Paula Ascorra

Paula Ascorra
Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso | PUCV · School of Social Work

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68
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Introduction
Skills and Expertise

Publications

Publications (68)
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic continues to impact schools and how education is conveyed to students. One of the aspects that has gained strength is supporting the wellbeing of educational communities. The purpose of this study was to describe and understand the construction of school wellbeing during the pandemic, based on the notion of collective and sust...
Article
El artículo presenta una investigación participativa con 6 escuelas rurales chilenas y se centra en los facilitadores y las barreras a la inclusión en el contexto de una educación altamente segregada, con un acelerado cierre de escuelas rurales y la nueva Ley de Inclusión, centrada en el acceso escolar. A través de talleres participativos con docen...
Article
Durante los últimos 20 años en Chile se han promulgado una serie de políticas tendientes al desarrollo de la convivencia y participación escolar. Estas políticas han expuesto un carácter hibrido, con preeminencia de un enfoque de orden y seguridad para abordar los conflictos, y escasos procesos de participación y deliberación dentro de las escuelas...
Article
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We analyse the meanings that rural schoolteachers construct about inclusion, following the entry into force of the School Inclusion Law in Chile in 2015. Rural schools are more than half of the schools in Chile. This is a qualitative study involving six rural schools in the north, centre and south of the country, with a basis in action research and...
Article
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Schools are an essential part of students’ lives and can promote and facilitate their well-being. Although research on well-being among school-aged children and adolescents has distinguished subjective well-being from social well-being, very few studies examined student’s social well-being at school (SWS). SWS is understood as students’ valuation o...
Article
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El rol del nivel intermedio en la definición de estrategias para mejorar la convivencia escolar en los estable-cimientos escolares ha sido escasamente explorado. Este artículo expone el diseño y la validación de una escala que evalúa la gestión de la convivencia escolar a nivel intermedio. Posterior a una revisión de la literatura y evaluación de j...
Article
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District local educational administrators (sostenedores) in Chile play a central role in the context of the demunicipalization act after this Law No. 21.040 entered into force. The demunicipalization law mandates the transfer of schools' management from the municipalities to new Local Public Education Services, seeking to change the way of doing an...
Article
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Although most of the school violence literature is focused on peer victimization, interest is growing in teachers being victimized by their students. However, there is far less interest in students being victimized by their teachers, patterns of mutual victimization, and how they are associated with other school factors. Using the conceptual framew...
Article
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Several research have studied how school management impacts cognitive and non-cognitive components of students’ lives. However, less is known about what district level administrators do when dealing with issues concerning school climate. This study aims a comprehensive review of the literature on school district level involvement in school climate,...
Article
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En la búsqueda de la mejora de la educación, el Ministerio de Educación de Chile (Mineduc) ha impulsado durante los últimos años una serie de reformas que directa o indirectamente afectan el trabajo de los directores. A la luz de los principios del nuevo management público (NMP), y utilizando un análisis documental, el presente artículo estudia la...
Article
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El Programa de Integración Escolar (pie) es una política de inclusión escolar que funciona bajo el principio de subvenciones especiales entregadas a niños y niñas con necesidades educativas especiales. Las escuelas rurales también han podido optar a formar parte de pie. En este artículo se presenta una investigación-acción que buscaba potenciar las...
Article
Más que un discurso acerca de la verdad, en el origen del lenguaje ha estado presente un decir que produce sentido para que el hombre habite el mundo desde el caos, desde lo oscuro, desde el arte, desde la realidad. Este artículo indaga en aspectos esenciales en torno al nacimiento del lenguaje y en una producción estética que configura ciertas for...
Chapter
Traditionally, the school malaise has been understood as an intra-school, individual or interactional phenomena. The contribution made by Bronfenbrenner (1989) y followed by international research (Berger & Lisboa; 2009; Khoury-Kassabri, Astor & Benbenishty, 2009) has allowed to widen the understaing of malaise, interpreting it as a complex, multiv...
Article
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Over the past 15 years, Chile has implemented three different educational laws and policies to enhance, promote and develop school climate (SC). However, different logics of understanding and intervening in SC underlie these legal bodies. In order to account for the contradictions and critical nodes of instruments that conform Chile´s SC public pol...
Article
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Having achieved the coverage challenges following compulsory policies and a financing system via demand subsidy conditioned to enrollment and attendance, but faced with the scenario of school segregation, Chile has set itself the goal of advancing towards the right to an inclusive education and of quality. In this article we identify and analyze th...
Book
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El manual es el resultado de un proyecto financiado por el Programa de Información Científica de la Comisión Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONICYT) en conjunto con la Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso que se traduce en el trabajo y, por sobre ello, de la experiencia de los equipos editoriales de cuatro destacadas revistas académicas...
Article
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Students’ perceptions of their classroom climate have been found to relate significantly to students’ learning outcomes. The purpose of the present study was to construct an instrument for assessing elementary-school students’ perceptions of classroom climate, based on a previous instrument that was being used in Chile by a public national school m...
Article
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Although in recent years there has been a growing interest in victimization of teachers by their students (student‐to‐teacher victimization), it is not discussed in relation to students’ victimization by their teachers (teacher‐to‐student victimization) across cultures. This study used a cross‐cultural comparative design to examine the prevalence o...
Article
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As part of a project in which we designed, developed, and validated a monitoring system of school climate, the present study evaluates the system based on the meanings constructed by its users, in order to improve future actions. 17 group interviews in 15 schools, plus an in-depth interview to the Community Coordinator School Coexistence were perfo...
Article
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Durante los últimos 15 años, Chile ha diseñado e implementado diversas leyes y políticas educativas orientadas a mejorar, promover y desarrollar la convivencia escolar y a disminuir los niveles de violencia escolar. Sin embargo, se han identificado tensiones paradigmáticas en los fundamentos de estos instrumentos, que crean un escenario ambivalente...
Article
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Children who exhibit mental health problems are more likely to be targets of peer victimization. However, little is known about how mental health risk interacts with other individual and school-level factors in this relationship. In the current study, we explored the associations between peer victimization and mental health in 10,532 Chilean sixth...
Article
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designed upon the basis of different logical perspectives. The aim of this study was to understand the meanings that schools ascribe to the construct of SC, based on the assumption that their views will guide their actions and make intelligible their SC interventions. A qualitative methodology was employed. Active group and individual interviews we...
Article
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The Chilean education system has intensified its focus on accountability, incorporating a new initiative -school complaint reports- as part of a new inspectorate for the education sector, the Superintendencia de Educación. This study seeks to understand the work of the inspectors working for this new government body. By preparing a qualitative desi...
Article
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School violence is a global concern that calls for international research using cross context methods. Although there are several international surveys that compare school violence across countries, they do not clearly address issues of similarities and differences in relative prevalence of different types of victimization and their relations with...
Article
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The Chilean education system has intensified its focus on accountability, incorporating a new initiative -school complaint reports- aspart of a new inspectorate for the education sector, the Superintendencia de Educación. This study seeks to understand the work of the inspectors working for this new government body By preparing a qualitative design...
Article
Full-text available
Identifying and understanding predictors of school safety perceptions is important due to its consequences for students. However, it is not clear what school-related factors most contribute to explaining students’ perception of school safety, and how they relate to community-related factors such as neighborhood safety. The purpose of this study was...
Article
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School achievement gaps and school failure are problematic issues in Latin America, and are mainly explained by the socio-economic status (SES) of the students. What schools can do to improve school achievement and reduce school failure is a critical issue, both for school management and teacher training. In this study, we present the association o...
Article
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[English] We examine the relationship between conflict management and school climate styles in two Chilean public schools. It is hypothesized that the type of administration implemented will influence the form and characteristics of the school life. Through microethnographies, and content analysis, we distinguished two forms of conflict management:...
Chapter
The objective of this study was to analyze the influence of school and neighborhood microsystems on the subjective well-being of children and adolescents. The sample included 1392 students aged between 10 and 13 years from Chile’s Metropolitan, Valparaiso and Biobío regions, who participated in the International Survey on Children’s Well-Being [ISC...
Article
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School participation is a debt in Latin America that hinders progress towards democratic societies. This study sought to understand school participation, from the voices of students in two schools with high quality school climate and two schools with low quality school climate, selected according to an index created from student surveys. Using a qu...
Article
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La violencia entre pares afecta negativamente la salud mental de los estudiantes. La literatura senala que la satisfaccion con la vida es uno de los factores que puede verse mayormente afectado. No obstante, pueden existir factores que atenuen estos efectos negativos. La presente investigacion indago en la influencia que tiene el apoyo de profesore...
Article
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OBJETIVO: Analizar las propiedades psicométricas de la escala PWI, tanto su versión de 7 como de 9 ítems de Tomyn y Cummins (2011) en estudiantes de II° año medio en Chile. METODO: Se aplicó la Escala a 4.964 estudiantes de este nivel de enseñanza, que corresponde a una muestra representativa de este grupo en Chile. Se realizaron análisis de confia...
Article
La revista Psicoperspectivas es una edicion arbitrada que lanza tres numeros al ano. Estos numeros se organizan en una seccion tematica, convocada previamente por la revista, cuyo objetivo es profundizar en un topico particular del quehacer investigativo en psicologia y ciencias sociales. La otra seccion, denominada articulos libres, tiene por obje...
Article
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La educación chilena es altamente segregadora, lo que dificulta la construcción de sociedades cohesionadas y democráticas. La investigación corresponde a un diseño mixto, secuencial y bietápi-co que indagó la relación entre segregación (selección y nivel socioeconómico) y calidad de la con-vivencia escolar, tomando como muestra las 200 escuelas PIS...
Article
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In this paper, we follow the philosophy of Zubiri and Heidegger, and to some extent of Hegel and Nietzsche, and examine the conception of body on the basis of a topology that thinks from the exterior, in other words within the spatial nature of things. Here we argue that in a veracious analysis of the body the space will always unfold as the horizo...
Article
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Chilean education is highly segregated, making it difficult to construct cohesive and democratic societies. Through a mixed-method sequential design we explored the relationship between segregation (selection and socioeconomic level) and quality of school climate, taking as example the 200 Chilean schools who participated in the PISA 2009 test. The...
Article
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This study analyzes and compares the experience of school victimization by peers and school staff, between students with and without diagnosis of special educational (SEN). 5,527 elementary school students studying in public schools with School Integration Programs (SIP) in one city of Valparaíso, Chile, participated in this study. Of these, 77 wer...
Article
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RESUMEN: El presente estudio analiza y compara las diferencias entre estudiantes con y sin diagnóstico de NEE, en relación a haber vivido experiencias de victimización escolar por parte de sus pares y del personal de la escuela. El estudio se realizó en establecimientos que brindan educación básica con Programas de Integración Escolar (PIE), de una...
Article
This article deals with a very relevant topic today, that is, what is art, what happens, how it develops, how it fits and how the man with nature. Such a conception of art, Xavier Zubiri left explicitly outlined in the 50s of the last century (in one of his many courses), but this conception was absolutely renovated in the '80s through his trilogy...
Article
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Students' and teachers' mental health is negatively affected by school violence, and positively affected by teachers' social wellbeing in school. We analyzed the mediating effect of teachers' perceived need to receive training in school violence prevention, as well as teachers' perceived magnitude of violence in their schools, on the negative assoc...
Article
Full-text available
This study analyses and compares the differences between students diagnosed with and without special educational needs, in terms of their experience of school victimization in a commune of the Region of Valparaíso, Chile, in elementary schools providing School Integration Programs (SIP). A questionnaire of peer victimization (bullying) was administ...
Article
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This purpose of this study was to characterize the social well-being of teachers working in public-municipal schools with different levels of autonomy in their school management (emergent and autonomous schools) and school size (large and small). 78 schools and 899 teachers working as school leaders, classroom teachers and teacher assistants, parti...
Article
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El clima escolar se asocia positivamente al rendimiento escolar y negativamente a la violencia escolar. Sin embargo, aún es necesario contar con instrumentos validados para la población de estudiantes latinoamericanos, que puedan entrar en diálogo con la investigación internacional y transcultural. En este estudio presentamos los resultados de la v...
Article
Full-text available
Students' and teachers' mental health is negatively affected by school violence, and positively affected by teachers' social wellbeing in school. We analyzed the mediating effect of teachers' perceived need to receive training in school violence prevention, as well as teachers' perceived magnitude of violence in their schools, on the negative assoc...
Article
Full-text available
This purpose of this study was to characterize the social well-being of teachers working in public-municipal schools with different levels of autonomy in their school management (emergent and autonomous schools) and school size (large and small). 78 schools and 899 teachers working as school leaders, classroom teachers and teacher assistants, parti...
Article
The purpose of this paper is to understand how the body is managed in a disempowerment style in Chilean company services. Nietzsche (1972) refers to the body as a strength predisposed to action that either facilitates it or limits it. The disempowerment of the body is studied in terms of the mood of resignation and, empowerment, and trust. A qualit...
Article
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We present the design and development of a system for monitoring the quality of school conviviality in Chile. Its purpose is to strengthen the school ́s capabilities to manage school conviviality. We present this system in the context of a punitive educational policy environment, which seeks school improvement through control and punishment. The sy...
Article
In this paper, it is discussed the notion of “prospective rationality”, the concept most diseminated around the idea of organization in our country. At the same time, it is inquired the introduction of social dispositives, administrative tools and agreements that are generated in foreign cultures and inserted in our culture with no reflection. Fina...
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What I propose In this paper is to adress the problem that Zubiri intended to solve for over 50 years in the twentieth century: the problem of the unity of man. This problem is expressed in the classic formula «body and soul». Based on this problem Zubiri had to think of a philosophy, restructure theology and to have a man's deeper understanding of...
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The aim of this paper is to understand the character and the role of higher education in business in relation to the wider institutional and structural contexts within which they function. Being loyal to that widespread background, business schools in Chile have become efficient providers of appropriate goods and services for their respective clien...
Article
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A partir de la década del ´80 el campo teórico de la Administración de Recursos Humanos (RR-HH) se ha hibridizado con la participación de diversas disciplinas. No debemos desconocer los esfuerzos que se han realizado desde el Critical Management (Alvesson, 1995; Linstead, S., Fulop, L. & Lilley, S. 2004), los aportes de la Ética Aplicada a la organ...
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El presente artículo tiene por propósito reflexionar sobre el impacto que han tenido las teorías hegemónicas y los modelos tradicionales de liderazgo en la generación y reproducción de determinados estilos de relaciones y prácticas laborales. En una primera fase se categorizan dichas teorías y modelos, sugiriendo que los avances en el conocimiento...
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p>Lo que me motiva a escribir el presente artículo dice relación con la posibilidad de poder analizar el por qué y para qué se han introducido herramientas administrativas a la evaluación de los procesos psicoterapéuticos. No me motiva investigar qué tipo de intervención psicoterapéutica puede resultar más adecuada para tal tipo de problema psicoló...
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El presente artículo expone un estudio exploratorio y preliminar que busca indagar la relación existente entre el rol docente -definido como un facilitador o mediador de aprendizaje de los alumnos- y la capacidad metacomprensiva lectora. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 106 sujetos quienes volcaron sus percepciones acerca del rol que cumplían sus do...
Article
The aim of this article is to give an insight on the impact that hegemonic theories and traditional leadership models have had in the creation and reproduction of certain labor relationships and methods. In a first stage such theories and models are categorized, suggesting that advances in knowledge are not different from each other with respect to...

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