Paula Kivimaa

Paula Kivimaa
University of Sussex · Science Policy Research Unit (SPRU)

PhD

About

89
Publications
39,031
Reads
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4,653
Citations
Introduction
Paula Kivimaa currently works as Research Professor in the Finnish Environment Institute and Senior Research Fellow at the Science Policy Research Unit (SPRU), University of SussexPaula does research in Sustainability Transitions, Public Policy and Innovation Studies - her particular research interests are the connections between public policy and innovation, and experiments and intermediary actors in sustainability transitions.
Additional affiliations
March 2015 - present
University of Sussex
Position
  • Senior Researcher
September 2013 - November 2013
University of Sussex
Position
  • Senior Visiting Fellow
October 2012 - present
Aalto University
Position
  • Professor
Education
August 2004 - September 2008
Helsinki School of Economics
Field of study
  • Organizations and management
October 2001 - September 2002
Imperial College London
Field of study
  • MSc Environmental Technology (Energy Policy)
September 1997 - June 2000
University of Westminster
Field of study
  • BSc Environmental Science & Business Management

Publications

Publications (89)
Article
Historically STI policy is connected to national security and the military. Yet, contemporary innovation policy is rarely discussed in a security context. This perspective argues that new, transformation-oriented innovation policies should more explicitly consider (a) the side-effects of policies on global security and (b) how the global security c...
Article
A transition to net-zero carbon energy systems, imperative to combat climate change, is unfolding around the world. Other socio-technical systems also face the need to transition to become more environmentally and socially sustainable. We argue that such transitions will have both positive and negative security implications on numerous issues which...
Article
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The journal Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions (EIST) recently celebrated its tenth anniversary. Its development represents a great success, contributing substantially to the consolidation and maturation of the research field of sustainability transitions. However, being content with past successes will not be sufficient for tackling...
Article
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Energy transitions are in many respects past the early exploration stages and moving towards the urgently needed mass market take-up. We examine the Finnish energy transition regarding how solutions-heat-pumps, deep retrofits and new district-wide solutions-that have demonstrated economic benefits and reasonable payback times have faced slow uptake...
Article
While experimentation is at the heart of sustainability transitions, little attention has been paid to policy experimentation and its effects in advancing transitions. Drawing on the literatures on policy experimentation and institutional change in the context of sustainability transitions, we analyse an in-depth case study of the development of Mo...
Article
The sustainability transitions field has been dominated by studies on single systems. Expanding the scope to Deep Transitions involving interactions between a broad array of socio-technical systems opens up new research directions in three important domains: 1) areas of intervention; 2) transition justice; 3) accelerating actors.
Article
This editorial introduces a special issue with 27 short viewpoints about future research on transition studies, to commemorate the 10th anniversary of this journal.
Article
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The impending climate emergency, the Paris agreement and Sustainable Development Goals demand significant transformations in economies and societies. Science funders, innovation agencies, and scholars have explored new rationales and processes for policymaking, such as transformative innovation policy (TIP). Here, we address the question of how to...
Article
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Industrial policy has re-emerged as an area of policy discussion in recent years, but the characteristics and role of industrial policy vary across national contexts. Particularly, the role of industrial policy in the ongoing energy transitions of different countries has received little attention. We introduce an analytical framework to explore the...
Article
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Because of the urgency of accelerating transitions, we examine the emerging understanding of the concept of ‘disruption’ in the context of sustainability transition studies to critically assess its value, pitfalls and potentials. By conducting a qualitative systematic review of 47 articles, we analyse how disruption is seen in this literature and w...
Article
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This article contributes to the literature on sustainability transitions, innovation systems and eco-innovation by addressing conceptual challenges regarding the systemic activities of intermediaries. Specifically, the article addresses a research gap pertaining to the ways in which the systemic activities of (eco-)innovation intermediaries can be...
Article
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Transitions intermediaries—agents who connect diverse groups of actors involved in transitions processes and their skills, resources and expectations—are becoming more prominent in research on low-carbon transitions. Most work, however, has focused on their ability to push innovations or emerging technologies forward, emphasising their involvement...
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic is a major landscape shock that is having pervasive effects across socio-technical systems. Due to its recentness, sustainability scientists and other researchers have only started to investigate the implications of this crisis. The COVID-19 outbreak presents a unique opportunity to analyze in real time the effects of a protra...
Article
Sociotechnical transitions are complex processes that imply far-reaching technological, institutional and cultural changes. Transition intermediaries have emerged as potentially powerful actors and entities to speed up transitions. As much previous literature on intermediaries in transitions has focused on emergence, in this special issue, we focus...
Article
The roles of intermediaries in sustainability transitions are increasingly recognised. How intermediaries advance transitions vis-a-vis public policy has, however, received little attention. Thus, we create an analytical framework of intermediating policy processes, drawing from transition and policy cycle literatures. We apply this to investigate...
Article
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Academic and policy literatures are seeing a growing discussion about ‘clean energy disruption’. However, the term disruption often lacks definitional clarity. Departing from the concept of disruptive innovation and based on a review of firm-based management and socio-technical transitions literatures, we derive four dimensions of system disruption...
Article
This paper investigates the potential role of energy services in the transition to nearly zero-energy buildings, by mobilising the concepts of product service systems, integrated-solutions and business ecosystems; so far, largely disconnected from the transitions literature. Using primary data from semi-structured interviews and publically availabl...
Book
Full-text available
‘Sustainability transitions: policy and practice’ identifies policy options for responding to systemic environmental and climate problems in Europe and globally. Drawing on the the growing body of international research into sustainability transitions, as well as interactions with policymakers and EU institutions, the report sets out 10 sets of mes...
Article
Research on sustainability transitions has expanded rapidly in the last ten years, diversified in terms of topics and geographical applications, and deepened with respect to theories and methods. This article provides an extensive review and an updated research agenda for the field, classified into nine main themes: understanding transitions; power...
Article
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Addressing housing-related energy consumption and emissions is a challenge in many countries. Low-energy housing, e.g. whole house retrofits and zero-energy new houses, is still rare in the United Kingdom, yet very much required to reduce emissions. This paper contributes to research on low-energy housing by adding new empirical material through an...
Article
Institutional entrepreneurship research has described and conceptualized dramatic cases of successful institutional change. We know less about whether it can help people trying to change institutions, for example, struggling to change the energy system. Do concepts from the institutional entrepreneurship literature offer sustainable energy practiti...
Article
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Sustainability transitions require new policy pathways that significantly reduce the environmental impacts caused by, for example, energy production, mobility and food production. Transition management (TM) is one of the approaches aiming at the creation of new ways to govern transitions. It uses transitions arenas (TA) as a key process and platfor...
Article
mproving energy efficiency, de-carbonising heating and cooling, and increasing renewable microgeneration in existing residential buildings, is crucial for meeting social and climate policy objectives. This paper explores the challenges of financing this ‘retrofit’ activity. First, it develops a typology of finance mechanisms for residential retrofi...
Article
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Recently, increasing attention has been paid to intermediaries, actors connecting multiple other actors, in transition processes. Research has highlighted that intermediary actors (e.g. innovation funders, energy agencies, NGOs, membership organisations, or internet discussion forums) operate in many levels to advance transitions. We argue that int...
Chapter
Full-text available
Policy initiatives in the UK, such as the Green Deal, have sought and failed to achieve the mass uptake of comprehensive residential retrofit. This chapter argues that previous policies have failed to address four interrelated challenges that constrain consumer demand. Thus, we focus on solutions to address these challenges from three key perspecti...
Article
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Intermediary actors have been proposed as key catalysts that speed up change towards more sustainable socio-technical systems. Research on this topic has gradually gained traction since 2009, but has been complicated by the inconsistency regarding what intermediaries are in the context of such transitions and which activities they focus on, or shou...
Article
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The transition towards low-energy buildings in the United Kingdom is challenging. Several policy changes have affected the actions and agency of actors. Drawing on the sustainability transitions literature, we analyse the development of the low-energy homes niche, focusing on the dynamics between intermediary organisations and policy development fo...
Article
The Smart Meter Implementation Programme (SMIP) in Great Britain is one of the largest and most complex smart meter programs in the world, and for this reason, it provides unique challenges that we must critically reflect upon. We thank Shipworth et al. (2018) for reading Sovacool et al. (2017) and engaging with some of its findings. Their analysis...
Article
Socio-technical futures and associated expectations are acknowledged to play a crucial role in generating momentum for many science and technology innovations. Past research has mainly concentrated on studying the role of expectations within the early developments of innovations, formulated by technological developers and scientists, rather than lo...
Technical Report
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Researchers at the Centre on Innovation and Energy Demand (CIED) are driven by an interest in accelerating prospects for a more sustainable energy future. Our primary focus is on the processes of innovation-both technological and social-that will contribute to this objective, using a range of multidisciplinary social science approaches:
Book
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After the perceived failure of global approaches to tackling climate change, enthusiasm for local climate initiatives has blossomed world-wide, suggesting a more experimental approach to climate governance. Innovating Climate Governance: Moving Beyond Experiments looks critically at climate governance experimentation, focusing on how experimental o...
Article
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A transition to zero carbon buildings is needed for mitigating climate change. Yet, it is far from gaining sufficient momentum in many countries, particularly the United Kingdom. This article focuses on actors and platforms facilitating change towards zero carbon residential buildings by integrating the concepts of innovation intermediaries and cha...
Article
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As buildings throughout their life cycle account for circa 40% of total energy use in Europe, reducing energy use of the building stock is a key task. This task is, however, complicated by a range of factors, including slow renewal and renovation rates of buildings, multiple non-coordinated actors, conservative building practices and limited compet...
Article
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The multiple benefits of energy efficiency (EE) ‘retrofit’ mean it should be the cornerstone of the government’s energy and housing policy. However, despite recent polices, the UK still has one of the least efficient housing stocks in Europe [1]. This report is focused on some of the solutions to this retrofit challenge, based on the aspirational t...
Article
Energy inefficiency in the building stock is a substantial contributor to climate change. Integrated energy service companies (IESCs) have a potentially important role in improving energy efficiency. This paper presents a qualitative analysis of the energy efficiency barriers in the Finnish building sector based on data from interviews with twelve...
Article
In this perspective article, we critically explore 'disruption' in relation to sustainability transitions in the energy sector. Recognising significant ambiguity associated with the term, we seek to answer the question: What use has 'disruption' for understanding and promoting change towards low carbon energy futures? First, we outline that differe...
Article
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This article connects the literatures of policy evaluation, policy mixes and sustainability transition. It utilises client-oriented evaluation to examine national policies in Finland from the perspective of low-carbon buildings transition. In Finland, energy efficiency has traditionally received less focus in energy and climate policy strategies co...
Article
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The Smart Meter Implementation Program (SMIP) lays the legal framework in the United Kingdom so that a smart gas and electricity meter, along with an in-home display, can be installed in every household by 2020. Intended to reduce national household energy consumption by 5-15%, the SMIP represents arguably the world’s largest and most expensive sma...
Conference Paper
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Many experimental local projects have been carried out in low energy buildings that integrate a range of energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies and solutions. These have been important in showing how low energy building can be carried out and stimulating future expectations on energy demand reduction through buildings. However, a key q...
Article
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Energy inefficiency in the building stock is a substantial contributor to climate change. Integrated energy service companies (IESCs) have a potentially important role in improving energy efficiency. However, there are numerous barriers to energy efficiency, preventing the growth of energy service markets. We analyse energy efficiency barriers to o...
Article
Full-text available
The ambition of energy policy has long been to reduce carbon emissions, secure energy supply and provide affordable energy services. In recent years an increasing number of policy instruments have been introduced to promote energy efficiency in different sectors across the EU. While previous research has largely analysed the effectiveness of indivi...
Article
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Experimentation has been proposed as a key way in which governance drives sustainability transitions, notably by creating space for innovative solutions to emerge. In seeking to bring greater coherence to the literatures on climate and sustainability governance experiments, this article reports on a systematic review of articles published between 2...
Article
The challenge to transform towards more sustainable societies requires action on multiple levels, including commercialisation of inventions created in universities. We examine intermediation in the pre-commercialisation phase of cleantech inventions developed at Aalto University, Finland, focusing on the activities of a university innovation interm...
Article
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Recently, there has been an increasing interest in policy mixes in innovation studies. While it has long been acknowledged that the stimulation of innovation and technological change involves different types of policy instruments, how such instruments form policy mixes has only recently become of interest. We argue that an area in which policy mixe...
Article
Experimentation has been proposed as one of the ways in which public policy can drive sustainability transitions, notably by creating or delimiting space for experimenting with innovative solutions to sustainability challenges. In this paper we report on a systematic review of articles published between 2009 and 2015 that have addressed experiments...
Article
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As a governance perspective, transition management views the engagement of a wide variety of stakeholders in policy development as a necessary element in furthering sustainability through enhanced social learning. Yet as a literature it has paid relatively little attention to public consultation on socio-technical change. Here we set transition man...
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine spatiality of transitions by combining aspects of urban form to policy analysis. It aims to increase understanding of how urban form relates to potential effects of transport policies on urban mobility transitions. Design/methodology/approach – Novel analytical framework combines concepts of path d...
Article
Recently, there has been an increasing interest in policy mixes in innovation studies. While it has long been acknowledged that the stimulation of innovation and technological change involves different types of policy instruments, how such instruments form policy mixes has only recently become of interest. We argue that an area in which policy mixe...
Article
Transitions towards more sustainable societies involve policy changes cutting across multiple sectors. Ideally, policies targeting different sectors create a coherent push for the adoption of more sustainable solutions. Sustainability transition studies have, however, paid little attention to the role of policy interaction across different policy d...
Article
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Seeking to develop a novel understanding of how climate policy innovation (CPI) emerges and spreads, we conceptualise three types of CPIs – genuinely original, diffusion based, and reframing based – and relate these to the sociotechnical transitions literature, particularly the multi-level perspective (MLP) that explains change through interaction...
Article
The promotion of low-carbon transport systems is largely dependent on the interplay between technology, innovation, markets, people's behaviour and policy. Various policies jointly influence the development of transport systems, some policies implying different or even contradictory designs for future transport systems. Policy interplay has not bee...
Article
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This paper investigates path dependence and path creation in transport policy and related innovation policy in the case of Finland and the UK. The paper uses document content analysis and elite interviews, drawing on literatures on the relationship of institutional and policy path dependency to technological expectations and images of the policy pr...
Article
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Several studies on innovation have brought forward different conceptions on how innovations and new technological paths are created. Theoretical arguments differ regarding the foundational ontologies and the major factors influencing path formation. The article aims to compare two strands of literature related to new path formation: (1) strategic n...
Article
Government interventions have been identified as important for energy systems change, because they can either facilitate or hinder transitions toward more sustainable energy systems. This article analyses how bioenergy options have been framed in Finnish policy strategies and how the framing has changed over time. The empirical material includes th...
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of internationally changing market conditions versus national innovation systems (NIS) for environmental innovation in a transforming industry sector, the Nordic pulp and paper industry. Design/methodology/approach – Based on several case studies of technological innovations in the sector,...
Book
Full-text available
It is becoming evident that if societies are going to tackle climate change, significant changes in production processes as well as consumption patterns will be required. These changes cannot be achieved unless climate change is taken into account in the general and sector-specific policies essential for economic activities and general social devel...