Paulo V Steagall

Paulo V Steagall
City University of Hong Kong | CityU · Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences

DVM, MSc, PhD, Diplomate ACVAA
Professor of Veterinary Anaesthesia and Pain Management at City University of Hong Kong and Université de Montréal

About

194
Publications
63,428
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
2,403
Citations
Additional affiliations
June 2022 - June 2028
Université de Montréal
Position
  • Professor (Full)

Publications

Publications (194)
Article
Full-text available
Background Pain is the leading cause of animal suffering, hence the importance of validated tools to ensure its appropriate evaluation and treatment. We aimed to test the psychometric properties of the short form of the Unesp-Botucatu Feline Pain Scale (UFEPS-SF) in eight languages. Methods The original scale was condensed from ten to four items....
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of electric pulp test (EPT), cold pulp test (CPT) and tooth transillumination (TTI) in the assessment of pulpal health in dog teeth. Forty-five client-owned dogs requiring tooth extraction or pulpectomy were included. For each patient, one affected and two control healthy teeth were evaluated wi...
Article
Practical relevance Increases in cat ownership worldwide mean more cats are requiring veterinary care. Illness, trauma and surgery can result in acute pain, and effective management of pain is required for optimal feline welfare (ie, physical health and mental wellbeing). Validated pain assessment tools are available and pain management plans for t...
Chapter
This chapter presents a concise description of the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the most relevant canine and feline skin and musculoskeletal diseases. An emphasis is given to the impact of these diseases on anesthetic and analgesic management of patients. In some instances, skin and musculoskeletal disease is presented as a secondar...
Article
Facial expressions of pain have been identified in several animal species. The aim of this systematic review was to provide evidence on the measurement properties of grimace scales for pain assessment. The protocol was registered (SyRF#21-Nov-2019) and the study is reported according to the PRISMA guidelines. Studies reporting the development, vali...
Chapter
The multidimensional nature of dental and orofacial pain requires an interdisciplinary approach to its assessment and management. This chapter provides an overview of different aspects of pain management in the small‐animal dental patient, including pathophysiology, dental nociception, assessment and treatment. Patients with gingivitis and dental p...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of intramuscular butorphanol with dexmedetomidine or alfaxalone on feline splenic size, echogenicity, and attenuation using ultrasound and computed tomography (CT). Ten healthy research cats underwent ultrasound and CT without sedation (controls), 15 min after protocol AB (alfaxalone 2 mg/kg and...
Article
Full-text available
Pain causes behavioral, autonomic, and neuroendocrine changes and is a common cause of animal welfare compromise in farm animals. Current societal and ethical concerns demand better agricultural practices and improved welfare for food animals. These guidelines focus on cattle, sheep, and pigs, and present the implications of pain in terms of animal...
Article
Full-text available
Society has been increasingly concerned about the impact of pain on farm animal welfare. This systematic review aims to provide evidence relating to the measurement properties (i.e. reliability, validity, and sensitivity) of pain scoring instruments used for pain assessment in farm animals. A literature search will be performed using five databases...
Article
Practical relevance: Blood and blood products are increasingly available for practitioners to use in the management of haematological conditions, and can be lifesaving and therapeutically useful for patients with anaemia and/or coagulopathies. It is important for feline healthcare that donors are selected appropriately, and transfusions of blood o...
Article
Full-text available
Background The UNESP-Botucatu multidimensional feline pain assessment scale (UFEPS) is a valid and reliable instrument for acute pain assessment in cats. However, its limitations are that responsiveness was not tested using a negative control group, it was validated only for ovariohysterectomy, and it can be time-consuming. We aimed to evaluate the...
Article
Full-text available
This study aimed to evaluate the agreement and reliability of the Feline Grimace Scale (FGS) among cat owners, veterinarians, veterinary students and nurses/technicians. Raters (n = 5/group) scored 100 images using the FGS (ear position, orbital tightening, muzzle tension, whiskers position and head position). Intra-class correlation coefficients (...
Article
Objective To evaluate the thermal antinociceptive effects of a high-concentration formulation of buprenorphine alone or followed by hydromorphone in conscious cats. Study design Randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled crossover study design. Animals A total of six purpose-bred, adult female ovariohysterectomized Domestic Short Hair cats. Methods...
Article
Full-text available
Canine neuropathic pain (NeuP) has been poorly investigated. This study aimed to evaluate the pain burden, sensory profile and inflammatory cytokines in dogs with naturally-occurring NeuP. Twenty-nine client-owned dogs with NeuP were included in a prospective, partially masked, randomized crossover clinical trial, and treated with gabapentin/placeb...
Article
Abstract Practical relevance: Procedural sedation and analgesia (PSA) describes the process of depressing a patient’s conscious state to perform unpleasant, minimally invasive procedures, and is part of the daily routine in feline medicine. Maintaining cardiopulmonary stability is critical while peforming PSA. Clinical challenges: Decision-making...
Article
Objective To describe the anesthetic and adverse effects of an injectable anesthetic protocol in dogs as part of a high-volume sterilization program under field conditions in Belize. Study design Prospective, observational, field study. Animals A total of 23 female and eight male dogs (14.2 ± 7.7 kg; age ≥ 8 weeks). Methods Using a volume per kg...
Preprint
Full-text available
Canine neuropathic pain (NeuP) has been poorly investigated. This study aimed to evaluate the pain burden, sensory profile and inflammatory cytokines in dogs with naturally-occurring NeuP. Twenty-nine client-owned dogs with NeuP were included in a p rospective, partially masked, randomized crossover clinical trial, and treated with gabapentin/place...
Article
Full-text available
Dental, oral, and maxillofacial diseases are some of the most common problems in small animal veterinary practice. These conditions create significant pain as well as localized and potentially systemic infection. As such, the World Small Animal Veterinary Association (WSAVA) believes that un‐ and under treated oral and dental diseases pose a signif...
Article
This study evaluated the effects of ketamine-dexmedetomidine-midazolam as part of an opioid-free, multimodal protocol in cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy. In a prospective, blinded, randomized clinical trial, cats received either 1 of 2 doses of ketamine [5 mg/kg body weight (BW), n = 10, K5 or 7 mg/kg BW, n = 13, K7] with midazolam (0.25 mg/kg B...
Article
This list of essential medicines is presented by members of the WSAVA Therapeutic Guidelines Group (TGG) following extensive internal and external peer-review. Internal peer-review was provided by TGG members and its subcommittees, whereas external peer-review was performed by board-certified individuals and other WSAVA working/guideline groups. Th...
Article
Full-text available
This study aimed to evaluate the inter-rater reliability of the Feline Grimace Scale (FGS) in cats undergoing dental extractions and the effects of the caregiver's presence on the FGS scores. Twenty-four cats (6 ± 3.3 years old; 4.9 ± 1.7 kg) undergoing oral treatment were included in a prospective, blinded, randomized, clinical study. They underwe...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Buprenorphine is used for canine postoperative pain management. This study aimed to describe the pharmacokinetics and evaluate the analgesic efficacy of buprenorphine (Simbadol, 1.8 mg/mL) administered by different routes in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy. Twenty-four dogs were included in a randomized, prospective, masked, clinica...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Specific behaviors associated with pain in cats with oral disease have not been consistently studied. The aim of this exploratory study was to identify pain-induced behaviors in cats before and after treatment of oral disease using video assessment. Twenty-four cats (6 ± 3.3 years old; 4.9 ± 1.7 kg) were included in a prospective, blin...
Article
Full-text available
Background The Feline Grimace Scale (FGS) is a facial expression-based scoring system for acute pain assessment in cats with reported validity using image assessment. The aims of this study were to investigate the clinical applicability of the FGS in real-time when compared with image assessment, and to evaluate the influence of sedation and surger...
Article
Cats have unique anatomic, physiologic, and behavioral considerations that may influence analgesia and pain management. They present specific challenges that require an individualized, feline-specific approach. This article presents an overview of recent advances in feline pain management and their differences in relation to other species and evolv...
Article
Full-text available
This study aimed to evaluate the analgesic efficacy of two dosage regimens using two different concentrations of buprenorphine in cats undergoing dental extractions. Twenty-three cats with oral disease (8.2 ± 2.2 years old; 4.9 ± 0.9 kg) were included in a prospective, blinded, randomized clinical trial. Cats randomly received either Simbadol (1.8...
Article
en This is the fourth Capsule review article provided by the WSAVA Global Pain Council and which discusses the use of ice or cold therapy as a non‐pharmacologic modality for pain control in small animal practice. The physiological effects of cold therapy on tissues, receptors and ion channels are discussed; as well as indications, recommendations f...
Article
Full-text available
Grimace scales have been used for pain assessment in different species. This study aimed to develop and validate the Feline Grimace Scale (FGS) to detect naturally-occurring acute pain. Thirty-five client-owned and twenty control cats were video-recorded undisturbed in their cages in a prospective, case-control study. painful cats received analgesi...
Article
The World Small Animal Veterinary Association Global Pain Council (WSAVA-GPC) has recently published its first "capsule review" by Monteiro et al. These are short articles that present a brief assessment of the scientific evidence and practical recommendations on important, and sometimes controversial, subjects in pain management. The capsules will...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The aims of this study were to investigate the applicability of the Feline Grimace Scale (FGS) for real-time acute pain assessment and to evaluate the influence of sedation and surgery on the FGS scores in cats. Sixty-five female cats (2.8 +- 0.7 kg) were included. Cats were sedated with acepromazine (0.02 mg kg-1) and buprenorphine (0.02 mg kg-1)...
Article
This article reviews the mechanisms of action, clinical use, and recent scientific evidence for the use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, grapiprant, acetaminophen (paracetamol), metamizole (dipyrone), and corticosteroids in pain management. The discussion is presented with an emphasis on the treatment of acute pain.
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to compare the analgesic efficacy of intraperitoneal bupivacaine vs. bupivacaine-dexmedetomidine in combination with intramuscular buprenorphine in cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy. Sixty healthy adult cats (2.8 ± 0.7 kg; n = 30/group) were included in a randomized, prospective, blinded, clinical trial after owners' writ...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: Oral pain is underrecognized and undertreated in small animal practice. This study aimed to develop and perform a preliminary validation of an instrument to evaluate oral and maxillofacial pain in dogs and cats. Methods: Indicators potentially associated with oral pain in dogs and cats were identified and selected. The Composite Oral Pa...
Article
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of and covariates associated with the oculocardiac reflex (OCR) occurring in dogs during enucleations. SAMPLE: 145 dogs that underwent enucleation at 2 veterinary teaching hospitals between January 2010 and June 2015. PROCEDURES: Information was collected from the medical records of included dogs regarding a...
Article
Adjuvant analgesics (ie, gabapentin, tramadol, and ketamine) are commonly used in small animal practice. Most of these drugs are prescribed for outpatients, when pain is refractory to classic analgesics (ie, local anesthetics, opioids, and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs [NSAIDs]), or when contraindications exist to the administration of other...
Article
Practical relevance Chronic pain is a feline health and welfare issue. It has a negative impact on quality of life and impairs the owner–cat bond. Chronic pain can exist by itself or may be associated with disease and/or injury, including osteoarthritis (OA), cancer, and oral and periodontal disease, among others. Clinical challenges Chronic pain...
Article
This is the first of a series of capsule reviews published by the World Small Animal Veterinary Association ‐ Global Pain Council (WSAVA‐GPC). Each of these short articles provides a brisk assessment of the scientific evidence in specific aspects of pain management, including analgesic techniques, recommendations and controversies surrounding their...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction This study aimed to evaluate the effects of aging on hydromorphone-induced thermal antinociception in cats. Methods In a prospective, randomized, blinded, controlled design, 10 healthy female cats received each of the following treatments intramuscularly: hydromorphone (0.1 mg/kg) and 0.9% saline (0.05 mL/kg) with a 1-week washout bet...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Quantitative sensory testing has been used to assess the somatosensory system. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and reliability of electrical (ENT), mechanical (MNT) and thermal (TNT) nociceptive testing and the effect of a conditioning stimulus on MNT. Patients and methods: Sixteen healthy client-owned dogs were included in th...
Article
Practical relevance: Pain assessment has gained much attention in recent years as a means of improving pain management and treatment standards. It has become an elemental part of feline practice with ultimate benefit to feline health and welfare. Currently pain assessment involves mostly the investigation of sensory-discriminative (intensity, locat...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Buprenorphine is a potent lipophilic opioid analgesic that is largely used in the multimodal treatment of acute pain. Simbadol (buprenorphine hydrochloride) is the first and only FDA-approved high-concentration formulation of buprenorphine for use in cats. The aim of this study was to evaluate the analgesic efficacy of carprofen in com...
Chapter
The cardiovascular, respiratory, nervous, urinary, hepatic, endocrine, and gastrointestinal systems may be affected by sedatives and anesthetics, and by disease. This chapter highlights the unique features of feline anatomy and physiology and describes the effects of sedatives, analgesics, and anesthetics on these major body systems.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This study aimed to describe the anesthetic effects of an injectable anesthetic protocol in stray dogs undergoing a high-volume sterilization program. Eight males and 27 females (13.7 ± 7.6 kg; ≥ 8 weeks-old) were included. Animals received approximately 4.5 mg kg-1 of ketamine, 0.04 mg kg-1 of medetomidine and 0.09 mg kg-1 of hydromorphone IM. Af...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This study aimed to evaluate pain scores, analgesic requirements and food intake between cats with severe or minimal oral disease before and after treatment. Twenty-four cats (6 ± 3.3 years old; 4.9 ± 1.7 kg) were included in a prospective, blinded clinical trial. Cats were equally divided in two groups [minimal (G1; dental prophylaxis) and severe...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to evaluate serum inflammatory cytokines in cats with minimal or severe oral disease before and after treatment. Twenty-four cats (6 ± 3.3 years old; 4.9 ± 1.7 kg) were included in this prospective, blinded clinical trial. Cats were equally divided into two groups based on disease severity and number of extractions: minima...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This study evaluated the effects of gabapentin alone (G) or in combination with meloxicam (GM) on electrical and mechanical nociceptive threshold (ENT and MNT, respectively) in dogs with neuropathic pain. Thirty-one client-owned dogs [6.7 (0.6-12.9 years); 26.9 ± 18 kg (22 males/9 females)] with naturally-occurring suspected neuropathic pain were...
Chapter
Road traffic accidents are the primary cause for more than half (56%) of all feline trauma and is associated with the greatest risk for mortality (16%) when compared to other traumatic incidents (Hernon et al., 2018). Emergent surgical procedures such as those associated with a traumatic incident are also amongst several risk factors associated wit...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This study aimed to report the construct and criterion validity, and reliability of a Feline Grimace Scale (FGS). Thirty-five client-owned and twenty non-painful control cats (6.8  3.8 and 3.1  1.1 years, respectively) were video-recorded undisturbed in their cages in a prospective, case-control study. Four observers independently scored 110 ima...
Article
Full-text available
INTRODUCTION: This article reports the content validation of a Critical Appraisal Tool designed to Review the quality of Analgesia Studies (CATRAS) involving subjects incapable of self-reporting pain and provide guidance as to the strengths and weakness of findings. The CATRAS quality items encompass 3 domains: level of evidence, methodological sou...
Article
The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy and pharmacokinetics of bupivacaine in combination with epinephrine or dexmedetomidine after intraperitoneal administration in cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy. Sixteen healthy adult cats (3.3 ± 0.6 kg) were included in a prospective, randomized, masked clinical trial after obtaining owners' con...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to develop the Feline Grimace Scale (FGS) to evaluate acute pain in cats. Thirty-one client-owned painful cats [scores ≥ 4/16: composite measure pain scale (Calvo et al. 2014)] and twenty non-painful control cats were included in a prospective, observational, case-control study. Cats were video-recorded undisturbed in the...
Poster
Full-text available
Description of the prevalence and risk factors of oculocardiac reflex in dogs undergoing enucleation under general anaesthesia
Article
Objective: To evaluate pet owners' perceptions and understanding of surgical pain, perioperative pain management, and anesthesia. Study design: Prospective owner survey. Sample population: Eight veterinary hospitals each provided 200 surveys for distribution to pet owners. Methods: A survey evaluated owners' perceptions and opinions related...
Book
Feline Anesthesia and Pain Management offers a definitive and practical guide to feline anesthesia and pain management. The only book offering detailed practical information on anesthesia and pain management in cats, one of the world’s most popular pets. World renowned author team. Quick reference format with full color illustrations Offers de...
Article
Objective To evaluate pet owners’ perceptions and understanding of surgical pain, perioperative pain management, and anesthesia to improve owner education and client communication. Study Design Prospective owner survey. Sample Population Eight veterinary hospitals, each provided 200 surveys for distribution to pet owners. Methods A survey evalua...
Chapter
Treatment of acute pain presents several challenges in feline practice. This chapter presents an overview of epidemiological data on the use of analgesics in cats and current challenges and principles of feline acute pain management. Multimodal and preventive analgesia involving nonpharmacological therapies and local anesthetics, opioids and nonste...
Chapter
This chapter discusses anesthetic management of cats with significant coexisting diseases and conditions. Examples include anesthesia for treatment of urinary tract obstruction and uroabdomen, surgical repair of diaphragmatic rupture, gastrointestinal emergencies, and neuroanesthesia. Anesthetic management of cats with chronic kidney disease, hyper...
Chapter
Sedation can often be challenging in cats due to their natural temperament and behavior as well as concomitant conditions and diseases. This chapter takes a practical approach and discusses the most important features of sedation in cats including the basic pharmacology, clinical application, and potential adverse effects of sedative drugs.
Chapter
A sound understanding of behavior and gentle handling of cats is fundamental to cat-friendly veterinary practice. A wide array of equipment and techniques are available to the practitioner for examination and treatment of their feline patients. Appropriate preanesthetic assessment using a check list will identify risks, prevent complications, and p...
Chapter
Local anesthetics are low-cost, nonscheduled drugs that are widely used for treatment of perioperative pain, and to reduce inhalant and injectable anesthetic requirements. Local anesthetics inhibit the generation and propagation of electrical impulses in a reversible manner by blocking sodium (Na+) channels. There are several factors that determine...
Chapter
Injectable anesthetics are used for induction, and less commonly for maintenance of general anesthesia. Intravenous anesthetics can be administered by infusion for variable periods of time (total intravenous anesthesia; TIVA) using infusion devices. Some of these agents can be used for chemical restraint when administered intramuscularly. Injectabl...
Article
Objectives Feline osteoarthritis causes pain and disability. Detection and measurement is challenging, relying heavily on owner report. This study describes refinement of the Montreal Instrument for Cat Arthritis Testing, for Use by Veterinarians. Methods A video analysis of osteoarthritic (n = 6) and non-osteoarthritic (n = 4) cats facilitated ex...
Article
Objectives The aim of the study was to evaluate the analgesic efficacy of gabapentin–buprenorphine in comparison with meloxicam–buprenorphine or buprenorphine alone, and the correlation between two pain-scoring systems in cats. Methods Fifty-two adult cats were included in a randomized, controlled, blinded study. Anesthetic protocol included acepr...