Pauline Défossez

Pauline Défossez
French National Institute for Agriculture, Food, and Environment (INRAE) | INRAE · UMR Soil Plant Atmosphere Interaction (ISPA) (Bordeaux)

PhD in Solid Physics

About

59
Publications
13,539
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1,320
Citations
Additional affiliations
December 2009 - September 2017
French National Institute for Agriculture, Food, and Environment (INRAE)
Position
  • Researcher

Publications

Publications (59)
Article
Key message Anthropic and natural disturbances in Pine pinaster forests may induce changes in tree wind exposure and resource availability. The wind acclimation has consequences on P. pinaster growth comparable to resource acquisition after sudden changes in micro-environmental conditions. Context More disturbances occur within the forest, resultin...
Article
Background and aims The tree resistance to uprooting is crucial to face wind damage in temperate forest. Tree anchorage varies considerably with site conditions, species, and tree age. Only few studies have focused on the influence of the site soil properties on the tree anchorage. With ongoing climate change, the soil hydrologic conditions are cha...
Article
Improving forest wind risk models relies on a better understanding of the tree response to damaging gusts. However, our empirical knowledge of the tree dynamic response to wind is limited by the feasibility of field experiments at recording the dynamics of both, the tree aerial structure and the tree root-system, under windstorm conditions. Here, w...
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Full-text available
Owing to an error in the conversion of the original file, in figure 10, root systems a1, a2, b1 and b2 were represented too thick. The correct version of figure 10 is reproduced below.
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Aims A reliable root architectural model is required to study tree anchorage, including secondary root growth, from seed to the mature stage. Methods We calibrated the generic RootTyp model for the seven root types of Pinus pinaster. We determined most parameter distributions from the means and standard deviations of corresponding features in 92 e...
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Understanding how wind and trees interact during wind storms is crucial for better predicting forest wind damage. The complexity of this interaction is enhanced by the fragmented environment of forests. Here, we present an unprecedented field experiment (TWIST) where both the wind dynamics and the tree motion in the edge region of a maritime pine f...
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Key message Root anchorage strength and stiffness can be represented by small number of root and soil parameters. Root morphology represents the majority of these factors. Abstract Tree anchorage is a primary function for plant survival which may reach its limit under extreme conditions such as windstorms. To better understand the processes and in...
Article
The increase in conservation tillage offers possibles benefits of decreasing soil compaction risk by wheeling. The objective this work was to evaluate the effect of the minimum tillage and direct drilling system after four and eight yars of continuous no-tillaging, on the soybean yield in function of the soil density and organic matter content. Thi...
Article
Full-text available
Soil compaction due to traffic is the process whereby soil bulk density is increased. The compaction level depends on the weight of the vehicle, and the soil susceptibility to compaction, which is characterized by its mechanical properties (that is, the stress-strain relationships). The plate penetrometer can be used to quantify the levels of soil...
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Background and AimsRoot anchorage function is crucial for tree survival as most trees are exposed to recurrent wind throughout their lifespan. Trees exhibit a large variability of root system architecture (RSA) due genetic and environmental factors. This study aims to understand the links between RSA and tree stability. MethodsA 3D biomechanical mo...
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Virot et al. [E. Virot, Phys. Rev. E 93, 023001 (2016)10.1103/PhysRevE.93.023001] assert that the critical wind speed at which ≥50% of all trees in a population break is ≈42 m/s, regardless of tree characteristics. We show that empirical data do not support this assertion, and that the assumptions underlying the theory used by Virot et al. are inco...
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Storms Martin (1999) and Klaus (2009) caused catastrophic damages to forests in the Landes area of Aquitaine, and disrupted the forest-based sector in the region. Therefore, it is urgent and important to re-evaluate the forest storm risk and analyze the adaptation of trees and forests to severe storm conditions by increasing our knowledge of tree a...
Article
Loss of organic matter has been recognized as being a major threat to soils in Europe with important consequences for the physical functioning of soils. We present the result of a numerical analysis of the integrated effects of changes in soil porosity and soil water status, along with decreased soil organic carbon (SOC) and the subsequent changes...
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Background and aims: Windstorms are the major natural hazard affecting European forests, causing tree damage and timber losses. Modelling tree anchorage mechanisms has progressed with advances in plant architectural modelling, but it is still limited in terms of estimation of anchorage strength. This paper aims to provide a new model for root anch...
Article
• Context Models for predictions of soil compaction following forest traffic represent important decision tools for forest managers in order to choose the best management practices for preserving soil physical quality. In agricultural soil compaction research, analytical models are widely used for this purpose. • Aims Our objective was to assess th...
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Application of lime and fertilizers might impact soil properties by affecting their physico-chemical parameters. The focus of the Versailles 42-plots experiment that was started in 1929 has always been to determine in fallow conditions the impact of mineral fertilization over time on the physico-chemical properties of a loamy soil. This paper's aim...
Article
Equations were developed to enable reliable calculations to be made of the contact area for a wide range of traction tyres from independent easily accessible variables taken on firm ground. Given that when tyre size TS (section width [m] x outer diameter of tyre [m]), increases the specific contact area, A(s) (ratio of the contact area to the tyre...
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La dégradation physique des sols agricoles et forestiers liée au tassement lors des passages d’engins est une préoccupation importante des acteurs de l’agriculture et de la forêt. Mais au-delà de ce cercle, elle concerne également tous ceux qui se préoccupent des conséquences environnementales de l’agriculture et de la gestion forestière. En effet,...
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Soil air permeability is one of the most important parameters which govern the aeration in agricultural soils and thus has a significant effect on the plant growth and crop production. Therefore, it appears important, when analysing the effect of soil compaction due to agricultural machinery, to correlate air permeability with soil capacity paramet...
Article
Compaction caused by traffic, results in degradation of soil structure with possible agronomic and environmental consequences. On the other hand, no-till systems have a great impact on soil structure and can improve their mechanical resistance. This property is described by compression curves using two parameters: the precompression stress Pc and t...
Article
Soil compaction caused by agricultural machinery has been increasingly recognized as a considerable problem facing intensive agriculture. Most of the models used to estimate soil deformation during the passage of machines are based on the concept of total stress: they have neglected an important stress variable for unsaturated soils; that is, the m...
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Soil compaction caused by agricultural machinery has been increasingly recognized as a considerable problem facing intensive agriculture. Most of the models used to estimate soil deformation during the passage of machines are based on the concept of total stress: they have neglected an important stress variable for unsaturated soils; that is, the m...
Article
The compaction of cultivated soils by agricultural machines considerably affects both the structure and physical properties of soil, thus having a major impact on crop production and the environment. The soil mechanical strength to compaction is highly variable both in time and space because it depends on soil type (texture), soil structure (porosi...
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Soil protection in respect to soil compaction has become an important concern in Europe. Identifying the vulnerability of soils to compaction damage becomes an increasingly important issue both in the planning and execution of farming operations at a field scale and in planning environmental protection measures at a largest scale. Soil compaction m...
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Identifying the vulnerability of soils to compaction damage becomes an increasingly important issue in the planning and execution of farming operations. Soil compaction models are efficient tools for predicting soil compaction due to agricultural field traffic. Most of these models require the knowledge of the stress/strain relationship, as well as...
Article
Effect of structure and hydropbicity of soil on the accessibility of diuron V. Chaplain1, P. Desfossez2, A. Brault1, S. Breuil1 and D. Tessier1. 1 UR INRA PESSAC, RD 10, Versailles F-78026 2 UMR INRA/URCA FARE, 2 Esplanade Roland Garros, BP 224 F-51686 Reims cedex 2 Corresponding author: chaplain@versailles.inra.fr Retention process plays a major r...
Article
The use of soil mechanical properties to evidence the effect of cultivation practices on soil structure Véronique Chaplain1, Pauline Défossez2, Gislaine Delarue1, Guy Richard3, Jean Roger-Estrade4 and Daniel Tessier1 1 UR INRA PESSAC RD 10 F-78026 Versailles cedex 2 UMR INRA/URCA FARE, 2 Esplanade Roland Garros, BP 224 F-51686 Reims cedex 2 3 UR IN...
Article
Does pH influence soil hydro-mechanical properties ? V. Chaplain1, P. Défossez2, G. Delarue1, A.R. Dexter3, G. Richard3 and D. Tessier1. 1 UR INRA PESSAC RD 10, F-78026 Versailles cedex 2 UMR INRA/URCA FARE, 2 Esplanade Roland Garros, BP 224 F-51686 Reims cedex 2 3 UR INRA Sols 2163 Avenue de la Pomme de Pin - CS 40001 ARDON F-45075 Orléans Cedex 2...
Article
Many decisions in agriculture are conditional to soil moisture. For instance in wet conditions, farming operations as soil tillage, organic waste spreading or harvesting may lead to degraded results and/or induce soil compaction. The development of a tool that allows the estimation of soil moisture is useful to help farmers to organize their field...
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The soil compaction by vehicles is a major factor responsible for physical degradation of cultivated soils. Uniaxial confined compression tests are usually performed to characterise the compaction properties of soil. Two main forms of compression curve have been observed: (i) the bi-linear curve having an elastic rebound curve at low stresses and a...
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Retention processes play a major role in the fate and impact of organic contaminants in soils. The main goal of this study was to determine the influence of soil hydrophobic properties on the retention of diuron by using plots of a long-term experiment in Versailles. We selected seven plots with pH 3.4 to 8.2 and low organic content. Sorption isoth...
Article
Soil compaction by agricultural machines can have adverse effects on crop production and the environment. Different models based on the Finite Element Method have been proposed to calculate soil compaction intensity as a function of vehicle and soil properties. One problem when modelling soil compaction due to traffic is the estimation of vertical...
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Full-text available
Soil compaction is one of the most important factors responsible for soil physical degradation. Soil compaction models are important tools for controlling traffic-induced soil compaction in agriculture. A two-dimensional model for calculation of soil stresses and soil compaction due to agricultural field traffic is presented. It is written as a spr...
Chapter
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The compaction of field soils due to repeated rolling of agricultural vehicles is one of the main reasons for the agricultural soil degradation. A good understanding of the compaction properties of these soils is essential for an optimum organisation of agricultural activities, and therefore for environmental protection in terms of nitrate migratio...
Book
Soil compaction by agricultural machines can have adverse effects on crop production and environment. For soil compaction modelling, one problem is the stress distribution at the soil surface because it is inhomogeneous and depends on soil and tyre properties. However, a uniform vertical stress distribution on the soil/tyre interface is used to pre...
Article
The recent increase in conservation tillage offers the possible benefit of decreasing soil compaction risk by wheeling. Excessive compaction has damaging consequences for agriculture and the environment. Direct drilling is likely to change soil porosity and soil carbon content in the long term. This paper analyses the effect of both of these factor...
Book
Partie III : Effets des systèmes de culture sur l'évolution des états du milieu cultivé Notice de l'ouvrage : http://prodinra.inra.fr/?locale=fr#!ConsultNotice:18027
Article
Characterisation of soil structure within the tilled layer of cultivated fields is crucial because the importance of this soil characteristic on the biological, chemical and physical properties of the soil and its repercussions on water cycle, root growth and functioning. We present in this paper a method for field characterisation of soil structur...
Article
Soil compaction by wheeling modifies the soil structure and consequently may affect crop production and the environment. When subsoilis concerned, it causes long-term damage to soil structure. This article is devoted to the modelisation of soil compaction and its applica-tion to compaction prevention. It presents the different mechanist models of s...
Article
L'étude de l'évolution à moyen et long terme de la structure des sols préoccupe les agriculteurs du Nord du Bassin Parisien. En effet la fréquence parfois élevée des cultures de printemps (betterave, maïs, pomme de terre) dans la succession implique souvent des conditions d'intervention au semis ou à la récolte en conditions humides avec du matérie...
Article
Soil water content is an important factor in making decisions about cultural operation because of its effects on soil compaction by agricultural machines. We report an investigation of the effect on soil water content at wheeling on compaction in the tilled layer. The model of compaction proposed by O'Sullivan et al. (Soil Tillage Res. 49 (1999) 32...
Article
Full-text available
Soil compaction by wheeling may cause considerable damage to the structure of the tilled soil and the subsoil and consequently to crop production, workability and the environment. Soil compaction models are reviewed and their evaluation under laboratory or field conditions is discussed. The development of a compaction model includes: (i) modelling...

Projects

Projects (2)
Project
«Wind impact on growth and wood properties of Maritime pine
Project
TWIST aims at better understanding the mechanical resistance of trees during wind storms. http://www6.inra.fr/anr-twist