Pawel Kasprowski

Pawel Kasprowski
Silesian University of Technology · Department of Applied Informatics

Ph.D. D.Sc. (dr hab. inż.)
eye movement analysis, eye tracking, biometric identification, deep learning, data mining

About

73
Publications
22,275
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Introduction
Pawel Kasprowski works as an associate professor at the Silesian University of Technology, Poland. His research interests include eye movement data analysis, data mining, eye movement-based biometrics, design and calibration of eye trackers, usage of eye-tracking in medicine. He has published many papers concerning these subjects and organized several conferences and tutorials. He is also a co-organizer of three eye movement-related data mining competitions. More details: www.kasprowski.pl
Additional affiliations
January 2020 - present
Silesian University of Technology
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
December 2005 - December 2019
Silesian University of Technology
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
Education
October 1995 - September 2004
Silesian University of Technology
Field of study
  • Computer Science
October 1990 - September 1995
Silesian University of Technology
Field of study
  • Computer Science

Publications

Publications (73)
Chapter
Photoplethysmography (PPG) is a non-invasive optical technique, applied in clinical settings to measure arterial oxygen saturation. Using modern technology, PPG signals can be measured by wearable devices. This paper presents a novel procedure to study the dynamics of biomedical signals. The procedure uses features of a wavelet scattering transform...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of the paper is to study how changes in neural network architecture and its hyperparameters affect the results of biometric identification based on keystroke dynamics. The publicly available dataset of keystrokes was used, and the models with different parameters were trained using this data. Various neural network layers—convolutional,...
Article
Full-text available
Gaze estimation plays a significant role in understating human behavior and in human–computer interaction. Currently, there are many methods accessible for gaze estimation. However, most approaches need additional hardware for data acquisition which adds an extra cost to gaze tracking. The classic gaze tracking approaches usually require systematic...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents a thorough review of methods used in various research articles published in the field of time signature estimation and detection from 2003 to the present. The purpose of this review is to investigate the effectiveness of these methods and how they perform on different types of input signals (audio and MIDI). The results of the r...
Article
Full-text available
The paper presents studies on biometric identification methods based on the eye movement signal. New signal features were investigated for this purpose. They included its representation in the frequency domain and the largest Lyapunov exponent, which characterizes the dynamics of the eye movement signal seen as a nonlinear time series. These featur...
Chapter
The research aimed to compare eye movement patterns of people looking at faces with different but subtle teeth imperfections. Both non-specialists and dental experts took part in the experiment. The research outcome includes the analysis of eye movement patterns depending on the specialization, gender, age, face gender, and level of teeth deformati...
Article
During eye-tracking experiments, a large amount of data is collected. Usually, it is stored in text files, or file formats meant for scientific data. Because these formats provide limited sets of mechanisms for more comprehensive data analysis, various database models were considered as an alternative for them in this study. They included a relatio...
Article
The paper focuses on utilizing eye movements for controlling computer programs. Four different approaches were considered, including gazing at an element, blinking, and two solutions for eye gestures. The methods were implemented in a simple photo viewer. However, the developed functionalities can be utilized in other applications (switching e-book...
Conference Paper
Eye movement-based biometric has been developed for over 15 years, but for now - to the authors' knowledge - no commercial applications utilize this modality. There are many reasons for this, starting from still low accuracy and ending with the problematic setup. One of the essential elements of this setup is the calibration , as nearly every eye t...
Conference Paper
It seems that controlling games with the eyes should be very intuitive and obvious. However, eye-controlled games have not become very popular yet. One of the reasons is - in our opinion - the necessity of eye tracker calibration before its every usage. This process is not very long, but it is inconvenient and requires focusing on the particular ta...
Conference Paper
The purpose of the paper is to test the possibility of identifying people based on the input they provide to an eye tracker during the calibration process. The most popular eye trackers require the calibration before their first usage. The calibration model that is built can recalculate the subsequent eye tracker's output to genuine gaze points. It...
Article
Full-text available
The methods for nonlinear time series analysis were used in the presented research to reveal eye movement signal characteristics. Three measures were used: approximate entropy, fuzzy entropy, and the Largest Lyapunov Exponent, for which the multilevel maps (MMs), being their time-scale decomposition, were defined. To check whether the estimated cha...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The aim of the research is the introduction of new techniques that enable a visual comparison of scan-paths. Every eye tracking experiment produces many scan-paths, and one of the main challenges of eye tracking analysis is how two compare these scan-paths. A classic solution is to extract easily measurable features such as fixation durations or sa...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The aim of the research is the introduction of new techniques that enable a visual comparison of scan-paths. Every eye tracking experiment produces many scan-paths, and one of the main challenges of eye tracking analysis is how two compare these scan-paths. A classic solution is to extract easily measurable features such as fixation durations or sa...
Article
Full-text available
Eye movement is one of the biological signals whose exploration may reveal substantial information, enabling greater understanding of the biology of the brain and its mechanisms. In this research, eye movement dynamics were studied in terms of chaotic behavior and self-similarity assessment to provide a description of young, healthy, oculomotor sys...
Article
Full-text available
Analysis of eye movement has attracted a lot of attention recently in terms of exploring areas of people’s interest, cognitive ability, and skills. The basis for eye movement usage in these applications is the detection of its main components—namely, fixations and saccades, which facilitate understanding of the spatiotemporal processing of a visual...
Article
Full-text available
Proper calibration of eye movement signal registered by an eye tracker seems to be one of the main challenges in popularizing eye trackers as yet another user-input device. Classic calibration methods taking time and imposing unnatural behavior on eyes must be replaced by intelligent methods that are able to calibrate the signal without conscious c...
Book
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 15th International Conference entitled Beyond Databases, Architectures and Structures, BDAS 2019, held in Ustroń, Poland, in May 2019. It consists of 26 carefully reviewed papers selected from 69 submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections, namely big data and cloud computing; arch...
Preprint
Full-text available
The paper describes the comparison of saliency maps calculated for a specific type of images to the ground truth fixations obtained in eye tracking experiment. The images being analyzed contained camouflaged animals. Because of the camouflage, it was expected that calculation of saliency would be the hard case. Several saliency maps were compared t...
Preprint
Full-text available
Proper calibration of eye movement signal registered by an eye tracker seems to be one of the main challenges in popularizing eye trackers as yet another user input device. Classic calibration methods taking time and imposing unnatural behavior of users have to be replaced by intelligent methods that are able to calibrate the signal without conscio...
Conference Paper
There is much research indicating that eye tracking methods are a promising approach which can be used in revealing experts’ visual patterns and acquiring information regarding their subconscious behaviour while making decisions in professional tasks. The studies presented in this paper extend the aforementioned investigations and were aimed at che...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The aim of this research was to compare visual patterns while examining radiographs in groups of people with different levels and different types of expertise. Introducing the latter comparative base is the original contribution of these studies. The residents and specialists were trained in medical diagnosing of X-Rays and for these two groups it...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
With growing access to cheap low end eye trackers using simple web cameras, there is also a growing demand on easy and fast usage of this devices by untrained and unsupervised end users. For such users the necessity to calibrate the eye tracker prior to its first usage is often perceived as obtrusive and inconvenient. In the same time perfect accur...
Conference Paper
The eye movement analysis undertaken in many research is conducted to better understand the biology of the brain and oculomotor system functioning. The studies presented in this paper considered eye movement signal as an output of a nonlinear dynamic system and are concentrated on determining the chaotic behaviour existence. The system nature was e...
Article
Full-text available
Recently eye tracking has become a popular technique that may be used for variety of applications starting from medical ones, through psychological, analyzinguser experience, ending with interactive games. Video based oculography (VOG) is the most popular technique because it is non-intrusive, can be use in users’ natural environment and are relati...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents the first attempt to fuse two different kinds of behavioral biometrics: mouse dynamics and eye movement biometrics. Mouse dynamics were collected without any special equipment, while an affordable The Eye Tribe eye tracker was used to gather eye movement data at a frequency of 30 Hz, which is also potentially possible using a co...
Article
Full-text available
Vision plays a crucial role in children’s mental development. Therefore, early diagnosis of any vision disparities and implementation of a correct therapy is very important. However, carrying out such a procedure in case of young children and especially children with brain dysfunctions poses some limitations due to cooperation problems. The vision...
Article
Full-text available
Most naturally-occurring physical phenomena are examples of nonlinear dynamic systems, the functioning of which attracts many researchers seeking to unveil their nature. The research presented in this paper is aimed at exploring eye movement dynamic features in terms of the existence of chaotic nature. Nonlinear time series analysis methods were us...
Article
Full-text available
Eye tracking has become a valuable way for extending knowledge of human behavior based on visual patterns. One of the most important elements of such an analysis is the presentation of obtained results, which proves to be a challenging task. Traditional visualization techniques such as scan-paths or heat maps may reveal interesting information, non...
Article
Full-text available
Eye tracking is an increasingly popular technique that may be used for a variety of applications including user experience analysis, usability engineering and interactive games. Moreover, this technique may be useful inter alia in education, psychological tests and medical diagnosis. Video-based oculography (VOG) is the most commonly utilized techn...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The aim of the study was to assess if dental imperfections influence scan-paths recorded during eye tracking sessions of naive observers. The participants observed 15 faces with 8 of them having various dental imperfections. All observations were recorded using an eye tracking device and spatio-temporal information about gaze positions was stored....
Article
The performance and quality of medical procedures and treatments are inextricably linked to technological development. The application of more advanced techniques provides the opportunity to gain wider knowledge and deeper understanding of the human body and mind functioning. The eye tracking methods used to register eye movement to find the direct...
Book
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 13th International Conference entitled Beyond Databases, Architectures and Structures, BDAS 2017, held in Ustroń, Poland, in May/June 2017. It consists of 44 carefully reviewed papers selected from 118 submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections, namely big data and cloud computing...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Eye tracking becomes more and more important way to analyze human behavior. However, a proper analysis of data obtained from an eye tracker occurs to be a challenging task. Traditional visualiza-tion techniques like scanpaths or heat maps may reveal interesting information, however much of useful information is still not visible , especially when t...
Article
Full-text available
Background Currently available perimeters have limited capabilities of performing measurements of the visual field in children. In addition, they do not allow for fully automatic measurement even in adults. The patient in each case (in any type of perimeter) has at his disposal a button which he uses to indicate that he has seen a light stimulus. S...
Conference Paper
It is well known that eye movement tracking may reveal information about human intentions. Therefore, it seems that it would be easy to use gaze pointing as a replacement for other traditional human computer interaction modalities like e.g. mouse or trackball, especially when there are more and more affordable eye trackers available. However, it oc...
Chapter
The paper presents the results of an initial experiment aimed to check if it is possible to enhance a low vision stimulation intervention with interactive games. There were 35 children with normal vision and various vision deficits examined using three different interactive games. The interactivity was achieved with the usage of an eye tracker—a de...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The paper presents the algorithm supporting an implicit calibration of eye movement recordings. The algorithm does not require any explicit cooperation from users, yet it uses only information about a stimulus and an uncalibrated eye tracker output. On the basis of this data, probable fixation locations are calculated at first. Such a fixation set...
Book
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 12th International Conference entitled Beyond Databases, Architectures and Structures, BDAS 2016, held in Ustroń, Poland, in May/June 2016. It consists of 57 carefully reviewed papers selected from 152 submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections, namely artificial intelligence, dat...
Chapter
Children affected by brain disabilities require a lot of attention and care to improve their life. The quicker the support will be introduced the better effect can be achieved. One of important impairments resulted from the brain disability is a cerebral visual one. In case of children, communicating with whom is difficult or impossible, assessment...
Chapter
Full-text available
The paper presents studies on the application of the dissim-ilarity matrix-based method to the eye movement analysis. This method was utilized in the biometric identification task. To assess its efficiency four different datasets based on similar scenario ('jumping point' type) yet using different eye trackers, recording frequencies and time interv...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper we apply two data dimensionality reduction methods to eye movement dataset and analyse how the feature reduction method improves classification accuracy. Due to the specificity of the recording process, eye movement datasets are characterized by both big size and high-dimensionality that make them difficult to analyse and classify usi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Biometric identification is a very popular area of interest nowadays. Problems with the so-called physiological methods like fingerprints or iris recognition resulted in increased attention paid to methods measuring behavioral patterns. Eye movement based biometric (EMB) identification is one of the interesting behavioral methods and due to the int...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Eye movement may be regarded as a new promising modality for human computer interfaces. With the growing popularity of cheap and easy to use eye trackers, gaze data may become a popular way to enter information and to control computer interfaces. However, properly working gaze contingent interface requires intelligent methods for processing data ob...
Data
Full-text available
------------------------------------------------------------------------------- BDAS 2015: 11th International Conference Beyond Databases, Architectures and Structures IEEE technically co-sponsored Ustron near Krakow, Poland (transfer from Krakow provided by organizers) May 26-29, 2015 http://www.bdas.pl --------------------------------------------...
Book
Full-text available
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 11th International Conference entitled Beyond Databases, Architectures and Structures, BDAS 2015, held in Ustron, Poland, in May 2015. This book consists of 53 carefully revised selected papers that are assigned to 8 thematic groups: database architectures and performance; data integration, stor...
Article
Acquiring basic information about the user’s needs, is one of the most important problem which a user interface designer has to face. It influences the selection of the design patterns which match the user’s requirements. Most frequently lots of possible solutions could be found and the appropriate choice has to be done. The results from some previ...
Chapter
Full-text available
The research currently conducted in various fields of interest base their experiments on the eye movement signal analysis. Among these areas cognitive studies on people’s willingness, intentions or skills and advanced interface design can be enumerated. There are also some studies attempting to apply the eye tracking in security tasks and biometric...
Article
Full-text available
Eye movement is a new emerging modality in human computer interfaces. With better access to devices which are able to measure eye movements (so called eye trackers) it becomes accessible even in ordinary environments. However, the first problem that must be faced when working with eye movements is a correct mapping from an output of eye tracker to...
Article
Full-text available
The idea concerning usage of the eye movement for human identification has been known for 10 years. However, there is still lack of commonly accepted methods how to perform such identification. This paper describes the second edition of Eye Movement Verification and Identification Competition (EMVIC), which may be regarded as an attempt to provide...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Information hidden in the eye movement signal can be a valuable source of knowledge about a human mind. This information is commonly used in multiple fields of interests like psychology, medicine, business, advertising or even software developing. The proper analysis of the eye movement signal requires its elements to be extracted. The most importa...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The analysis of an eye movement signal, which can reveal o lot of information about the way human brain works, has recently attracted the attention of many researchers. The basis for such studies is data returned by specialized devices called eye-trackers. The first step of their usage is a calibration process, allowing to reflect an eye position t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The idea concerning usage of the eye movement for human identification has been known for 10 years. However, there is still lack of commonly accepted methods how to perform such identification. This paper describes the second edition of Eye Movement Verification and Identification Competition (EMVIC), which may be regarded as an attempt to provide...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
PINs are one of the most popular methods to perform simple and fast user authentication. PIN stands for Personal Identification Number, which may have any number of digits or even letters. Nevertheless, 4-digit PIN is the most common and is used for instance in ATMs or cellular phones. The main ad-vantage of the PIN is that it is easy to remember a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Dynamic development of high quality cameras and algorithms processing eye movement signals entails growing interests in using them in various areas of human-computer interaction. Determining subjects which user is looking at or controlling the operation of computer processes can serve as examples of these areas. However, making eye movement signal...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Eye movement data may be used for many various purposes. In most cases it is utilized to estimate a gaze point - that is a place where a person is looking at. Most devices registering eye movements, called eye trackers, return information about relative position of an eye, without information about a gaze point. To obtain this information, it is ne...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The process of face recognition is a subject of the research in this pa-per. 1430 recordings of participants eye movements while they were observing faces were analyzed statistically and various data mining techniques were used to extract information from eye movements signal. One of the findings is that the process of face recognition is different...
Book
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 10th IEEE International Conference Beyond Databases, Architectures, and Structures, BDAS 2014, held in Ustron, Poland, in May 2014. This book consists of 56 carefully revised selected papers that are assigned to 11 thematic groups: query languages, transactions and query optimization; data wareh...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Eye movements’ identification is an interesting alternative to other biometric identification methods. It compiles both physiological and behavioral aspects and therefore it is difficult to forge. However, the main obstacle to popularize this methodology is lack of general recommendations considering eye movement biometrics experiments. Another...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper explores some aspects that are involved during the construction of reliable benchmark sample databases for novel behavioral biometric identification methods, such as the data quality, the recording patterns and the post processing procedures that may be applied on the data. A large collection of eye movement samples was employed as a tes...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper presents the results of the first eye movement verification and identification competition. The work provides background, discusses previous research, and describes the datasets and methods used in the competition. The results highlight the importance of very careful eye positional data capture to ensure meaningfulness of identification...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The signal cascades are a number of successive biochemical re ac tions, occurring in the cells. In these reactions take part many proteins (often en zymes) and the entire process may be compared to the dominoes effect. The com mon term used for de fine a varied biochemical mechanisms regulating pro ces ses in the nano net works is signal transducti...
Article
Full-text available
Eye movements contain a lot of information about human being. The way the eyes are moving is very complicated and eye movement patterns has been subject of studies for over 100 years. However, surprisingly, eye movement based identification is a quite new idea presented for the first time during the Biometrics'2003 Conference in London [17]. The me...