Pavel A Levkin

Pavel A Levkin
Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | KIT · Institute of Biological and Chemical Systems - Functional Molecular Systems (IBCS-FMS)

PhD

About

179
Publications
36,486
Reads
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5,842
Citations
Citations since 2016
113 Research Items
4754 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220200400600800
20162017201820192020202120220200400600800
20162017201820192020202120220200400600800
20162017201820192020202120220200400600800
Introduction
Surface science, functional materials, superhydrophobicity, patterning, miniaturization, biological HT screenings
Additional affiliations
January 2012 - present
January 2011 - December 2012
Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
January 2008 - December 2009

Publications

Publications (179)
Article
Ionically conductive elastomers are necessary for realizing human-machine interfaces, bioelectronic applications, or durable wearable sensors. Current design strategies, however, often suffer from solvent leakage and evaporation, or from poor mechanical properties. Here, we report a strategy to fabricate ionic elastomers (IHPs) demonstrating high c...
Article
The fabrication of complex 3D structures composed of micrometer‐sized features made of different functional materials is an immensely important and yet highly challenging task. Here, a method is developed to fabricate multimaterial 3D structures with micrometer precision by combining macroscopic 3D printing (digital light processing), with two‐phot...
Article
Superhydrophobic Surfaces Researchers have designed a new type of superhydrophobic surfaces with chemical reactivity. In article number 2203619, Wenqian Feng and co‐workers demonstrate living photolithography on such superhydrophobic surfaces to graft functional moieties with controlled the densities and species. The distinctive properties of this...
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Insufficient binding selectivity of chemosensors often renders biorelevant metabolites indistinguishable by the widely used indicator displacement assay. Array-based chemosensing methods are a common workaround but require additional effort for synthesizing a chemosensor library and setting up a sensing array. Moreover, it can be very challenging t...
Article
Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are crucial for disease modeling, drug discovery, and personalized medicine. Animal‐derived materials hinder further applications of hiPSCs in medical fields. Thus, novel and well‐defined substrate coatings capable of maintaining hiPSC pluripotency are important for advancing biomedical applications of...
Article
Multidrug‐resistant (MDR) bacteria is a severe threat to public health. Therefore, it is urgent to establish effective screening systems for identifying novel antibacterial compounds. In this study, a highly miniaturized droplet microarray (DMA) based high‐throughput screening system is established to screen over 2000 compounds for their antimicrob...
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Desorption/ionization (DI)-mass spectrometric (MS) methods offer considerable advantages of rapidity and low-sample input for the analysis of solid biological matrices such as tissue sections. The concept of desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) offers the possibility to ionize compounds from solid surfaces at atmospheric pressure, without the...
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Polymer gels, such as hydrogels, have been widely used in biomedical applications, flexible electronics, and soft machines. Polymer network design and its contribution to the performance of gels has been extensively studied. In this study, the critical influence of the solvent nature on the mechanical properties and performance of soft polymer gels...
Article
In vitro cell‐based experiments are particularly important in fundamental biological research. Microscopy‐based readout to identify cellular changes in response to various stimuli is a popular choice, but gene expression analysis is essential to delineate the underlying molecular dynamics in cells. However, cell‐based experiments often suffer from...
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The inverse vulcanization produces high sulfur content polymers from alkenes and elemental sulfur. Control over properties such as the molar mass or the solubility of polymers is not well established, and existing strategies lack predictability or require large variations of the composition. Systematic design principles are sought to allow for a ta...
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Full-text available
The inverse vulcanization produces high sulfur content polymers from alkenes and elemental sulfur. Control over properties such as the molar mass or the solubility of polymers is not well established, and existing strategies lack predictability or require large variations of the composition. Systematic design principles are sought to allow for a ta...
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Full-text available
Grid structures are common in high-throughput assays to parallelize experiments in biochemical or biological experiments. Manual analysis of grid images is laborious, time-consuming, expensive, and critical in terms of reproducibility. However, it is still common to do such analysis manually, as there is no standardized software for automated analy...
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Polydopamine coating is a unique, simple, and substrate-independent surface functionalization strategy. Techniques for secondary functionalization, patterning, and re-functionalization of polydopamine modified materials are important to broaden the scope of applications of such materials in a variety of fields. Here, a facile and substrate-independ...
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Organogels (hydrophobic polymer gels) are soft materials based on polymeric networks swollen in organic solvents. They are hydrophobic and possess a high content of solvent and low surface adhesion, rendering them interesting in applications such as encapsulants, drug delivery, actuators, slippery surfaces (self-cleaning, anti-waxing, anti-bacteria...
Preprint
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Recent research in the field of computer vision strongly focuses on deep learning architectures to tackle image processing problems. Deep neural networks are often considered in complex image processing scenarios since traditional computer vision approaches are expensive to develop or reach their limits due to complex relations. However, a common c...
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Actuated structures are becoming relevant in medical fields; however, they call for flexible/soft-base materials that comply with biological tissues and can be synthesized in simple fabrication steps. In this work, we extend the palette of techniques to afford soft, actuable spherical structures taking advantage of the biosynthesis process of bacte...
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The rapid development of 3D printing (or additive manufacturing) technologies demands new materials with novel properties and functionalities. Superhydrophobic materials, owing to their ultralow water adhesion, self-cleaning, anti-biofouling, or superoleophilic properties are useful for myriad applications involving liquids. However, the majority o...
Article
Simple and rapid imaging and analysis of 2D and 3D cell culture compatible with miniaturized arrays of nanoliter droplets are essential for high-throughput screening and personalized medicine applications. In this study, we have developed a simple one-step, cost-effective and sensitive colorimetric method for the analysis of cell viability in 2D an...
Article
The capacity of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) for indefinite self-renewal warrants their application in disease modeling, drug discovery, toxicity assays and efficacy screening. However, their poor proliferation ability, inability to adhere to surfaces without Matrigel coating and tendency to spontaneously differentiate in vitro hin...
Article
Droplet wetting on a solid substrate is affected by the surface heterogeneity. Introducing patterned wettability on the solid substrate is expected to engender anisotropic wetting morphologies, thereby manipulating droplet wetting behaviors. However, when the droplet size is comparable with that of the surface heterogeneity, the wetting morphologie...
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Liquids are traditionally handled and stored in solid vessels. Solid walls are not functional, adaptive, or self‐repairing, and are difficult to remove and re‐form. Liquid walls can overcome these limitations, but cannot form free‐standing 3D walls. Herein, a liquid analogue of a well, termed a “liquid well” is introduced. Water tethered to a surfa...
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Light-based microfabrication techniques constitute an indispensable approach to fabricate tissue assemblies, benefiting from noncontact spatially and temporarily controlled manipulation of soft matter. Light-triggered degradation of soft materials, such as hydrogels, is important in tissue engineering, bioprinting, and related fields. The photoresp...
Article
Conductive polymers have been intensively investigated as materials for electrodes in flexible electronics due to their favorable biocompatibility and reliable electrochemical stability. Nevertheless, patterning of conductive polymers for the fabrication of devices and in various electronics applications confronts multifarious limitations and chall...
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The ability to fabricate materials with ultrathin architectures enables the breakthrough of low-dimensional structures with high surface area that showcase distinctive properties from their bulk counterparts. They are exploited in a wide range of fields, including energy harvesting, catalysis, and biomedicine. Despite such versatility, the fine tun...
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Development of novel chemically- and physically-defined surfaces and environments for cell culture and screening is important for various biological applications. The Droplet Microarray (DMA) platform based on hydrophilic-superhydrophobic patterning enables high-throughput cellular screening in nanoliter volumes and on various biocompatible surface...
Article
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Biomimetic surface coatings based on plant polyphenols and catecholamines have been used broadly in a variety of applications. However, lack of a rational cost-effective platform for screening these coatings and their properties limits the true potential of these functional materials to be unleashed. Here, we investigated oxidation behavior and coa...
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In pharmaceutical research and development, cell‐based assays are primarily used with readout that rely on fluorescence‐based and other label‐dependent techniques for analysis of different cellular processes. Superhydrophobic–hydrophilic droplet microarrays (DMA) and matrix‐assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) have re...
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Artificial multicellular systems are gaining importance in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Reconstruction of complex tissue architectures in vitro is nevertheless challenging, and methods permitting controllable and high‐throughput fabrication of complex multicellular architectures are needed. Here, a facile and high‐thro...
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3D printing offers enormous flexibility in fabrication of polymer objects with complex geometries. However, it is not suitable for fabricating large polymer structures with geometrical features at the sub-micrometer scale. Porous structure at the sub-micrometer scale can render macroscopic objects with unique properties, including similarities with...
Article
Multiplexed detection of viral nucleic acids is important for rapid screening of viral infection. In this study, we present a molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanosheet-modified dendrimer droplet microarray (DMA) for rapid and sensitive detection of retroviral nucleic acids of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) and human immunodeficiency virus-2 (HI...
Article
In article number 2004575, Thomas Schwartz, Pavel A. Levkin, and co‐workers demonstrate and explain the formation of bacterial bridge structures—micrometer thin strings formed between clusters of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on patterned lubricant infused surfaces (pLIS) during dewetting. This simple method allows to control the geometry, length and alig...
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Spatial control of bacteria and biofilms on surfaces is necessary to understand the biofilm formation and the social interactions between bacterial communities, which could provide useful hints to study the biofilm‐involved diseases. Here patterned lubricant‐infused surfaces (pLIS) are utilized to fabricate connective structures named “bacterial br...
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Non-viral vectors are a safety tool for gene therapy to deliver therapeutic genes. Among the different non-viral vectors, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), a well-known hydrosoluble, neutral, and non-toxic polymer, satisfies the requirements and becomes a suitable candidate for gene delivery. In this study, we describe the preparation of polyvinylpyrroli...
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Non-covalent chemosensing ensembles of cucurbit[n]urils (CBn) have been widely used in proof-of-concept sensing applications, but they are prone to disintegrate in saline media, e.g. biological fluids. We show here that covalent cucurbit[7]uril-indicator dye conjugates are buffer-(10× PBS buffer) and saline-stable (up to 1.4 M NaCl) and allow for s...
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Acceleration and unification of drug discovery is important to reduce the effort and cost of new drug development. Diverse chemical and biological conditions, specialized infrastructure and incompatibility between existing analytical methods with high-throughput, nanoliter scale chemistry make the whole drug discovery process lengthy and expensive....
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Currently, there are no time‐saving and cost‐effective high‐throughput screening methods for the evaluation of bacterial drug‐resistance. In this study, a droplet microarray (DMA) system is established as a miniaturized platform for high‐throughput screening of antibacterial compounds using the emerging, opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aer...
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The occurrence of steroid hormones in water and their serious impact on human and ecosystem demand high performance materials for efficient removal of such micropollutants. Here, an affinity membrane is developed for hormone removal with regenerable binding sites. By using photodynamic disulfides as a linker, UV induced detachment of β‐CD ligands f...
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A photoresist system for 3D two‐photon microprinting is presented, which enables the printing of inherently nanoporous structures with mean pore sizes around 50 nm by means of self‐organization on the nanoscale. A phase separation between polymerizable and chemically inert photoresist components leads to the formation of 3D co‐continuous structures...
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Testing the sensitivity of patient-derived tumor cells ex vivo can potentially help determining the appropriate treatment for each patient and spot the development of resistance to a given therapy. The number of cells obtainable from a biopsy is, however, often insufficient for performing ex vivo tests in conventional microtiter plates. Here, we in...
Article
Development of non-viral gene vectors which can efficiently and safely transfect plasmid DNA and siRNA into cells is of great importance for gene therapy. Despite lots of efforts spent, it is still imperative to develop suitable gene vectors with better transfection efficiency and low cytotoxicity. To this end, we successfully designed, synthesized...
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Marrying inverse vulcanization and silane chemistry yields solution‐processable high sulfur content polysulfide‐alkoxysilanes, which could be cured via polycondensation. With this strategy, coated surfaces and particles as well as crosslinked materials can be obtained. This method extends the applicability and control of materials prepared via inve...
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Sulfur as a side product of natural gas and oil refining is an underused resource. Converting landfilled sulfur waste into materials merges the ecological imperative of resource efficiency with economic considerations. A strategy to convert sulfur into polymeric materials is the inverse vulcanization reaction of sulfur with alkenes. However, the fo...
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Hydrogels are 3D networks infused with water. When formed via radical polymerization, inherently stable hydrogels are created due to stable covalent carbon–carbon bonds. As such, they remain static soft scaffolds, unlike the dynamic tissue they are often compared to. Herein, a hydrogel capable of autonomously converting from a liquid hydrogel precu...
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The Wingless/Int1 (Wnt) signaling system plays multiple, essential roles in embryonic development, tissue homeostasis and human diseases. Although many of the underlying signaling mechanisms are becoming clearer, the binding mode, kinetics and selectivity of 19 mammalian WNTs to their receptors of the class Frizzled (FZD 1-10 ) remain obscure. Atte...
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The chemistry and wettability of oxygen containing surfaces can be conveniently modified by silanization with various organosilanes which form SiO bonds on the surface. This work shows that a superhydrophobic nanoporous polymer coating can be reverted to its previous hydrophilic state by removing the fluoroalkyl silane with fluoride anions using t...
Article
A library of 83 structurally diverse cationic amino liposomes are rationally designed and parallelly synthesized for transfection of of plasmid DNA and siRNA. Our designed- and self-assembled- liposomes not only...
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The traditional pipeline of hydrogel development includes individual one-by-one synthesis and characterization of hydrogels. This approach is associated with the disadvantages of low-throughput and high cost. As an alternative approach to classical one-by-one synthesis, high-throughput development of hydrogels is still tremendously under-represente...
Article
A high demand for materials with defined geometry and size is required in a wide range of fields. Inorganic compounds, especially silica‐based, arise as a cheap source and chemically flexible for the purpose. Silica display unique properties, like easy functionalization and good optical features making an interesting material to manipulate. In this...
Article
Transcriptional inhibition by small interfering RNA (siRNA) delivery using synthetic transfection agents eliminates the subsequent risk of introducing mutations in relevant genes, as opposed to viral vectors. However, synthetic vectors with comparable transfection efficiency to that of viral vectors are yet to be developed. Hence, synthesizing new...
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DNA delivery is a powerful research tool for biological research and clinical therapies. However, many nonviral transfection reagents have relatively low transfection efficiency. It is hypothesized that by treating cells with small molecules, the transfection efficiency can be improved. However, in order to identify such transfection‐enhancing mole...
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Miniaturization and parallelization of combinatorial organic synthesis is important to accelerate the process of drug discovery while reducing the consumption of reagents and solvents. This work presents a miniaturized platform for on-chip solid-phase combinatorial library synthesis with UV-triggered on-chip cell screening. The platform is based on...
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Precision or personalized medicine aims to determine an optimal therapy for each individual patient. In oncology techniques such as next generation sequencing, mRNA‐sequencing, ChIP‐sequencing, and mass spectrometry are used to perform a full molecular profiling for each patient. However, it is not always possible to determine a suitable treatment...
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An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.