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Pauline E Jullien

Pauline E Jullien
Institut of plant sciences · University of Bern

PhD

About

51
Publications
6,092
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1,736
Citations
Additional affiliations
September 2017 - present
Universität Bern
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
September 2016 - July 2017
Institute of Research for Development
Position
  • IRD
September 2011 - June 2016
ETH Zurich
Position
  • ETH-Zurich

Publications

Publications (51)
Article
Epigenetic marks influence gene regulation and genomic stability via the repression of transposable elements. During sexual reproduction, tight regulation of the epigenome must take place to maintain the repression of transposable elements while still allowing changes in cell-specific transcriptional programs. In plants, epigenetic marks are reorga...
Article
Full-text available
Complex epigenetic changes occur during plant reproduction. These regulations ensure the proper transmission of epigenetic information as well as allowing for zygotic totipotency. In Arabidopsis, the main DNA methyltransferase is called MET1 and is responsible for methylating cytosine in the CG context. The Arabidopsis genome encodes for three addi...
Preprint
In recent years, small RNA movement has been both hypothesized and shown to be an integral part of the epigenetic DNA methylation reprogramming occurring during plant reproduction. It was suggested that the release of epigenetic silencing in accessory cell types or tissues is necessary to reinforce epigenetic silencing in the gametes (egg cell and...
Article
Full-text available
Animal and plant microRNAs (miRNAs) are essential for the spatio-temporal regulation of development. Together with this role, plant miRNAs have been proposed to target transposable elements (TEs) and stimulate the production of epigenetically-active small interfering RNAs. This activity is evident in the plant male gamete containing structure, the...
Article
Full-text available
The Arabidopsis genome encodes ten Argonautes proteins showing distinct expression pattern as well as intracellular localisation during sexual reproduction.
Article
Full-text available
Cytosine methylation is an epigenetic mark present in most eukaryotic genomes that contributes to the regulation of gene expression and the maintenance of genome stability. DNA methylation mostly occurs at CG sequences, where it is initially deposited by de novo DNA methyltransferases and propagated by maintenance DNA methyltransferases (DNMT) duri...
Preprint
Full-text available
Complex epigenetic changes occur during plant reproduction. These regulations ensure the proper transmission of epigenetic information as well as allowing for zygotic totipotency. In Arabidopsis , the main DNA methyltransferase is called MET1 and is responsible for methylating cytosine in the CG context. The Arabidopsis genome encodes for three add...
Preprint
Full-text available
A bstract DNA methylation is an important epigenetic mark required for proper gene expression and silencing of transposable elements. DNA methylation patterns can be modified by environmental factors such as pathogen infection, where modification of DNA methylation can be associated with plant resistance. To counter the plant defense pathways, path...
Data
Supplementary Information related to Devers et al., 2020, Nature Plants including: Supplementary Figures 1-15; Supplementary Discussion; Supplementary Tables 1 and 2
Article
Full-text available
In RNA interference (RNAi), the RNase III Dicer processes long double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) into short interfering RNA (siRNA), which, when loaded into ARGONAUTE (AGO) family proteins, execute gene silencing. Remarkably, RNAi can act non-cell autonomously: it is graft transmissible, and plasmodesmata-associated proteins modulate its cell-to-cell spr...
Article
Full-text available
Arabidopsis encodes ten ARGONAUTE (AGO) effectors of RNA silencing, canonically loaded with either 21‐22 nucleotide (nt) long small RNAs (sRNA) to mediate post‐transcriptional‐gene‐silencing (PTGS) or 24nt sRNAs to promote RNA‐directed‐DNA‐methylation. Using full‐locus constructs, we characterized the expression, biochemical properties, and possibl...
Preprint
Full-text available
A bstract During sexual reproduction, development of a totipotent zygote from the fusion of highly differentiated gametes is accompanied by dynamic regulation of gene expression. This notably involves RNA silencing operated by Argonautes (AGO) effector proteins. While AGOs’ roles during Arabidopsis somatic life have been extensively investigated, l...
Article
Small RNAs gene regulation was first discovered about 20 years ago. It represents a conserve gene regulation mechanism across eukaryotes and is associated to key regulatory processes. In plants, small RNAs tightly regulate development, but also maintain genome stability and protect the plant against pathogens. Small RNA gene regulation in plants ca...
Preprint
Full-text available
Arabidopsis encodes ten ARGONAUTE (AGO) effectors of RNA silencing, canonically loaded with either 21-22nt small RNAs (sRNA) to mediate post-transcriptional-gene-silencing (PTGS) or 24nt sRNAs to promote RNA-directed-DNA-methylation. Using full-locus constructs, we characterized the expression, biochemical properties, and possible modes of action o...
Article
Full-text available
Small RNAs play an important role in regulating gene expression through transcriptional and post-transcriptional gene silencing. Biogenesis of small RNAs from longer double-stranded (ds)RNA requires the activity of DICER-LIKE ribonucleases (DCLs), which in plants are aided by dsRNA binding proteins (DRBs). To gain insight into this pathway in the m...
Article
Full-text available
Plant RNA silencing operates via RNA-directed DNA-methylation (RdDM) to repress transcription or by targeting mRNAs via posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS). These pathways rely on distinct Dicer-like (DCL) proteins that process doublestranded RNA (dsRNA) into small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Here, we explored the expression and subcellular lo...
Article
Full-text available
Epigenetic inheritance is more widespread in plants than in mammals, in part because mammals erase epigenetic information by germline reprogramming. We sequenced the methylome of three haploid cell types from developing pollen: the sperm cell, the vegetative cell, and their precursor, the postmeiotic microspore, and found that unlike in mammals the...
Article
Full-text available
DNA methylation maintains genome stability and regulates gene expression [1]. In mammals, DNA methylation is reprogrammed in the germline from one generation to the next [2]. In plants, it was considered that patterns of DNA methylation are stably maintained through sexual reproduction [3-6]. However, a recent report showed discrete variations of D...
Article
Chromatin modifications including histone marks and DNA methylation restrict the transcriptional repertoire and participate in cell fate establishment. Conservation of modified chromatin states through cell division and their inheritance through meiosis create mitotic and trans-generational forms of epigenetic memory, respectively. This lies in app...
Data
Probability values obtained after a student's t-test on Col sets of crosses from Figure S1 and Figure S3. Two samples are significantly different when p<0.05. (1.31 MB TIF)
Data
List of primers used in this study. (1.12 MB TIF)
Data
Effects of interploid crosses on the expression FIS2 transgenes. Effect of an increased maternal dosage on expression of transcriptional reporter pFIS2-GUS expression at 1.5 DAP. Staining was stopped before signal saturation and three classes of seeds were distinguished on the basis of the intensity of signal. The percentage of each class in crosse...
Data
Probability values obtained after a student's t-test on C24 sets of crosses from Figure 1 and Figure 3. Two samples are significantly different when p<0.05. (1.31 MB TIF)
Data
Effects of interploid crosses on the expression of DNA methylation dependent imprinted genes. (A-D) Quantitative PCR measurements of FIS2 (A), FWA (B), DME (C), MET1 (D), GAPC (E), and MINI3 (F) mRNAs were performed on total mRNAs extracted from siliques produced by crosses between diploid and tetraploid parents (2 DAP, Col ecotype). Each point rep...
Data
RQ value of the C24 experiment after normalisation with Act11. C24 2nX2n sample 1 was normalised to 1. Each RQ value in this table corresponds to the average RQ value of 3 technical replicates. (1.32 MB TIF)
Data
RQ value of the Columbia experiment after normalisation with Act11. Col 2nX2n sample 1 was normalised to 1. Each RQ value in this table corresponds to the average RQ value of 3 technical replicates. (1.34 MB TIF)
Data
Probability values obtained after a student's t-test on qPCR results shown in figure 4. Two samples are significantly different when p<0.05. (0.76 MB TIF)
Data
Effects of interploid crosses on the expression of genes imprinted by Polycomb group activity. Quantitative PCR measurements of MEA (A), PHE1 (B), and FIE (C) mRNAs were performed on total mRNAs extracted from siliques produced by crosses between diploid and tetraploid parents (2 DAP, Col ecotype). Each point represents the average RQ value obtaine...
Article
Full-text available
In mammals and in plants, parental genome dosage imbalance deregulates embryo growth and might be involved in reproductive isolation between emerging new species. Increased dosage of maternal genomes represses growth while an increased dosage of paternal genomes has the opposite effect. These observations led to the discovery of imprinted genes, wh...
Article
Full-text available
Although most genes are expressed equally from both parental alleles, imprinted genes are differentially expressed depending on their parental origin. In flowering plants, imprinting depends on DNA methylation. Conversely, activation of the expressed allele requires DNA demethylation. This is achieved during female gametogenesis by the synergy betw...
Article
Full-text available
Parental genomic imprinting causes preferential expression of one of the two parental alleles. In mammals, differential sex-dependent deposition of silencing DNA methylation marks during gametogenesis initiates a new cycle of imprinting. Parental genomic imprinting has been detected in plants and relies on DNA methylation by the methyltransferase M...
Data
FIS2-GUS Expression Is Not Affected by PcG and CAF-1 Mutation (A) Percentage of ovules or seeds expressing FIS2-GUS (homozygote for the marker [HO]) in wild type (WT) and in Polycomb mutants mea-6/+ and fie-11/+ before pollination (BP) and 2.5 d after pollination (2.5 DAP). (B) Percentage of seeds expressing FIS2-GUS (hemizygote for the marker, HE)...
Data
Specificity of the Antiserum against MSI1 Antibodies against the C-terminal region of MSI1 were obtained from immunization of rabbits with the peptide MGKDEEEMRGEIEERLINE (Invitrogen). A western blot was performed using serum against protein extracts from 10-d-old seedlings from Arabidopsis, wild-type Columbia, and a transgenic Columbia line carryi...
Data
FWA-GFP, FIS2-GUS, and pMEA-MEA-YFP Marker in a msi1–1/+ Mutant Background Percentage of seeds expressing FWA-GFP hemizygote (A), FIS2-GUS hemizygote (B), and pMEA-MEA-YFP homozygote (C) in wild type and msi1–1/+ in mature ovules before pollination (BP). Error bars represent the standard deviation. The n number is represented on the top of each bar...
Data
RBR1/MSI1 Pathway Is Independent of DME (A) RT-PCR on RNAs from rbr1–1–selected ovules showed no reduction of DME and MSI1 in rbr1 ovules in comparison to wild-type Col accession. GAPDH is used as a control. (B) RT-PCR on RNAs from dme-4 buds showing no reduction of RBR1 and MSI1 in dme-4 buds in comparison to wild-type C24 accession. GAPDH is used...
Data
Vectors Using YFP in BiFC Analyses (37 KB DOC)
Data
Comparison of CpG DNA Methylation between Wild-Type and MSI1cs Plants In order to know whether increased MET1 expression in MSI1cs leaves also leads to an increase in the amount of CpG methylation, we performed bisulfite sequencing of the methylated region of the FIS2 and FWA promoters. (A) Analysis of CpG methylation of FIS2 promoter region using...
Data
MSI1 Is Required for FWA-GFP Expression in the Endosperm Percentage of seeds expressing MEA-GUS and FWA-GFP in wild-type (black bar) and msi1–2/+ (white bar) in seeds at 2.5 DAP. Error bars represent the standard deviation. The n number is represented on the top of each bar. (395 KB EPS)
Data
Expression the pMET1:H2B-RFP Marker during Male Gametogenesis Epifluorescence images from transgenic plants expressing the pMET1:H2B-RFP fusion protein costained with DAPI. (A) pMET1:H2B-RFP is expressed in the microspore (M). (B) At the bicellular stage, pMET1:H2B-RFP expression is restricted to the generative cell (G) and is absent from the veget...
Data
Expected Percentage of Ovules Expressing the Marker in a met1/+;msi1/+ Plant (28 KB DOC)
Article
Parental genomic imprinting is an epigenetic phenomenon causing the expression of a gene from one of the two parental alleles. Imprinting has been identified in plants and mammals. Recent evidence shows that DNA methylation and histone modifications are responsible for this parent-of-origin dependent expression of imprinted genes. We review the mec...
Data
Information about detected erroneous gene merging. 1 and 2: ID of the two GSTs used to detect the gene merging (with a web link to the CATdb database [16] for additional information). 3: ID of the erroneous TAIR gene models. 4: Correction made in the recent TAIR annotation release 7. 5: Number of opposite hybridized mRNA samples between the two GST...
Data
Information about extended genes. 1: ID of GSTs localized in the gene extension (CDS) and exhibiting a transcriptional signal (with a web link to the CATdb database [16] for additional information). 2: Validation of the expression by sequencing RT-PCR product. 3: ID of CDS models proposed by Eugene. 4: Correction made in the recent TAIR annotation...
Data
Identification in GEO [27] or ArrayExpress [28] repositories of the 40 transcriptome projects used and web links to their detailed descriptions in the CATdb database [16].
Data
Information about identification and function of the 465 novel genes. 1: ID of GSTs selected outside TAIR models and exhibiting a transcription signal (with a web link to the CATdb database [16] for additional information). 2: Validation of the expression by sequencing RT-PCR product. 3: ID of CDS models proposed by Eugene at this locus. 4: ID of t...
Article
Full-text available
Since the finishing of the sequencing of the Arabidopsis thaliana genome, the Arabidopsis community and the annotator centers have been working on the improvement of gene annotation at the structural and functional levels. In this context, we have used the large CATMA resource on the Arabidopsis transcriptome to search for genes missed by different...
Article
Full-text available
Double fertilization of the female gametophyte produces the endosperm and the embryo enclosed in the maternal seed coat. Proper seed communication necessitates exchanges of signals between the zygotic and maternal components of the seed. However, the nature of these interactions remains largely unknown. We show that double fertilization of the Arab...
Article
Full-text available
Imprinted genes are expressed predominantly from either their paternal or their maternal allele. To date, all imprinted genes identified in plants are expressed in the endosperm. In Arabidopsis thaliana, maternal imprinting has been clearly demonstrated for the Polycomb group gene MEDEA (MEA) and for FWA. Direct repeats upstream of FWA are subject...
Article
Fertilization in flowering plants initiates the development of the embryo and endosperm, which nurtures the embryo. A few genes subjected to imprinting are expressed in endosperm from their maternal allele, while their paternal allele remains silenced. Imprinting of the FWA gene involves DNA methylation. Mechanisms controlling imprinting of the Pol...

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