Paula Brough

Paula Brough
Griffith University · School of Applied Psychology

BA (Hons); MSc; PhD

About

189
Publications
282,013
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Introduction
My organisational psychology research focuses on three primary areas: (1) Reducing experiences of occupational stress particularly within the high-risk industries (police, corrections, fire services); (2) enhancing employee health and work wellbeing; and (3) assessing both practical and theoretical components of work-life balance and related constructs.

Publications

Publications (189)
Article
Full-text available
Remote working caused by the COVID-19 pandemic has eroded boundaries between work and home, necessitating the need to evaluate the long-term impacts of these changes and mitigate any negative effects on workers’ work-life experiences. To do so, we reviewed and examined work-life research published since the start of the pandemic. The review yielded...
Article
Although some organizations have formally introduced flexible work arrangements (FWAs) to enhance work–family enrichment, research indicates that informal organizational characteristics, such as perceived organizational support (POS) to utilize FWAs, may be more effective in achieving positive employee work and non-work outcomes. Prior studies have...
Article
Little is known about the role that work organisations play in the career development of working students. We tested a serial effects model (N = 235; mean age 23 years; 70% female) with antecedents to organisational career growth (self-management, supervisor support, work demands, job-fit, job-relevance), and immediate (work-study conflict/facilita...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter describes the interpersonal transfer process of stress, emotions, and experiences, known as crossover. It defines and differentiates between spillover and crossover and discusses the three main theoretical explanations of the crossover process. It also explains how the crossover process includes the transfer of both positive and negati...
Technical Report
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This report addresses a national priority for action under Safe Work Australia’s National Return to Work Strategy 2020-2030, to gain a deeper understanding of workers’ psychological responses to injury and to identify ways to assist them in their recovery and return to work. Safe Work Australia develops national policy to improve WHS and workers’ c...
Article
Full-text available
Paula Brough’s recent keynote address to the virtual 14th European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology Conference, discussed the ‘enigmatic concept of work-life balance’. Brough noted that 45 years of work-life balance research has produced distinct advancements in the scholarly discussions of work-life balance (i.e., clarity of definition, m...
Article
Staff loss and demotivation can be costly for unions. In this article the authors investigate factors influencing expected voluntary turnover, that is Intention to Leave (ITL), of union employees by conducting an online survey of 160 staff in three Australian unions. Moderated multiple regression analyses revealed that perceived organisational supp...
Article
Recent research has identified the value of distinguishing between employee's appraisals of their work-based challenge, hindrance, and threat job demands, and of how employee's future-oriented coping is associated with key occupational outcomes. The current study extends this research by assessing the extent to which employee's proactive and preven...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Small-medium enterprises (SMEs) are under-represented in occupational health research. Owner/managers face mental ill-health risks/exacerbating factors including financial stress and long hours. This study assessed the effectiveness of a mental health intervention specifically for SME owner/managers. Methods: 297 owner/managers of SME...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter reviews the multiple definitions of work–life balance, including definitions focused on the equity of time spent in the work and non-work domains, satisfaction with performance/time spent in each domain, and the salience of each role for an individual. There is a general consensus that a preferred definition should focus on work–life r...
Article
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An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
Article
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We evaluate methods to calculate the economic value of protected areas derived from the improved mental health of visitors. A conservative global estimate using quality-adjusted life years, a standard measure in health economics, is US$6 trillion p.a. This is an order of magnitude greater than the global value of protected area tourism, and two to...
Article
Veterinary paraprofessionals are routinely confronted with companion animal death and client bereavement throughout their day-to-day work. However, research exploring the nature and psychological impact of these end-of-life encounters among veterinary paraprofessionals is scarce. To address this knowledge gap, we conducted an exploratory qualitativ...
Article
Considerable evidence demonstrates the importance of both job demands and job resources in the prediction of employee health and motivational outcomes. However, scant empirical evidence explains how broader organisational factors can also have an impact on these outcomes. Utilising the job demands‐resources (JD‐R) model as a theoretical explanation...
Article
Objectives Despite regularly reporting high levels of occupational stress, lawyers are an under‐researched group in this field. The first objective of this research is to develop a short measure assessing two common work stress management techniques (WSMS) commonly employed by lawyers: relaxation and cognitive restructuring. A second objective is t...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction The Mindful Self-Care and Resiliency (MSCR) programme is a brief psychosocial intervention designed to promote resilience among various occupational groups. The intervention is based on the principles of mindfulness and also incorporates an educational self-care component. The current paper presents the protocol for a pilot study that...
Article
Objective Psychological crossover is the interpersonal transfer of stress. Details of how this transfer actually occurs are scarce, causing difficulties for advancement of crossover research. Crossover research has also suffered from a sampling bias, traditionally assessing the extent to which a husband's work stressors are transferred to his wife....
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Person-environment fit asserts that incompatibility between an employee and aspects of their work environment is more likely to lead to occupational stress. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact varying levels of person-environment fit had on key criterion outcomes including, work engagement, work-related wellbeing and turno...
Article
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The Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) is a commonly used life satisfaction scale. Cross-cultural researchers use SWLS to compare mean scores of life satisfaction across countries. Despite the wide use of SWLS in cross-cultural studies, measurement invariance of SWLS has rarely been investigated, and previous studies showed inconsistent findings....
Article
Exposure to nature yields a wide range of mental health benefits. Improvements in mental health have substantial economic value, through: reduced mental healthcare costs; improved workplace productivity; and reduced costs of antisocial behavior, both public, and private. These economic gains represent an unquantified ecosystem service attributable...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the mediating roles of work and family demands and work-life balance on the relationship between self-efficacy (to regulate work and life) and work engagement. Specifically, it seeks to explain how self-efficacy influences employees’ thought patterns and emotional reactions, which in turn enable...
Article
The assessment of occupational stress is marred by an overwhelming adoption of simplistic research designs that generally fail to represent the complex reality of the occupational stress process. Informed by the theoretical tenants of both the transactional stress model and the job-demands-control-support model, this paper presents a rare simultane...
Chapter
The influence of Lazarus and Folkman's (1984) transactional theory of stress and coping is remarkable and remains the cornerstone of psychological stress and coping research across multiple fields. In this chapter we review the key components of this theory, focusing specifically on the effectiveness of the problem-focused and emotion-focused copin...
Article
Full-text available
The impact of work–family conflict on well-being outcomes is well established, as is the role of social support in buffering perceptions of conflict. What is less well understood is how these relationships vary for different groups of respondents. Using a two-wave longitudinal design with a 12-month time lag and samples of employees (total N = 2183...
Article
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We report results from a post-program survey (n = 930) of participants in a non-profit outdoor health program targeted principally at women with families in Australia’s metropolitan cities. We analyze communications, motivations, experiences, satisfaction, and intentions. The program involves 3 months’ outdoor training in scenic locations, culminat...
Article
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Proactive coping and preventive coping are commonly researched forms of future-oriented coping. There is however, contention in the literature regarding their underlying factor structures: some studies report they are separate constructs, while others have combined them together with other constructs. Given the growing literature using these forms...
Article
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Police organisations have recently experienced a number of significant transformations, including changes to police officer demography, the adoption of community-oriented policing models and increased accountability requirements. The impacts of these changes upon the dominant police organisational cultural characteristics have been speculated upon,...
Article
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Preliminary evidence suggests veterinary nurses are an at-risk population for high levels of occupational stress. This study sought to advance knowledge of occupational stress in this under-researched professional group by applying the Job Demands–Resources model to assess predictors of psychological strain, work-related burnout, and work engagemen...
Article
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the crossover effects of one partner’s work-family conflict (WFC) on the other partner’s family satisfaction, physical well-being, and mental well-being. The study tests the moderating effect of the opposite partner’s family identity salience within the crossover process in a Chinese context. D...
Article
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Although the direct effects of work–family enrichment on satisfaction are well-documented, previous theoretical predictions and empirical findings of the relationship have been inconsistent. Drawing on social cognitive theory, the current research examined how work–family enrichment contributes to job and family satisfaction by exploring the mediat...
Book
All organisations, whether private or public sector, seek to improve criminal justice workplace practice from an evidence base, but often find it difficult to effectively translate research findings into policy or design best-practice interventions. This book provides a direct bridge between academic research in organisational behaviour and the man...
Method
Full-text available
The Self-Efficacy to Regulate Work and Life Measure (Chan et al., 2016) was developed to assess participants' self-efficacy to regulate work and life. This scale was designed for a study of the mediating role of self-efficacy and work-life balance in work-family enrichment and satisfaction in a sample of Australian employees (N = 234). Self-efficac...
Article
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Engaged workers willingly devote their best efforts to their work in terms of their energy (vigor), sustained attention (absorption) and their sense of purpose (dedication), thereby contributing to the optimal functioning and performance of organizations. In consideration of the positive and negative influence of work–life balance for work performa...
Article
Full-text available
Engaged workers willingly devote their best efforts to their work in terms of their energy (vigor), sustained attention (absorption) and their sense of purpose (dedication), thereby contributing to the optimal functioning and performance of organizations. In consideration of the positive and negative influence of work–life balance for work performa...
Article
Our research over the last 15 years has focused on addressing the rising costs of occupational stress commonly experienced by “high risk” workers. We have developed and implemented a number of organizational interventions within large, public sector organizations. Some of these organizational interventions have been very successful, reducing employ...
Article
To address rising costs associated with occupational stress experienced in high-stress occupations, we developed and implemented an organizational stress management intervention (SMI) within a large state corrective services organization. During the design phase, we employed several strategies to understand the organizational context and increase a...
Article
As a common but understudied work setting, small and medium enterprises (SMEs) have been identifi ed as a sector needing ‘special’ or ‘urgent’ attention in relation to occupational health research and practice (Cocker et al., Int J Mental Health Promot 1–18, 2013; Lindstrom, Social Prevent Med, 2004). However, they are known to be particularly chal...
Article
This chapter outlines lessons learnt from the development, implementation, and evaluation of an organizational intervention provided to a sample of corrections employees. Like many organizational intervention studies, we only conducted an evaluation of the intervention’s targeted distal outcomes, without directly measuring aspects of the interventi...
Article
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Sustained destructive leadership behaviours are associated with negative outcomes that produce serious workplace problems, yet there is scant research into how followers effectively cope with toxic leader behaviours. Despite numerous attempts to develop typologies of coping behaviours, there remains much to learn, especially in relation to this spe...
Article
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: Disasters, whether natural or human-initiated, occur beyond organizational boundaries and affect organizational functioning. This research investigated the impact of a natural disaster on the health and work attitudes of police officers. Structural equation modeling was employed to test whether exposure to a natural disaster intensified job deman...
Article
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The challenges associated with facilitating an organizational environment that promotes work engagement and is supportive of employee psychological well-being are well documented. This study focused on the longitudinal relationships between work engagement and three supportive job resources: supervisor support, colleague support and individual perc...
Chapter
Work-life enrichment describes how positive experiences in work and non-work (home) lives interact to produce gains in satisfaction, health and performance. In this chapter we discuss the antecedents of work-life enrichment, including social support, a supportive workplace culture and family-friendly human resource policies. The chapter also discus...
Book
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The Asia Pacific is diverse culturally, economically, and socially. Despite being the world's most populous region where many workers experience poor working conditions and insecure employment, little attention has been given to psychosocial factors at work in the region. This chapter argues that in understanding work conditions and worker health i...
Chapter
This chapter discusses the value of assessing occupation-specific job characteristics, in addition to the common measurement of generic job characteristics. We review some key examples of how occupation-specific assessments have contributed to the literature, with a particular focus on research conducted within the Asia-Pacific region. The chapter...
Chapter
This final chapter highlights the primary learnings identified by the 20 chapters in this book and discusses the importance of these issues for researchers and employers both within the Asia Pacific and more globally. The chapter emphasizes the high quality research conducted to date by Asia Pacific scholars and identifies the essential considerati...
Article
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This study advances the limited research on work alignment and work engagement by investigating how perceived alignment of job tasks and organizational strategic priorities (strategic alignment) influences work engagement. Measures of job control and work social support were also included to enable comparisons between strategic alignment and other...
Article
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The work–life balance literature has recently identified the need for construct refinement. In response to these discussions, this research describes the development and validation of a concise measure of work–life balance, based on individuals’ subjective perceptions of balance between their work and other aspects of their lives. The structure, re...
Article
Full-text available
Flexible work arrangements (FWAs) are often written into company policies to demonstrate organisational sensitivity to potentially difficult interfaces between employees’ work and non-work domains. The current research investigated employees’ use of FWAs and relationship to work engagement, with turnover intentions and psychological strain also use...
Article
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[Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 21(1) of International Journal of Stress Management (see record 2014-05163-003). In the article, the following Editor’s note was missing: Sheena Johnson served as the action editor for this article.] Drawing on the job demands-resources model, this research presents a quasi-experim...
Article
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This special issue of the International Journal of Stress Management responds to recent discussions concerning the limited quantity of published scholarly research on occupational stress-management interventions (SMI). First, we showcase research discussing recent innovations in stress management and how best to provide evidence that these innovati...
Article
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On the basis of conservation of resources theory (Hobfoll, 1989) and the resource-gain-development perspective (Wayne, Grzywacz, Carlson, & Kacmar, 2007), this paper examines the differential impact of specific social resources (supervisory support and family support) on specific types of affect (job satisfaction and family satisfaction, respective...
Book
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This book presents research and best practice examples from the Asia Pacific region to address the gap in global expertise on psychosocial factors at work. It explores practices in the region that promote healthy workplaces and workers by presenting research from around the globe on issues such as telework, small and medium-sized enterprises, disas...
Article
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Despite evidence that the accurate assessment of occupational health should include measures of both generic job demands and occupation-specific job demands, most research includes only generic job demands. The inclusion of more focused occupation-specific job demands is suggested to explain a larger proportion of variance for both direct effects a...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to compare the explanatory power of two theoretical frameworks in regard to the work engagement of 312 Queensland teachers from non-government schools. The first theoretical model is the job demands-resources (JD-R) theory which suggests that work engagement will be evident if people report an abundance of res...
Article
Full-text available
The Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model proposes that employee health and performance are dependent upon direct and interacting perceptions of job demands and job resources. The JD-R model has been tested primarily with small, crosssectional, European samples. The current research extends scholarly discussions by evaluating the full JD-R model for t...
Data
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A study of work interference with family (WIF) among managers is described, contrasting four clusters of countries, one of which is individualistic (Anglo) and three of which are collectivistic (Asia, East Europe, and Latin America). Country cluster (Anglo vs. each of the others) moderated the relation of work demands with strain-based WIF, with th...
Article
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We investigated relationships between four dimensions of work–family conflict (time- and strain-based work interference with family, time- and strain-based family interference with work) and three key national paid leave policies (paid parental leave, paid sick leave, paid annual leave) among a sample of 643 working married parents with children un...
Chapter
Work-family conflict (WFC) is recognized as a major issue affecting both individual employees and their employers. Preliminary research shows that the more employees perceive their work environment as family-supportive, the less they experience WFC (Allen, 2001). Moreover, there are theoretical and empirical reasons to expect that by reducing WFC,...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose – This research sought to identify groups of school employees who were more similar in their responses to burnout and engagement measures, for the purpose of exploring what was similar in their school experiences. The profiles created in the present research enable a clearer appreciation of what is common to groups of school employees who a...