Paulo Enrique Cardoso Peixoto

Paulo Enrique Cardoso Peixoto
Federal University of Minas Gerais | UFMG · Departamento de Biologia Geral

PhD

About

46
Publications
4,457
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461
Citations
Additional affiliations
August 2016 - present
Federal University of Minas Gerais
Position
  • Professor
July 2011 - July 2016
State University of Feira de Santana
Position
  • Professor
July 2011 - present
State University of Feira de Santana

Publications

Publications (46)
Article
In odonates, male coloration is often more conspicuous than female coloration. This difference is frequently attributed to the role of male colour in male–male competition to access females. However, there are sexually dimorphic odonate species, such as the damselflies Argia hasemani and Argia croceipennis, in which male–male interactions are much...
Article
In many species that fight over resources, individuals use specialized structures to gain a mechanical advantage over their rivals during contests (i.e. weapons). Although weapons are widespread across animals, how they affect the probability of winning contests is still debated. According to theory, understanding weapon function during contests is...
Article
Full-text available
Studies that test the optimal escape theory often show that males base their escape strategies on the costs and benefits of escaping. Consequently, some studies have shown that males exhibit riskier anti-predatory strategies when they are near females, probably to avoid losing reproductive opportunities. However, since in some species females have...
Preprint
Full-text available
In many species that fight over resources, individuals use specialized structures to gain mechanical advantage over their rivals during contests (i.e., weapons). Although weapons are widespread across animals, how they affect the probability of winning contests is still debated. According to theory, understanding the weapons’ function in contests d...
Article
In addition to resource value, the cost of finding mates may affect how much males invest in fights for females. The cost of finding females may be imposed through natural factors extrinsic to males, such as female spatial distribution and predation pressure, which can be challenging to simulate in laboratory conditions. Therefore, studies under na...
Article
In many species, the location of females may affect the spatial distribution of males. If females vary in their reproductive quality, and males have to fight for access to the females, then weaker males should aggregate around high‐quality females while avoiding areas occupied by males of high fighting capacity. However, this aggregation pattern sh...
Article
Full-text available
Studies on the strategic rules used by fighting animals usually attempt to categorize fights as falling into one of two discrete types: self-assessment and mutual assessment. With self-assessment, losers give up when they cross an individual costs threshold, without reference to the fighting ability (resource-holding potential, RHP) of their oppone...
Article
The ideal cavity dimensions for neotropical cavity-nesting bees with the potential to be managed as pollinators have not been getting proper attention. We investigated whether the occupancy of trap-nests by Centris analis Fabricius and Tetrapedia diversipes Klug, and other nesting aspects, are affected by different trap-nest length. The used trap-n...
Article
Full-text available
In many species, individuals contest resources using specialized morphologies to overpower rivals, hereafter referred to as weapons. Despite their importance in fights, little is known about the selective forces affecting weapon evolution. This may be particularly important to understand why weapons are highly variable among species. Due to their r...
Article
Mutualisms are one of the main forces shaping species spatial patterns at all geographic scales. In generalised mutualisms, however, the dependence among partners is highly variable in time and space, and therefore, the effect of diffuse mutualisms on species geographic distributions is unclear. Myrmecochorous seeds in Brazilian semi‐arid vegetatio...
Article
Competition for resources is a ubiquitous feature of life, and a central topic in behavioral ecology. Organisms use assessment strategies to resolve contests, which can be delineated into two broad categories by the information individuals use to make decisions: mutual assessment (MA) or self-assessment (SA). Most research hitherto has worked to bi...
Article
Full-text available
We appreciate the diversity of commentaries on our recent review on animal contests (Chapin et al. 2019). Here we respond to some key points to highlight how our suggested approach could be used. In summary, we suggested that: 1) variation in information use might be continuous, in contrast to the usual mutual assessment versus self-assessment dich...
Article
Full-text available
Animals frequently use agonistic contests as a way to solve disputes over indivisible resources. Such agonistic contests often represent interactions between an owner and a non-owner of a resource. However, some behaviors adopted by rivals during agonistic interactions are similar to behaviors adopted in other types of interactions. Thus, the possi...
Article
Full-text available
Competition for resources is a ubiquitous feature of life, and a central topic in behavioral ecology. Organisms use assessment strategies to resolve contests, which can be delineated into two broad categories by the information individuals use to make decisions: mutual assessment (MA) or self-assessment (SA). Most research hitherto has worked to bi...
Article
Since the 1970's, models based on evolutionary game theory, such as war of attrition (WOA), energetic war of attrition (E-WOA), cumulative assessment model (CAM) and sequential assessment model (SAM), have been widely applied to understand how animals settle contests. Despite the important theoretical advances provided by these models, empirical ev...
Article
How animals decide to withdraw from contests is central to understand the evolution of fighting behavior. Game theory models suggest 2 major types of decision criteria: 1) self-assessment, where individuals withdraw when they reach a cost-threshold determined by their own fighting ability that may or may not be affected by injuries, or 2) mutual as...
Article
Full-text available
Ant gardens (AGs) are a multi-partner specialized ant-plant interaction involving several ant and epiphyte species. Although studies on AGs have reported possible roles for some species in this system, there are unanswered questions regarding the process of epiphyte incorporation in the AGs and the role of less aggressive ant species in AG protecti...
Article
Abiotic conditions can increase the costs of services and/or the benefits of rewards provided by mutualistic partners. Consequently, in some situations, the outcome of mutualisms can move from beneficial to detrimental for at least one partner. In the case of protective mutualisms between ant bodyguards and plants bearing extrafloral nectaries (EFN...
Article
Full-text available
In fights between males for access to mating territories, the winner may be the rival with the highest fighting capacity or that places the highest value on the disputed site. However, it is also possible that both factors simultaneously affect dispute settlement. Therefore, a better understanding of contest resolution rules may be achieved by simu...
Article
Full-text available
Variations in abundance and species richness among communities are often determined by interactions between biotic and abiotic factors. However, for communities composed of species that share a common specialization (such as similar foraging adaptations) it may be a key ecological factor involved in the common specialization that affects community...
Article
In territorial species, rivals investment in fights over territories may increase when the availability of suitable areas for defense is low. This should occur because low territory availability may increase the costs to maintain and acquire territories. Although such process occurs in small spatial scales (local scale), territory availability in l...
Article
The spatial variation in the outcome of the interaction between secondary dispersers and seeds is superimposed upon the variation produced by primary dispersers. Investigating the factors that drive the outcome of the interactions with secondary seed dispersers thus represents an essential refinement to our understanding of the complete seed disper...
Article
Full-text available
In many animals, males interact with or without physical contact to contest the possession of mating sites. The winner in such interactions often has larger body size and is the individual that previously occupied the territory (the resident). However, there is little consensus among studies on territorial insect species concerning which traits det...
Article
Strategies that increase foraging efficiency may also increase predation risk. We investigated how individuals of Hingstepeira folisecens Hingston, 1932, which build shelters at the orb hub, modulate their foraging behaviors in response to the trade-off between capturing prey and becoming exposed by leaving their shelters. We evaluated whether the...
Article
Full-text available
In order to maximize escaping success, prey may change their predator avoidance behaviors according to their susceptibility. Morphological development during ontogeny may lead to different susceptibility to predators. Consequently, prey may exhibit different predator avoidance strategies according to the ontogenetic state. In this study, we used ta...
Article
The territorial defense of mating sites by males should be favored when female monopolization is possible. Such monopolization should occur in species in which females emerge asynchronously, since males may have time to copulate with one female before the arrival of other. However, regions with smaller reproductive windows should promote higher syn...
Article
Full-text available
Males of many animal species show intraspecific disputes for mating territories that range from displays without physical contact to physical fights with risk of injury. This variation motivated the proposition of different models that suggest possible rules used by rivals to decide the contest winner. To evaluate those models, it is necessary to i...
Article
The proportion of sexually receptive males in relation to females (operational sex ratio, OSR) is often invoked as an important determinant of the potential for sexual selection. Although the opportunity for sexual selection metric (Is) is frequently used to estimate such potential, recent doubts have been cast about its capacity to disentangle the...
Chapter
The study of evolutionary forces shaping territorial mating systems has been wide-ranging in butterflies. According to sexual selection theory, the occurrence of territorial mating systems is mainly determined by the temporal and spatial distribution of resources used by females. However, this is not the rule for butterflies, since sites without re...
Article
Full-text available
Animals that select and defend suitable habitats against conspecifics may be favored by maximizing prey encounter rate, gaining protection, or securing matings. However, the identification of habitat selection and territoriality may be hindered in observational studies in sedentary species with low-density populations, such as the whip spider Heter...
Article
Full-text available
This study aimed to analyze assemblages of arboreal ants in different vegetation physiognomies within the Tropical Moist Forest (Atlantic Rain Forest) domain. The study was carried out at the Michelin Ecological Reserve, State of Bahia, Northeast of Brazil. We used sardine (protein resource) and honey (carbohydrate resource) baits to collect ants f...
Article
1. Many game-theoretical models assume that the outcome of agonistic interactions depends on morphological and physiological asymmetries between rivals (the RHP-asymmetry hypothesis). However, some empirical studies fail at identifying traits linked to fighting capacity and are thus unable to support the role of RHP in contest resolution. Perhaps t...
Article
Agonistic interactions between males for the ownership of mating territories are common among animal species. There are at least three theoretical models aimed to clarify the rules used by rivals to decide the contest winner: war of attrition model (WOA), sequential assessment model (SAM) and cumulative assessment model (CAM). However, few empirica...
Article
Although many studies have evaluated the possible rules used by males to settle territorial contests, few have simultaneously considered the possibility of mutual or self-assessment of fighting ability and the effect of prior residence on the chances of winning. Here, we experimentally investigated the influence of previous residency on the develop...
Article
Females of some Thomisidae species are known to use visual and olfactory stimuli to select high quality hunting sites. However, because studies about foraging behavior in this family are concentrated on a few species, the comprehension of the process related to hunting behavior evolution in crab spiders may be biased. In this study we investigated...
Article
Among polygynous species, males often compete for the possession of mating sites to increase their reproductive success. Weaker individuals frequently adopt alternative non‐territorial mate‐locating tactics, but the adoption of alternative territorial tactics may also occur. Although alternative tactics with territory defence are less common in art...
Article
Among insect species that compete for ownership of mating sites via aerial interactions, there is little consensus about how morphological and physiological traits functionally translate into costs during a fight. In this study, we evaluated the hypothesis that in territorial disputes without physical contact, traits that maximize endurance will be...
Article
Since palatable butterflies are more dependent on evasive flight to escape from predators, they should be more restricted in their flight-related morphology than unpalatable ones. We compared: the ratios between the (1) length of head plus thorax and the length of abdomen (A/B), (2) length of the tip of the head to wing base and the length of the w...
Article
Territorial defense in butterflies may be related to both population density and climatic conditions. If these factors change throughout the year, males are expected to adaptively adjust their behavior in order to maximize reproductive success. In this study, we analyzed the annual dynamics of territory occupation by males of the satyrine butterfly...
Article
Full-text available
Adult males and females of many insect species are expected to adjust their daily activity pattern in order to avoid stressful climatic conditions and increase the chances to encounter sexual partners. Using scan sampling methods associated with focal individual observations it was found that two satyrine butterflies of similar size and morphology,...
Article
Full-text available
Males of the damselfly Hetaerina rosea may defend mating sites along river margins (resident males) or, alternatively, wander among different areas presumably searching for mates (nonterritorial males). Although the occurrence of territorial and nonterritorial males of H. rosea is very common in Brazil, studies examining which factors may be respon...
Article
Adult males and females of many insect species are expected to adjust their daily activity pattern in order to avoid stressful climatic conditions and increase the chances to encounter sexual partners. Using scan sampling methods associated with focal individual observations it was found that two satyrine butterflies of similar size and morphology,...
Article
The males of numerous butterfly species fight with conspecific rivals to possess mating territories. Although there is little consensus on the nature of fight costs or on what traits favor victory, a recent analysis suggests that size may be of minor importance. However, data are inconsistent, and wing length, the metric that has been most widely u...
Article
Aspects of population dynamics were tested against temperature, insolation and moisture. The monthly abundance of H. rosea was estimated utilizing a scan method based on 49 fixed areas in 30-min intervals from 0800 to 1700 h during the day. The daily ♂ activity pattern is characterized by a sharp increase at 0900 h with continuous density until 143...