Paul C Trulove

Paul C Trulove
United States Naval Academy | USNA · Department of Chemistry

PhD Chemistry

About

209
Publications
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5,219
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Publications

Publications (209)
Article
Natural Fiber Welding The anchor is printed on cellulose paper using ionic liquid ink containing silver nanoparticle laden lignocellulose. The study in article number 2100872 by David P. Durkin and co‐workers shows how natural fiber welding can transform functional powders into anti‐microbial and anti‐biofilm textiles, which may be considered for p...
Article
In this study, imidazolium-based polymerizable ionic liquids (Poly-ILs) are used to prepare novel polyionic biocomposites through Natural Fiber Welding. Two new Poly-ILs containing a 1-alkyl-3-vinylimidazolium cation and an alkylphosphonate anion were synthesized and evaluated for their ability to (i) solubilize a biopolymer (cellulose) matrix and...
Article
Biopolymer materials that use silver to imbue antimicrobial properties are finding broad application in areas such as packaging, textiles, and building materials. Conventional methods to incorporate silver can damage the supporting biopolymer matrix and/or result in large‐sized silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) with poor antimicrobial efficacy. To miti...
Preprint
Full-text available
All-cellulose xerogel composites were fabricated using a facile, scalable three-step process-(1) partial ionic liquid dissolution, (2) non-solvent rinsing, and (3) drying. The xerogel composites are composed of two phases where the yarn center is non-porous highly crystalline cellulose I surrounded by mesoporous amorphous regenerated cellulose. The...
Article
All-cellulose xerogel composites were fabricated using a facile, scalable three-step process—(1) partial ionic liquid dissolution, (2) non-solvent rinsing, and (3) drying. The xerogel composites are composed of two phases where the yarn center is non-porous highly crystalline cellulose I surrounded by mesoporous amorphous regenerated cellulose. The...
Article
Full-text available
The decrease in crystallinity of a cotton thread upon exposure to the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate is investigated via two-dimensional Raman spectral mapping of the thread cross-section. By monitoring an intrinsic cellulose I Raman mode, the transition from highly crystalline cellulose I to amorphous cellulose is monitored as a...
Article
Natural Fiber Welding (NFW) is a green engineering process that uses Ionic Liquids (IL) to prepare functional biocomposites for applications including water purification, energy storage, sensing, and thermal enhancement. The composition of the welding solution can significantly impact welding efficiency as well as the structure and composition of f...
Chapter
Ionic liquid-based (IL-based) manufacturing has the potential to revolutionize the materials industry and disrupt overdependence on petroleum-based plastics. Nature provides amazing materials at large scale; however, scalable techniques to mold and shape biomaterials have not existed at scale. Natural Fiber Welding, Inc. (NFW) has developed commerc...
Article
Heat capacity and heat of vaporization are thermal properties that affect the combustion of fuels in engines. This study highlights new calorimetric methods to measure the thermal properties of JP-5 and surrogate fuel systems. First, the heat capacity of military jet fuel (JP-5) and surrogate fuel mixtures were measured using a standalone different...
Article
Full-text available
In this study we report the synthesis and characterization of superparamagnetic Fe-Pd (1–75 at.% Fe) nanomagnets grown within a lignocellulose fiber matrix for future advanced material applications. The small (~5 nm diameter) Fe-Pd nanoparticles are crystalline with spherical shape and evenly dispersed throughout the lignocellulose support while pr...
Article
This study reveals how natural fiber welding (NFW) can be used to engineer biopolymer materials with improved thermal stability. First, it is shown how NFW without binders improves lignocellulose yarn thermal stability by ≈17 °C, primarily by condensing microfibril structure. Next, silanized‐cellulose nanofibrils (Si‐CNFs) are developed as NFW bind...
Article
Thermophysical properties (densities, speeds of sound, bulk moduli, and viscosities) of binary mixtures of n-dodecane with n-alkylcyclohexanes (propyl- to dodecylcyclohexane) were examined at various compositions and temperatures (293.15-333.15 K). Viscosities were analyzed using the McAllister three-body equation, and excess molar Gibbs energies o...
Article
The composition of Navy Jet fuel JP-5 was determined using gas chromatography(GC)-electron impact mass spectrometry and GC × GC/(flame ionization detection) to contain by mass 21% linear alkanes, 29% cycloalkanes, 32% isoalkanes, and 18% aromatic compounds. Various quaternary mixtures of n-dodecane, n-butylcyclohexane, n-butylbenzene, and 2,2,4,4,6...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, we evaluated the molar conductivity and dynamic viscosity of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate based solvent systems containing dissolved cellulose (cotton or microcrystalline cellulose), cellobiose, or glucose. Matrix variables included solute concentration, as well as concentration of acetonitrile or water (typical molecular spec...
Article
This work reports densities, speeds of sound, and viscosities of binary mixtures of n-alkylcyclohexanes (propyl- to dodecylcyclohexane) in n-hexadecane as a function of temperature. Isentropic bulk moduli for these mixtures were calculated from these speed of sound and density data. Mixture densities increased with increasing alkylcyclohexane conce...
Article
This work reports physical property measurements of binary mixtures of n-hexylbenzene (1) and n-butylbenzene (1) in 2,2,4,6,6-pentamethylheptane (2) and 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethylnonane (2) at temperatures within the range 253.15–333.15 K. Mixture densities, speeds of sound, and calculated bulk moduli increased with increasing aromatic compound conc...
Article
This work reports physical property measurements of binary mixtures of ethylcyclohexane or methylcyclohexane with either n-dodecane or n-hexadecane at temperatures ranging from (293.15 to 333.15) K. Mixture densities fell between those of the pure components. All excess molar volumes were positive, indicating less efficient packing in the mixture s...
Article
The properties and chemical components of a bio-derived alternative diesel fuel were used to formulate hydrocarbon mixtures for use as fuel surrogates. This alternative diesel fuel was found to contain mostly alkylcyclohexanes, linear alkanes, and alkylbenzenes, with small amounts of other compounds as determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrom...
Article
Chemical analysis and property measurements of a catalytic hydrothermal conversion jet (CHCJ) fuel were used to formulate hydrocarbon mixtures for use as fuel surrogates. Using conventional gas chromatography/(electron ionization) quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC/(EI)Q MS) and advanced two-dimensional gas chromatography/(electron ionization) high r...
Article
Researchers seek to understand the combustion of petroleum fuel, which contains hundreds of compounds, by studying properties and oxidation behavior of less complex mixtures (surrogates) containing fuel components. In this study, viscosities and densities (293.15 to 343.15 K), speeds of sound (293.15 to 333.15 K), surface tensions (∼314 K) and flas...
Article
The viscosities and densities (293.15–373.15 K), speeds of sound (293.15–333.15 K), surface tensions (room temperature), and flash points were measured for binary mixtures of n-hexadecane and alkylbenzenes (hexylbenzene, octylbenzene, dodecylbenzene), which are components of diesel fuel. Increasing the temperature decreased densities, and excess mo...
Article
In the present work, we have studied the flame-retardant properties of phosphorus-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) created by treating oxidized MWCNTs (O-MWCNTs) with phosphoric acid. These phosphorus MWCNTs (P-MWCNTs), along with pristine MWCNTs and O-MWCNTs, were incorporated into polystyrene (PS) and poly (methyl methacrylat...
Article
This work reports physical property measurements of binary mixtures of butylbenzene with n-decane, n-dodecane, n-tetradecane, n-hexadecane, or n-heptadecane. Densities and viscosities were measured at temperatures from (293.15 to 373.15) K, and speeds of sound were measured at temperatures from (293.15 to 333.15) K, except for those of n-heptadecan...
Article
The physical and transport properties (density, viscosity, ionic conductivity, and ion diffusion coefficients) are reported for solutions containing 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EMIAc) and cellulose, either with no molecular solvent, with water, or with acetonitrile (AN). Ionicity values, or the fraction of ions present in the ionic liquid...
Article
Understanding the combined effect of applied tension and polymer mobilization is vital both for controlling sample contraction during “natural-fiber welding” (NFW) experiments as well as for designing scaled-up NFW processes that rely upon tension for pulling yarn and cloth stocks through a continuous treatment apparatus. A preliminary set of tests...
Article
Chitin and chitosan are biopolymers known to have natural antimicrobial properties. The ionic liquid (IL) based process of Natural Fiber Welding (NFW) was used to integrate chitin and chitosan into and between the fiber surfaces of cotton cloth. The NFW coating process was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy. The antimicrobial properties o...
Article
In our study, linen and bamboo yarns were fabricated via Natural Fiber Welding (NFW) into a robust, free-standing, sustainable catalyst for water treatment. First, a series of powder catalysts were created by loading monometallic palladium (Pd) and bimetallic palladium-copper (Pd-Cu) nanoparticles onto ball-milled yarn powders via incipient wetness...
Article
Surrogate fuel mixtures for a hydrodepolymerized cellulosic diesel (HDCD) fuel were formulated based on HDCD’s physical properties and chemical composition. The HDCD was found to contain alicylic, cyclic, and aromatic compounds. Surrogate mixtures composed of trans-decahydronaphthalene (trans-decalin) and 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene (tetralin) ma...
Article
The wide compositional differences between conventional and alternative fuels have resulted in much research aimed at determining which alternative fuels can be used, and in what proportions, in conventional engines. Atomic-scale modeling is uniquely positioned to lend insight to this question without extensive large-scale tests and the predictive...
Article
In this work, the physical properties of binary mixtures of bicyclohexyl and 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene (tetralin) or trans-decahydronaphthalene (trans-decalin) were measured. Densities and viscosities were measured at temperatures from 293.15 to 373.15 K, and speeds of sound were measured at temperatures from 293.15 to 343.15 K. At 303.15 K, pu...
Article
In this study, the chemical composition and physical properties of an alcohol-to-jet (ATJ) fuel were used to develop a surrogate mixture containing commercially available hydrocarbons. Analysis of the chemical composition of the ATJ showed a high quantity of two specific branched alkanes: 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethylnonane and 2,2,4,6,6-pentamethylhep...
Article
In this work, the physical properties of binary mixtures of 2,2,4,6,6-pentamethylheptane and 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethylnonane were measured and compared with those of alcohol-to-jet fuel. Density and viscosity were measured at temperatures ranging from (293.15 to 373.15) K, and speed of sound was measured at temperatures ranging from (293.15 to 343....
Article
In article number 1401286, Paul C. Trulove, Yury Gogotsi, Genevieve Dion, and co-workers report the fabrication of electrode yarns using a process called natural fiber welding. The process uses ionic liquids to embed capacitive carbon particles into the surface of cellulose yarns. The electrode yarns are then assembled into a striped knitted fabric...
Article
Full-text available
In this work, the physical properties of binary mixtures of n-heptane and 2,2,4-trimethylpentane were measured. Density and speed of sound were measured at temperatures ranging from (293.15 to 338.15) K, and viscosity was measured at temperatures ranging from (293.15 to 333.15) K. At 298.15 K, pure component values for heptane of 679.61 kg·m-3, 0.3...
Article
In this work, the physical properties of binary mixtures of n-hexadecane with toluene or ethylbenzene were measured. Density and viscosity were measured at temperatures ranging from (293.15 to 373.15) K, and the speed of sound was measured at temperatures ranging from (293.15 to 333.15) K. Density mole fraction and temperature data were fit to a fo...
Article
Natural fiber welded (NFW) yarns embedded with porous carbon ­materials are described for applications as electrodes in textile electrochemical capacitors. With this fabrication technique, many kinds of carbons can be embedded into cellulose based yarns and subsequently knitted into full ­fabrics on industrial knitting machines. Yarns welded with c...
Article
Laser assisted heating of an ionic liquid (IL), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EMIAc), coated cotton paper substrate was used to effect natural fiber welding (NFW). By using a programmable commercial CO2 laser cutter with controllable parameters such as laser power and number of passes and tight control over IL solution composition and concen...
Article
In this work, all-natural textile composites were prepared from commercially available linen yarns and chitin. An ionic liquid (IL), 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium acetate, was used to dissolve chitin, a natural biopolymer found in the exoskeletons of crustaceans and insects. Chitin was incorporated into linen yarns via IL assisted natural fiber weld...
Article
This report presents a novel ionic liquid-based method for fabricating flexible double layer supercapacitor electrodes utilizing natural substrates. It investigates the performance of these yarns knitted as fabrics and with other cellulose-based fibers welded with carbon particles. Scanning electron microscopy, mechanical properties testing, conduc...
Article
In this work, the physical properties of binary mixtures of n-dodecane with 2,2,4,6,6-pentamethylheptane or 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethylnonane were measured and compared to properties of four hydrotreated renewable jet (HRJ) and hydrotreated renewable diesel (HRD) fuels. Density and viscosity were measured at temperatures ranging from (293.15 to 393.1...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to develop electrically conductive fibres from cellulose. To achieve this, the effect of fibre extrusion speed and fibre winding speed on the degree of alignment of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), as well as the resulting electrical properties of the cellulose/MWNTs composite fibres were systematically studied. 1-Ethyl...
Article
Full-text available
Aluminum electrodeposition and electrodissolution in mixtures of AlCl3 and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride on carbon paper electrodes consisting of graphitized fibers were investigated. Porous electrodes, such as carbon paper electrodes, often offer possible advantages such as higher nominal current densities and less dendrite formation, over...
Article
Full-text available
The incorporation of renewable fuels into the current fuel infrastructure requires a greater understanding of the impact of long term storage conditions of these fuels and their blends. In certain applications, especially those pertaining to the military, there is a high likelihood of exposure to marine environments, allowing for intimate mixing of...
Article
Full-text available
A technique was developed for preparing a novel material that consists of gold nanoparticles trapped within a fiber of unfolded proteins. These fibers are made in an aqueous solution that contains HAuCl4 and the protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA). By changing the ratio of gold to BSA in solution, two different types of outcomes are observed. At lo...
Article
The physical properties of direct sugar to hydrocarbon diesel (DSH-76) and several binary mixtures of n-hexadecane and 2,2,4,6,6-pentamethylheptane were measured in this work. The density and viscosity were measured at temperatures ranging from (293.15 to 393.15) K, and the pure component values fell within the range of previously reported values....
Patent
Full-text available
The present invention describes the use of an ionic liquid acid catalyst for the hydrolysis of cellulose into reducing sugars and other degradation products. The use of an ionic liquid catalyst for the hydrolysis of cellulose provides a low volatility catalyst and eliminates the hazards associated with the handling of mineral acids. Conditions such...
Article
Batteries are one of the most impactful inventions humankind has ever developed. Lithium-ion energy cells represent a significant advance in battery technology. Electrolytes used in batteries are still not well understood in terms of solution structure. We investigate electrolyte solvate structure with the aid of differential scanning calorimetry,...
Article
The density, viscosity, and speed of sound were measured in this work for pure component branched alkanes (2-methyloctane, 4-methyloctane, 2-methylnonane, 2-methyldecane, 3-methylundecane, 2-methylpentadecane, 7-methylhexadecane, 3,6-dimethyloctane, and 3,5-dimethylheptane) commonly found in hydrotreated renewable fuels (HRFs) and for HRFs from tal...
Article
In the present study, we have successfully combined the biocompatible properties of chitin with the high electrical conductivity of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by mixing them using an imidazolium-based ionic liquid as a common solvent/dispersion medium. The resulting nanocomposites demonstrated uniform distribution of CNTs, as shown by scanning electro...
Article
Presented here are data describing the phase behavior and solvation of lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate (LiCF3SO3) in propylene carbonate (PC). Data obtained from differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Raman spectroscopy of sample mixtures are correlated to enhance understanding of solvent-salt associations. A phase diagram will display the b...
Article
The physical properties of algal hydrotreated renewal diesel (algal HRD) and several binary mixtures of n-hexadecane and 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethylnonane were measured in this work. The density and viscosity were measured at temperatures ranging from (293.15 to 393.15) K and the pure components values fell within the range of previously reported val...