Paul W Williams

Paul W Williams
University of Auckland · School of Environment

PhD, ScD (Cambridge)

About

145
Publications
15,661
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
8,963
Citations
Citations since 2016
14 Research Items
4024 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500600
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500600
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500600
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500600
Introduction
Skills and Expertise

Publications

Publications (145)
Article
Full-text available
We re-evaluated speleothem isotope series from Aotearoa New Zealand that were recently contributed to the Speleothem Isotopes Synthesis and AnaLysis (SISAL) database. COnstructing Proxy Records from Age Models (COPRA) software was used to produce Bayesian age models for those speleothems. The new age modelling helped us examine Late Quaternary temp...
Article
Full-text available
The article showed that some New Zealand speleothems of zero age still contain some Pa-231 and Th-230 suggesting an incorrect age of a few thousand years.
Chapter
Following the breakup of Gondwana, an eroded fragment of continental crust, Zealandia, moved eastwards as the Tasman Sea opened. The largely submerged piece of crust came to rest at the boundary of the Australian Plate and near the Pacific Plate. Adjustments along the plate boundary led to its propagation through Zealandia, and to interplate forces...
Chapter
This chapter considers the origin of New Zealand and addresses the issues of why it is located in the southwest Pacific Ocean and why it has a long narrow shape with a northeast–southwest orientation. The first matter is resolved by recognising that New Zealand is the emergent part of a microcontinent called Zealandia that broke away from the super...
Chapter
As the islands of New Zealand emerged, some of the highest mountains that formed were volcanoes. In North Island they dominate the axial greywacke ranges. This is largely because in the north continental rocks of the Australian Plate override the subducting Pacific Plate. Uplift of the frontal ridge of continental rocks, back-arc tension and meltin...
Chapter
Mountain ranges and volcanoes have been built in New Zealand by processes associated with the tectonic plate boundary. The highest peak has reached 3754 m and uplift is continuing. So will the mountains get higher or will erosion outstrip uplift? This question is investigated by examining the relationship between rates of uplift and erosion in diff...
Chapter
Many small areas of karst are scattered throughout New Zealand. Most are developed in Cenozoic limestones, but the largest area of karst is in thick Palaeozoic marble. These karsts provide quantitative evidence of uplift rates and paleoclimatic history of the regions around them. The polygonal karst of the King Country in western North Island comme...
Chapter
This concluding chapter reviews the suite of geophysical hazards that are experienced in New Zealand, considers the risk that these present and the measures sometimes taken to mitigate them. Some, like volcanic eruptions, have such long recurrence intervals and can be of such enormous scale that we rely mainly on monitoring and advanced warning; ot...
Chapter
This chapter examines processes in the coastal zone, including wave environment, sea-level change, origin and movement of coastal sediment, beach processes and tectonic effects, and then considers responses along mobile sandy shores, in tidal inlets and along rocky coastlines. Coastal landscapes are shaped by on-going processes, including the inter...
Chapter
The Quaternary ice age in New Zealand has similarities to and contrasts with glacial events in the Northern Hemisphere. During the Last Glacial Cycle, the largest glacial advance in New Zealand was 67–62,000 years ago, and so not during the conventional global Last Glacial Maximum (gLGM). In New Zealand glacials were characterised by alpine glacier...
Chapter
The history of the land is written by its rivers. What they reveal is investigated by examining the case histories of fluvial landscapes in six contrasting morphotectonic regions: the Clutha, the Canterbury braided rivers, the Rangitikei, the Buller, rivers draining to Hawkes Bay and the Waikato. The longitudinal profiles and plan patters of rivers...
Book
New Zealand Landscape: Behind the Scene tells the story of New Zealand through the subject of geomorphology, a branch of earth science at the interface of geology and geography. Geomorphology is informally described as the 'science of scenery', and as with every science, ideas evolve as the research frontier advances. Users will find an early 21st...
Article
Results from terrestrial and marine palaeoclimate proxies are integrated to reconstruct palaeoclimate variations in New Zealand from the Last Interglacial to the global Last Glacial Maximum (gLGM). By combining data from 21 speleothems we have constructed composite O–C stable isotope sequences from 0 to 88.5 ka BP and from 107.8 to 128.2 ka BP. The...
Chapter
The ‘Grey Box’ Nature of Karst Surface Exploration and Survey Techniques Investigating Recharge and Percolation in the Vadose Zone Borehole Analysis Spring Hydrograph Analysis Polje Hydrograph Analysis Spring Chemograph Interpretation Storage Volumes and Flow Routing Under Different States of the Hydrograph Interpreting the Organization of a Karst...
Chapter
Classifying Cave Systems Building the Plan Patterns of Unconfined Caves Unconfined Cave Development in Length and Depth System Modifications Occurring within a Single Phase Multiphase Cave Systems Meteoric Water Caves Developed Where There is Confined Circulation or Basal Injection of Water Hypogene Caves: Hydrothermal Caves Associated Chiefly with...
Chapter
Introduction Aqueous Solutions and Chemical Equilibria The Dissolution of Anhydrite, Gypsum and Salt The Dissolution of Silica Bicarbonate Equilibria and the Dissolution of Carbonate Rocks in Normal Meteoric Waters The S—O—H System and the Dissolution of Carbonate Rocks Chemical Complications in Carbonate Dissolution Biokarst Processes Measurements...
Chapter
The Inherent Vulnerability of Karst Systems Deforestation, Agricultural Impacts and Rocky Desertification Sinkholes, Induced by Dewatering, Surcharging, Solution Mining and other Practices on Karst Problems of Construction on and in the Karst Rocks – Expect the Unexpected! Industrial Exploitation of Karst Rocks and Minerals Restoration of Karstland...
Chapter
Basic Hydrogeological Concepts, Terms and Definitions Controls on the Development of Karst Hydrological Systems Energy Supply and Flow-Network Development Development of the Water Table and Phreatic Zones Development of the Vadose Zone Classification and Characteristics of Karst Aquifers Applicability of Darcy's Law to Karst Freshwater–Saltwater In...
Chapter
Definitions The Relationships of Karst with General Geomorphology and Hydrogeology The Global Distribution of Karst The Growth of Ideas Aims of the Book Karst Terminology
Chapter
Carbonate Rocks and Minerals Limestone Compositions and Depositional Facies Limestone Diagenesis and the Formation of Dolomite The Evaporite Rocks Quartzites and Siliceous Sandstones Effects of Lithological Properties upon Karst Development Interbedded Clastic Rocks Bedding Planes, Joints, Faults and Fracture Traces Fold Topography Palaeokarst Unco...
Chapter
Coupled Hydrological and Geochemical Systems Small-Scale Solution Sculpture – Microkarren and Karren Dolines – The ‘Diagnostic’ Karst Landform? The Origin and Development of Solution Dolines The Origin of Collapse and Subsidence Depressions Polygonal Karst Morphometric Analysis of Solution Dolines Landforms Associated with Allogenic Inputs: Contact...
Chapter
Global Variations in the Solutional Denudation of Carbonate Terrains Measurement and Calculation of Solutional Denudation Rates Solution Rates in Gypsum, Salt and Other Non-Carbonate Rocks Interpretation of Measurements
Chapter
Introduction Clastic Sediments Calcite, Aragonite and Other Carbonate Precipitates Other Cave Minerals Ice in Caves Dating of Calcite Speleothems and Other Cave Deposits Palaeoenvironmental Analysis of Calcite Speleothems Mass Flux Through a Cave System: The Example of Friar's Hole, West Virginia
Chapter
Water Resources and Sustainable Yields Determination of Available Water Resources Karst Hydrogeological Mapping Human Impacts on Karst Water Groundwater Vulnerability, Protection and Risk Mapping Dam Building, Leakages, Failures and Impacts
Chapter
The Precepts of Climatic Geomorphology The Hot Arid Extreme The Cold Extreme: Karst Development in Glaciated Terrains The Cold Extreme: Karst Development in Permafrozen Terrains Sea-Level Changes, Tectonic Movement and Implications for Coastal Karst Development Polycyclic, Polygenetic and Exhumed Karsts
Chapter
This chapter discusses the requirements that must be met and the ­processes that must be followed before a natural area can be accepted as being ­worthy of World Heritage status under the UNESCO World Heritage Convention. Particular attention is paid to karst and cave sites. Various types of karst are defined and their existing representation on th...
Article
Full-text available
The occurrence of speleothems in New Zealand with reversed magnetism indicates that secondary calcite deposition in caves has occurred for more than 780 thousand years (ka). 394 uranium-series dates on 148 speleothems show that such deposition has taken place somewhere in the country with little interruption for more than 500 ka. A relative probabi...
Article
A primary step in the interpretation of speleothem stable isotope records (¹⁸O/¹⁶O and ¹³C/¹²C) is to conduct a comparison with other local palaeoclimate proxies. Here, two new master speleothem δ¹⁸O and δ¹³C records (one from eastern North Island, and the other from western/southern South Island, New Zealand) are evaluated against independent prec...
Article
Full-text available
The epikarst (also known as the subcutaneous zone) comprises highly weathered carbonate bedrock immediately beneath the surface or beneath the soil (when present) or exposed at the surface. Porosity and permeability are higher near the surface than at depth, consequently after recharge percolating rainwater is detained near the base of the epikarst...
Article
It is widely recognised that the acquisition of high-resolution palaeoclimate records from southern mid-latitude sites is essential for establishing a coherent picture of inter-hemispheric climate change and for better understanding of the role of Antarctic climate dynamics in the global climate system. New Zealand is considered to be a sensitive m...
Article
Oxygen and carbon data from eight stalagmites from northwest South Island are combined to produce composite records of δ¹⁸O and δ¹³C from 23.4 ka to the present. The chronology is anchored by 43 thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) uranium series ages. Delta ¹⁸O values are interpreted as having a first order positive relationship to temperat...
Article
Full-text available
The stable isotope records of four stalagmites dated by 19 TIMS uranium series ages are combined to produce master chronologies for &dgr; 18O and &dgr; 13C. The &dgr; 18O records display good overall coherence, but considerable variation in detail. Variability in the &dgr; 13C records is greater, but general trends can still be dis cerned. This imp...
Article
Full-text available
The King Country is in the western North Island of New Zealand. A doline karst landscape of polygonal style with dendritic cave systems has evolved since the Pliocene in 100 m stratigraphic thickness of shallow water, flaggy Oligocene to Miocene limestones. The karst is important internationally because: it is an excellent example of polygonal kars...
Article
Full-text available
The relationship between the δ18O values of rainfall, vadose percolation water, and speleothem calcite was investigated in a cave at Waitomo. Water samples were obtained approximately monthly for two years from a storage rain gauge on the surface and from stored seepage from three stalactites underground. Rain water δ18OSMOW values varied considera...
Chapter
Full-text available
Karst develops on rocks where solution (or corrosion, as it is sometimes called ) is the dominant landscape-forming process, even though the full suite of other geomorphic processes occurs. All rocks dissolve in natural waters to some extent, although some dissolve much more readily than others. Of the common rocks, the most susceptible to solution...
Article
One straw stalactite and three stalagmites from the Waitomo district of North Island, New Zealand, were examined for stable isotopes of oxygen and carbon with a view to interpreting their palaeoclimate signal. Dating was by uranium series and AMS 14C for the stalagmites and by gamma-ray spectrometry for the straw. Records were thus established for...
Article
The discovery that orbital variations are the driving force behind Quaternary climate change provides an impetus to set local and regional records of environmental change into the global context, a principle that has been strongly embraced by Quaternary scientists working in New Zealand. Their major achievements and significant current initiatives...
Article
Full-text available
Analysis of 67 New Zealand speleothem specimens for both and by alpha spectrometry showed that in most cases the age concordance between them was excellent. However, analysis of two growing speleothems less than 100 years old showed apparent near-concordant ages of 2 and 3 ka—both and had been added to the speleothem, contrary to a basic assumption...
Article
Full-text available
A three-dimensional process-response model is developed that assesses the minimum requirements for karst landform evolution, the effect of different starting conditions on end-stage landforms, and whether different landform types are the result of different environments or merely represent successive stages under unchanging conditions. Results of s...
Article
An open access copy of this article is available from the publishers website. Caves overrun by glaciers are known to accumulate dateable evidence of past glacial and interglacial events. Results are reported from an investigation of Aurora Cave on the slopes above Lake Te Anau in Fiordland. The cave commenced to form before c. 230 ka B.P. Sequences...
Article
New Zealand is a microcontinent across the boundary of the Pacific and Indo-Australian plates. Oblique plate convergence of up to 58 mm/a has resulted in compression, crustal shortening and shear. As a consequence the country is seismically active, with fault movement, folding and uplift continuing at the present time. Quantitative evidence for upl...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Karst water resources are often exploited before their potential has been fully assessed. At karst springs, resource determination is often by baseflow recession analysis. This yields the volume of the dynamic reserves. An alternative approach is to estimate the total volume in storage from the product of the average discharge and average residence...
Article
Four genetic types of tower karst are identified, the most typical consisting of residual hills protruding from a planed carbonate surface veneered by alluvium. Two extreme possibilities for tower karst evolution are recognized: a direct development that is independent of any previous morphology and a sequential development that depends explicitly...
Article
The key to understanding the development of most solution depressions in karst is concluded to lie in subcutaneous processes in the epikarstic aquifer at the top of the vadose zone but beneath the soil. The epikarstic water-table is drawn-down above highly permeable vertical leakage paths at the base of the subcutaneous zone. This focuses stream-li...
Article
The subcutaneous zone is the upper weathered layer of rock beneath the soil, but above the permanently saturated (phreatic) zone. It is of particular hydrological importance in karst because of its high secondary permeability, arising from the considerable chemical solution in this zone. However, corrosional enlargement of fissures diminishes with...

Network

Cited By

Projects

Project (1)
Project
deriving records of volcanic eruptions from trace elements precipitated in speleothems