Paul I Williams

Paul I Williams
The University of Manchester · School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences

Doctor of Philosophy

About

204
Publications
30,625
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13,869
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Publications

Publications (204)
Article
In this paper, the characteristics of non-refractory aerosol using an International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) compliant sampling system emitted from two gas turbine relevant sources are reported, namely: an in-service turboshaft helicopter engine and a development combustor rig. Positive Matrix Factorisation (PMF) analysis was applied on a...
Article
Full-text available
Atmospheric aerosol particles are known to have detrimental effects on human health and climate. Black carbon is an important constituent of atmospheric aerosol particulate matter (PM), emitted from incomplete combustion. Source apportionment of BC is very important, to evaluate the influence of different sources. The high-resolution soot particle...
Article
Full-text available
Seasonal biomass burning (BB) over West Africa is a globally significant source of carbonaceous particles in the atmosphere, which have important climate impacts but are poorly constrained. Here, the evolution of smoke aerosols emitted from flaming-controlled burning of agricultural waste and wooded savannah in the Senegal region was characterized...
Article
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Similarities and differences in the submicron atmospheric aerosol chemical composition are analyzed from a unique set of measurements performed at 21 sites across Europe for at least one year. These sites are located between 35 and 62°N and 10° W – 26°E, and represent various types of settings (remote, coastal, rural, industrial, urban). Measuremen...
Preprint
Full-text available
Seasonal biomass burning (BB) over West Africa is a globally significant source of carbonaceous particles in the atmosphere, which have important climate impacts but are poorly constrained. Here, the evolution of smoke aerosols emitted from flaming-controlled burning of agricultural waste and wooded savannah in the Senegal region was characterized...
Article
Inboard and outboard particle number concentrations are reported from 12 flights from the FAAM BAe-146. The data show that the concentrations pre take off and post landing are dominated by external sources. The concentrations in the cabin are generally lower than outside and pre-take off peak after the doors have closed in 75% of cases. In flight c...
Article
Full-text available
Seasonal biomass burning (BB) from June to October in central and southern Africa leads to absorbing aerosols being transported over the South Atlantic Ocean every year and contributes significantly to the regional climate forcing. The vertical distribution of submicron aerosols and their properties were characterized over the remote southeast Atla...
Preprint
Full-text available
Atmospheric aerosol particles are known to have detrimental effects on human health and climate. Black carbon is an important constituent of atmospheric aerosol particulate matter (PM), emitted from the incomplete combustion process and cause significant effects on the air quality and human health. Source apportionment of BC is very important, to i...
Article
Full-text available
We report measurements of methane (CH4) mixing ratios and emission fluxes derived from sampling at a monitoring station at an exploratory shale gas extraction facility in Lancashire, England. Elevated ambient CH4 mixing ratios were recorded in January 2019 during a period of cold-venting associated with a nitrogen lift process at the facility. Thes...
Preprint
Full-text available
Abstract. The optical properties of black carbon (BC) are a major source of uncertainty in regional and global climate studies. In the past, detailed investigation of BC absorption has been hampered by systematic biases in the measurement instrumentation. We present airborne measurements of aerosol absorption and black carbon microphysical properti...
Article
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Methane emission fluxes from many facility-scale sources may be poorly quantified, potentially leading to uncertainties in the global methane budget. Accurate atmospheric measurement-based flux quantification is urgently required to address this. This paper describes the first test (using unbiased sampling) of a near-field Gaussian plume inversion...
Preprint
Full-text available
Abstract. Seasonal biomass burning (BB) from June to October in central and southern Africa leads to absorbing aerosols being transported over the south Atlantic Ocean every year, and contributes significantly to the regional climate forcing. The vertical distribution of submicron aerosols and their properties were characterized over the remote sou...
Article
Full-text available
The International Civil Aviation Organization has established new regulatory standards for emissions certification of non-volatile particulate matter (nvPM) from aircraft turbine engines. The adoption of the nvPM emissions regulatory standards required development of a standardized sampling and measurement methodology, and rigorous testing. Three r...
Article
Full-text available
Black carbon (BC) is known to have major impacts on both climate and human health and is therefore of global importance, particularly in regions close to large populations that have strong sources. The size-resolved mixing state of BC-containing particles was characterised using a single-particle soot photometer (SP2). The study focusses on the Ind...
Article
Full-text available
Methane emission fluxes from facility-scale sources may be poorly quantified, leading to uncertainties in the global methane budget. Accurate atmospheric measurement based flux quantification is urgently required to address this. This paper describes the test of a new near-field Gaussian plume inversion (NGI) technique, suitable for facility-scale...
Article
Full-text available
The accurate quantification of methane emissions from point sources is required to better quantify emissions for sector-specific reporting and inventory validation. An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) serves as a platform to sample plumes near to source. This paper describes a near-field Gaussian plume inversion (NGI) flux technique, adapted for downw...
Article
Full-text available
Biases in absorption coefficients measured using a filter-based absorption photometer (Tricolor Absorption Photometer, or TAP) at wavelengths of 467, 528 and 652 nm are evaluated by comparing to measurements made using photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS). We report comparisons for ambient sampling covering a range of aerosol types including urban, fre...
Article
Full-text available
Black carbon (BC) is known to have major impacts on both climate and human health, so is therefore of global importance, particularly so in regions close to large populations that have strong sources. The physical properties and mixing state of black carbon containing particles are important determinants in these effects but information is often la...
Article
Full-text available
The vertical distribution in the physical and chemical properties of submicron aerosol has been characterised across northern India for the first time using airborne in situ measurements. This study focusses primarily on the Indo-Gangetic Plain, a low-lying area in the north of India which commonly experiences high aerosol mass concentrations prior...
Article
Full-text available
The mineralogy and mixing state of dust particles originating from the African continent influences climate and marine ecosystems in the North Atlantic due to its effect on radiation, cloud properties and biogeochemical cycling. However, these processes are difficult to constrain because of large temporal and spatial variability, and the lack of in...
Article
Full-text available
Biases in absorption coefficients measured using a filter-based absorption photometer (Tricolor Absorption Photometer, or TAP) at wavelengths of 467, 528 and 652nm are evaluated by comparing to measurements made using photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS). We report comparisons for ambient sampling covering a range of aerosol types including urban, fres...
Article
Full-text available
The vertical distribution in the physical and chemical properties of submicron aerosol has been characterised across northern India for the first time using airborne in-situ measurements. This study focusses primarily on the Indo-Gangetic Plain, a low-lying area in the north of India which commonly experiences high aerosol mass concentrations prior...
Article
Full-text available
The mineralogy and mixing state of dust particles originating from the African continent influences climate and marine ecosystems in the North Atlantic due to its effect on radiation, cloud properties and biogeochemical cycling. Single-particle mineralogy and mixing state is particularly important in many processes but is difficult to predict becau...
Article
A Multiport Particle Chamber (MPC) has been developed to enable up to 24 particle sensors to be assessed simultaneously. The MPC was characterised using Condensation Particle Counters (CPC). Testing of the MPC demonstrated a 1% variation in particle concentration for both port-to-port variability and sampling depth dependence around the central rin...
Article
Full-text available
Over the past decade, there has been an increasing interest in short-term events that negatively affect air quality such as bonfires and fireworks. High aerosol and gas concentrations generated from public bonfires or fireworks were measured in order to understand the night-time chemical processes and their atmospheric implications. Nitrogen chemis...
Article
Methane is an important greenhouse gas and emission controls for methane are a part of the international Paris Agreement and UK national strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Landfill gas is mainly composed of methane and carbon dioxide, in near equal measure. While modern UK landfills capture and use much of the methane gas produced, some...
Article
Full-text available
Measurements of OH, HO2, RO2i (alkene and aromatic-related RO2) and total RO2 radicals taken during the ClearfLo campaign in central London in the summer of 2012 are presented. A photostationary steady-state calculation of OH which considered measured OH reactivity as the OH sink term and the measured OH sources (of which HO2+ NO reaction and HONO...
Article
Full-text available
Particulate emissions from biomass burning can both alter the atmosphere's radiative balance and cause significant harm to human health. However, due to the large effect on emissions caused by even small alterations to the way in which a fuel burns, it is difficult to study particulate production of biomass combustion mechanistically and in a repea...
Article
Full-text available
During austral summer 2015, the Microphysics of Antarctic Clouds (MAC) field campaign collected unique and detailed airborne and ground-based in situ measurements of cloud and aerosol properties over coastal Antarctica and the Weddell Sea. This paper presents the first results from the experiment and discusses the key processes important in this re...
Article
Full-text available
Measurements of OH, HO2, RO2i (alkene and aromatic related RO2) and total RO2 radicals taken during the ClearfLo campaign in central London in the summer of 2012 are presented. A photostationary steady-state calculation of OH which considered measured OH reactivity as the OH sink term and the measured OH sources (of which HO2+NO reaction and HONO p...
Article
Full-text available
Over the past decade, there has been an increasing interest in short-term events that negatively affect air quality such as bonfires and fireworks. High aerosol and gas concentrations generated from public bonfires/fireworks were measured in order to understand the night-time chemical processes and their atmospheric implications. Nitrate chemistry...
Article
Atmospheric black carbon makes an important but poorly quantified contribution to the warming of the global atmosphere. Laboratory and modelling studies have shown that the addition of non-black-carbon materials to black-carbon particles may enhance the particles’ light absorption by 50 to 60% by refracting and reflecting light. Real-world experime...
Presentation
A key challenge for numerical weather prediction models is the ability to accurately predict the timing and position of stratocumulus clouds and transitions to open cellular convection during cold air outbreaks in polar regions. On-going in-situ field observations reveal that this break-up in cold air outbreaks over the eastern Atlantic is controll...
Article
Full-text available
In situ airborne observations of cloud microphysics, aerosol properties and thermodynamic structure over the transition from sea ice to ocean are presented from the Aerosol-Cloud Coupling and Climate Interactions in the Arctic (ACCACIA) campaign. A case study from 23 March 2013 provides a unique view of the cloud microphysical changes over this tra...
Article
Full-text available
Heavy rainfall from convective clouds can lead to devastating flash flooding, and observations of aerosols and clouds are required to improve cloud parameterisations used in precipitation forecasts. We present measurements of boundary layer aerosol concentration, size, and composition from a series of research flights performed over the southwest p...
Article
Full-text available
The COnvective Precipitation Experiment (COPE) was a joint UK-US field campaign held during the summer of 2013 in the southwest peninsula of England, designed to study convective clouds that produce heavy rain leading to flash floods. The clouds form along convergence lines that develop regularly due to the topography. Major flash floods have occur...
Article
Full-text available
We present measurements of boundary layer aerosol concentration, size and composition from a series of research flights performed over the southwest peninsula of the UK during the COnvective Precipitation Experiment (COPE) of summer 2013. We place emphasis on periods of southwesterly winds, which locally are most conducive to convective cloud forma...
Article
Full-text available
We present microphysical observations of cumulus clouds measured over the southwest peninsula of the UK during the COnvective Precipitation Experiment (COPE) in August 2013, which are framed into a wider context using ground-based and airborne radar measurements. Two lines of cumulus clouds formed in the early afternoon along convergence lines alig...
Article
Full-text available
Trace element measurements in PM10-2.5, PM2.5-1.0 and PM1.0-0.3 aerosol were performed with 2 h time resolution at kerbside, urban background and rural sites during the ClearfLo winter 2012 campaign in London. The environment-dependent variability of emissions was characterized using the Multilinear Engine implementation of the positive matrix fact...
Article
Full-text available
Trace element measurements in PM10–2.5, PM2.5–1.0 and PM1.0–0.3 aerosol were performed with 2 h time resolution at kerbside, urban background and rural sites during the ClearfLo winter 2012 campaign in London. The environment-dependent variability of emissions was characterized using the Multilinear Engine implementation of the positive matrix fact...
Article
Full-text available
Black carbon aerosol (BC) deposited to the Arctic sea ice or present in the free troposphere can significantly affect the Earth's radiation budget at high latitudes yet the BC burden in these regions and the regional source contributions are poorly constrained. Aircraft measurements of aerosol composition in the European Arctic were conducted durin...
Article
The total climate, air quality, and health impact of aircraft black carbon (BC) emissions depend on quantity (mass and number concentration) as well as morphology (fractal dimension and surface area) of emitted BC aggregates. This study examines multiple BC emission metrics from a gas turbine with a double annular combustor, CFM56-5B4-2P. As a part...
Article
Full-text available
Intense rainfall generated by convective clouds causes flash flooding in many parts of the world. Understanding the microphysical processes leading to the formation of precipitation is one of the main challenges to improving our capability to make quantitative precipitation forecasts. Here, we present microphysics observations of cumulus clouds mea...
Article
Full-text available
For the first time, the behaviour of non-refractory inorganic and organic submicron particulate through an entire annual cycle is investigated using measurements from an Aerodyne compact time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (cToF-AMS) located at a UK urban background site in North Kensington, London. We show that secondary aerosols account for...
Article
Full-text available
Black carbon aerosol (BC) deposited to the Arctic sea ice or present in the free troposphere can significantly affect the Earth's radiation budget at high latitudes yet the BC burden in these regions and the regional source contributions are poorly constrained. Aircraft measurements of aerosol composition in the European Arctic were conducted durin...
Article
Full-text available
Accurately accounting for new particle formation (NPF) is crucial to our ability to predict aerosol number concentrations in many environments and thus cloud properties, which is in turn vital in simulating radiative transfer and climate. Here we present an analysis of NPF events observed in the Greenland Sea during the summertime as part of the Ae...
Article
Full-text available
Determining the contribution of wood smoke to air pollution in large cities such as London is becoming increasingly important due to the changing nature of domestic heating in urban areas. During winter, biomass burning emissions have been identified as a major cause of exceedances of European air quality limits. The aim of this work was to quantif...
Article
Full-text available
Ambient concentrations of trace elements with 2 h time resolution were measured in PM10-2.5, PM2.5-1.0 and PM1.0-0.3 size ranges at kerbside, urban background and rural sites in London during winter 2012. Samples were collected using rotating drum impactors (RDIs) and subsequently analysed with synchrotron radiation-induced X-ray fluorescence spect...
Article
Full-text available
PM2.5 was collected during a winter campaign at two southern England sites, urban background North Kensington (NK) and rural Harwell (HAR), in January–February 2012. Multiple organic and inorganic source tracers were analysed and used in a Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) model, which apportioned seven separate primary sources, that explained on average...
Article
Full-text available
Wet deposition is the dominant mechanism for removing black carbon (BC) from the atmosphere and is key in determining its atmospheric lifetime, vertical gradient and global transport. Despite the importance of BC in the climate system, especially in terms of its ability to modulate the radiative energy budget, there are few quantitative case studie...