain Forest Ecosystem in the Kilosa district of Tanzania. Whilst community awareness on forest management and conservation in both the highland and lowland areas was high,...
Article
Full-text available
The emerging risks and impacts of climate change and extreme weather events on forest ecosystems present significant threats to forest-based livelihoods. Understanding climate change and its consequences on forests and the livelihoods of forest-dependent communities could support forest based strategies for responding to climate change. Using perce...
Article
The cost of Eucalyptus seed and adoption of strict phytosanitary regulations in seed trade makes it imperative to monitor the quality and ensure supply of pathogen-free seeds for both forestry regeneration and research. Based on seed health tests, two species in the Colletotrichum gloeosporioides species complex were found to be naturally associate...
Article
Globally, belowground biomass (BGB) accounts for 20–26% of total biomass, and as such it is an important carbon (C) pool for many vegetation types. However, large uncertainty exists for belowground biomass C compared to aboveground stocks. Using data from 108 destructively harvested trees belonging to 36 miombo species, we estimated root to shoot r...
Article
Full-text available
The complexity of the relationships among multiple ecosystem services (ES) is not fully understood. This could be because of the difficulty in assessing ES relationships, in general, and particularly, an uneven study of geographical distribution and the relationships among ES demand remains under-researched. Yet, understanding relationships among m...
Article
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Efficient and cost-effective re-establishment practices are important parts of any sustainable forest re-establishment programme. Re-establishment activities include residue management (post-harvest slash), preparation of a planting position, planting, fertilisation and vegetation management. In South Africa, these activities are largely labour int...
Article
Full-text available
In many African countries, trees are often a source of security for poor rural communities in providing food and energy. This study evaluated the potential of introducing multipurpose tree species in the rural landscapes of Weza, Ugu district municipality, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Structured questionnaire and focus group discussion interviews w...
Article
The aim of this study was to determine the genetic diversity and population genetic structure of Avicennia marina, an important mangrove tree species with a wide distribution. Samples were collected from four sampling localities, characterised by different environmental conditions, situated along the coast of Mozambique within southern Africa: Pemb...
Chapter
Charcoal is used in up to 80% of urban households and in small- to medium-scale commercial entities across sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). These provide a ready market which contributes to household income generation, poverty reduction, national development, employment, and development of especially the rural economy. The demand for charcoal as an energy...
Article
A growing number of conservationists argue that effective management of human modified ecosystems is preferable to protecting undisturbed forest ecosystems. Hence, this study evaluated the efficiency of the two alternatives for the conservation of vulnerable tree species by comparing the distinctiveness of species composition, species richness, and...
Article
Plantation re-establishment is a key component of silviculture as it deals with the creation of a suitable environment when planting or seeding a stand. Re-establishment practices include slash management, site preparation, marking and preparation of a planting position, planting, fertilisation and vegetation management. Over the past decade, there...
Article
en Comparative information on the composition and diversity in tree species associations in Miombo woodland is limited. This study assessed how tree species associations across forest reserves of Miombo woodland in Malawi varied in composition and diversity concerning site factors and resource use disturbances under co‐management versus government...
Article
This study assessed community perceptions on Non-Carbon Benefits (NCBs) as incentives for participation in Reduced Emission from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+) and the role of Village Participatory Land-Use Plans (VPLUPs) in supporting this in Kilosa district of Tanzania. A mixed-method research design was used in the data collection....
Article
The presence of disease causing microorganisms on seeds raises serious quarantine and economic concerns to nurserymen, foresters and seed traders. The agar plate method was used to examine seed-borne mycoflora associated with Eucalyptus seed lots and their effect on seed germination was determined. A total of 35 fungal species from 29 genera were i...
Article
Full-text available
Maize production under smallholder systems in South Africa (RSA) depends on rainfall. Incidences of dry spells throughout the growing season have affected maize yields negatively. The study examined water distribution and water use efficiency (WUE) of maize rotated with two-year pigeonpea fallows as compared to continuous maize without fertilizer....
Article
An understanding of drought and land cover interaction plays a crucial role in vegetation vulnerability studies and land use planning. However, there is paucity of information on drought, land cover and land use interaction in southern Africa. We analysed the drought impact on land cover using Globcover land cover data and Vegetation Condition Inde...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Conservation agriculture (CA) is increasingly promoted among smallholder farmers of sub-Saharan Africa in a quest to improve food security while sustaining the natural resource base of the agro-ecosystems where agriculture is based. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of CA and traditional tillage on soil organic carbon an...
Article
Diversifying land use of monoculture forestry plantations in land restitution projects in South Africa is critical in achieving a multipurpose production system. The objective of this study was to investigate potential land use options desired by land claimant beneficiaries. A random sampling technique was used to select 351 and 170 beneficiary hou...
Chapter
We describe the current land cover of the miombo woodlands and review both current and future drivers of change that may influence land cover in years to come. We also explore possible future ecological and socio-economic outcomes for the miombo in light of the projected futures for the miombo countries in particular, and for the continent in gener...
Chapter
The miombo woodlands play a critical role in providing livelihood services and mitigating the effects of climate change. However, the woodlands are increasingly at risk from human-induced pressures that remove woody species, deplete soil nutrients and alter their ecological integrity. There are also indications that climate change will alter plant...
Article
Full-text available
Agroforestry is often discussed as a strategy that can be used both for the adaptation to and the mitigation of climate change effects. The climate of southern Africa is predicted to be severely affected by such changes. With agriculture noted as the continent's largest economic sector, issues such as food security and land degradation are in the f...
Preprint
Changes in land use type (LUT) are a major driver of biodiversity loss and species decline. Responses to changes in LUT are species-specific, which may in turn be context-dependent. Understanding such responses is essential for the management of socio-economically important wild tree species. The baobab, Adansonia digitata L., is an important tradi...
Article
As global populations become increasingly urban, public participation has emerged as a new and more direct initiative for the conservation of urban trees and ecosystem services (ES). However, little effort has been made to understand the willingness of residents to participate in conservation programs for trees and ES in Benin City, Nigeria. To fil...
Article
Forests are important natural capital for forest-adjacent communities and play an important role in dealing with risks and shocks. The study therefore examined the roles of forests in rural livelihoods in Dedza district eastern Malawi with focus on basic needs and assets, shocks and coping strategies. The findings showed that efforts were made by t...
Article
Full-text available
This review provides perspectives and insights of forest researchers from four continents representing a range of geo-regions, with examples from diverse and dynamic use of forest products that are undervalued and often misrepresented. A comprehensive discussion of the subject provides special attention to property, tenancy, public goods and access...
Article
Anthracnose leaf spot is a common disease caused by Colletotrichum species. Non-chemical seed treatments that included Bacillus, Trichoderma, hot water, microwave radiation, and hydrogen peroxide were evaluated at disinfecting Eucalyptus seeds infected with Colletotrichum kahawae subsp. cigarro. The seed treatments were assessed on Eucalyptus grand...
Article
Miombo Woodland is the major Land use/land cover with important ecological functions in Africa. In Malawi, government-management was designed to manage Woodlands. However, when illegal activities continued, Participatory Forest Management (co-management) in forest reserves was institutionalised for woodland sustainability. Currently, information on...
Article
Full-text available
Using landscape moderation insurance and Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis (IDH) as frameworks, this study assessed the response of local assemblage among different land use regimes (mean β-diversity), using the Jaccard dissimilarity matrix in contrasting Human Modified Forest Landscapes (HMFLs). The study was conducted at the relatively simplifi...
Article
Full-text available
Different land uses result in different vegetation condition and macro-fauna distribution in a landscape. Information on land use condition is paramount for development of strategies that enhance biodiversity conservation and sustainable resource use. A study was conducted to characterise the vegetation and termite distribution in the three land us...
Article
Southern African biomes experience significant changes in the distribution of rainfall that are linked to El Niño–Southern Oscillation. As such, an understanding of the spatio-temporal rainfall trends is key in predicting rainfall patterns as well as validation of climate change projections. Currently, the available information on rainfall trends i...
Article
The aim of this study was to determine the aboveground stem volume and tree biomass of the multi-stemmed karee tree (Searsia lancea) for its potential use for producing wood chips and/or pellets. A stratified random sampling was done, by selecting two blocks with both sparse and dense Karee stands. In each block, three sparse and three dense karee...
Article
This comparative study analysed the compliance behaviour of local communities towards culturally protected areas and state-protected indigenous forests. Interviews were conducted with 135 households from four villages. Data analysis was done using non-parametric tests. All villages did not significantly differ in the proportion of compliance behavi...
Poster
Full-text available
Climate change is already a measurable reality generating significant social, economic and environmental challenges, impacting sustainable development around the globe. The African continent is most vulnerable to the forecasted change in global climate, southern Africa in particular will face severe challenges within the upcoming decades. Innovativ...
Article
Full-text available
The resurrection of the traditional socio-ecological knowledge system as a complimentary biodiversity conservation tool for poorly performing protected areas has fueled a new debate on what drives resource use behavior in forest landscapes. Using ecological assessment and ethno-botanical techniques, we tested whether culture or the ecological abund...
Article
Full-text available
This study assesses the current mode of forest use and management at rural community level in South Africa with a view to locating space for forest-based green growth initiatives development and factors that might shape the uptake of such initiatives. This was done with respect to the need to decouple rural livelihood activities from forest degrada...
Poster
Full-text available
New and innovative land use solutions are needed to adapt to a rapidly changing climate and to mitigate the predicted impacts on rural livelihoods. Projected changes to current climate patterns are suggested to severely impact southern Africa in the near future. This may be realised as an increase in drought and flooding events and shifts in rainfa...
Article
Variation in floristic composition of recovering Baikiaea–Guibourtia–Pterocarpus woodlands was studied in different development stages (from early regrowth to mature woodland) under different land-use systems (protected areas, timber harvesting, pole and firewood collection, and abandoned crop fields), in the Gwayi and Tsholotsho areas in north-wes...
Article
A relatively new hybrid, Pinus elliottii × P. caribaea var. hondurensis (Pexc), for which a taper model does not exist, is being planted commercially in South Africa. This study primarily focused on developing a taper model for Pexc in South Africa. Taper data were collected from a total of 363 trees, in the Mpumalanga and Limpopo provinces, using...
Article
Moringa oleifera and Moringa stenopetala are grown in Malawi in different agro-ecological zones. Moringa oleifera is the most widely cultivated pan-tropical species of a monogeneric family, the Moringaceae, regarded as versatile because of its ability to provide edible food, oil and purify water for local communities. The tree is sometimes referred...
Article
Full-text available
Different land uses result in different vegetation condition and macro-fauna distribution in a landscape. Information on land use condition is paramount for development of strategies that enhance biodiversity conservation and sustainable resource use. A study was conducted to characterise the vegetation and termite distribution in the three land us...
Article
The management of forests for multiple purposes coupled with a varying socioeconomic profile of forest users can result in attitudinal differences towards forest management. This study examines the attitudes of rural people in South Africa towards the management of tribal forests. Attitude towards forest management was analysed with respect to five...
Article
Full-text available
Mangrove forests are among the most important ecosystems with high ecological and economic value. In order to better understand and conserve this ecosystem, we aim to provide an overview of mangrove structure along the southern, central and northern parts of Mozambique, in Costa do Sol (CS), Bons Sinais Estuary (BSE) and Pemba-Metuge (PM), respecti...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the patterns and drivers of land use and land cover (LULC) changes is fundamental for rational and specific planning for sustainable land management. Using remote sensing techniques, geographic information systems (GIS) and statistical modeling via multinomial logistic regression, we sought to identify spatial variables that determine...
Article
The use of Village Participatory Land Use Plan (VPLUP) model as a natural resource management and conservation tool has been growing recently. This study examined the premise under which VPLUPs implementation can enhance the management and conservation of Village Land Forest Reserves (VLFRs) in the context of Reduced Emissions from Deforestation an...
Article
Full-text available
Earlier studies showed that local people benefit by harvesting culms of the “climbing bamboo” Flagellaria guineensis from Transkei Coastal Forests in South Africa. However, little is known about the regeneration ecology of this species that often forms tangles in forest stand conditions. This study assessed the regeneration ecology of F. guineensis...
Article
Full-text available
One of the dominant challenges facing the South African forestry sector is the issue of land restitution. The aim of this study was, therefore, to assess the perception of beneficiaries of benefit-sharing modalities for forest-based land reform initiatives in their locality. A random sampling technique selected 140 and 175 households in Amabomvini...
Article
The role of Village Participatory Land Use Plans (VPLUPs) and associated Village Land Forest Reserves (VLFRs) under the REDD+ initiative is a fairly new concept with limited information on the success of its implementation. This study examined community perceptions of VPLUPs as well as their perceptions of the inclusion of VLFRs in these plans in t...
Article
Land reform in South Africa, like in other developing countries with a history of land grab and people's displacement, is an issue of serious contestation. The study therefore assessed the accrual of benefits to claimant communities from the two forest-based public-private partnership (PPP) land reform models (Sales and Leaseback, and Community Man...
Article
Full-text available
The effectiveness of protected areas to guarantee future conservation of several plant species remains questionable. This study was carried out in the Biosphere Reserve of Pendjari (BRP) and surrounding unprotected areas to assess the efficiency of the reserve to conserve orchids. A total of 90 plots (52 in protected areas; 38 in unprotected areas)...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Background: Concern is growing about the future of forestry productivity due to intensive nutrient removal, as a result of different harvesting operations. This study aimed to determine the effects on forest productivity when using different slash-retention scenarios with the recommended amounts of mineral fertiliser in Usutu forest. Usutu...
Article
Full-text available
Concern is growing about the future of forestry productivity due to intensive nutrient removal, as a result of different harvesting operations. This study aimed to determine the effects on forest productivity when using different slash-retention scenarios with the recommended amounts of mineral fertiliser in Usutu forest. Usutu is a plantation fore...
Article
Full-text available
This study assessed the population structure of baobabs (Adansonia digitata) in Kunene, Omusati, Otjozondjupa and Zambezi Regions in northern Namibia. Data were collected from 240 trees in randomly selected baobab clusters. The stem girth at breast height (gbh, converted to stem diameter), height and crown diameter were recorded for each individual...
Article
Community-based forest management is a key climate change adaptation initiative in South Africa. It is aimed at enhancing the sustainability of rural household livelihoods and livelihood resilience against climate variability and change. However, lack of capacity at local household level could negate the intended benefits of community-based partici...
Article
Full-text available
The South African forestry industry largely relies on seed for its replanting programs following clear-felling/harvesting. For this reason, the health status of Eucalyptus seed lots produced from seed orchards in South Africa was determined to identify the role fungal seed infection plays on the quality of nursery stock raised for plantations. Two...
Article
Full-text available
Through the collaborative efforts of companies affiliated with the International Program for Tree Improvement and Conservation (Camcore), a number of pine hybrids have been produced over the last decade. Many of these have been planted in trials across southern Africa that broadly represent winter and summer rainfall areas, with the latter ranging...
Article
Full-text available
In Benin, people have a rich ethnobotanical knowledge of plant species, reflecting the cultural and ecological diversity of their environment. Several studies were focused on the question of how valuable are plant species for local communities. However, there has been very little research interest in the orchid species in spite of the importance of...