Paul Stapleton

Paul Stapleton
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51
Publications
34,780
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1,466
Citations
Citations since 2017
12 Research Items
851 Citations
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2017201820192020202120222023050100150
2017201820192020202120222023050100150
2017201820192020202120222023050100150

Publications

Publications (51)
Chapter
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One definition of technology is the “practical application of knowledge, especially in a particular area.” As the title of the present collection informs, that area of focus is second language writing. When the word “technology” is used these days in relation to composing, one often associates it with computers and digital means to assist writing....
Research
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Using Google Translate to improve L2 writing
Article
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It is generally acknowledged that research engagement provides students with a space to engage in a systematic process of inquiry which can foster their critical thinking (CT); however, to what extent and how it takes place remains under-investigated. This paper reports a practitioner research (PR) which explores the CT development of a group of Ba...
Article
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Although the importance of critical thinking (CT) has been stressed in English language education, little attention has been paid to language teachers' perceptions and experiences regarding CT during the pre-service stage of their careers. Drawing on data from a focus group and follow-up email interviews with pre-service language teachers, this stu...
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Theory of mind, the capacity to imagine the thoughts of others, is a remarkable human ability, and this gift is essential for students to acknowledge alternative views when writing argumentative essays. However, evidence shows that this gift often goes unapplied by students at all levels. Numerous studies have revealed that students frequently fail...
Article
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A class of primary students wrote a composition in English; a week later, they wrote on the same topic in Chinese. We then digitized all the students’ scripts and used Google Translate to convert the Chinese scripts into English. In the final step, we put the two sets of scripts together, randomly interspersed them, and asked English teachers from...
Article
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The content of research methods courses in tertiary education, as revealed by popular textbooks, tends to largely focus on procedural aspects of research investigations. Although following proper procedures is essential for reaching valid and reliable outcomes, there is another attribute of good quality research that is often missing from research...
Article
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The content of research methods courses in tertiary education, as revealed by popular textbooks, tends to focus largely on procedural aspects of research investigations. Although following proper procedures is essential for reaching valid and reliable outcomes, there is another attribute of good quality research that is often missing from research...
Article
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This exploratory study investigated the effects of prompts on students’ writing performance and critical thinking. Two groups of Chinese undergraduates (n = 129) responded to two distinct prompts with differing rhetorical functions and objects of enquiry. The comparison group responded to a conventional prompt modelled after prompts in high-stakes...
Article
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Since 1997, Language Teaching Research (LTR) has published hundreds of research articles, most of which have reported on empirical studies whose broad purpose was to increase understanding on how second or foreign language teaching can be improved. These articles, as a collective whole, can be viewed as an artifact of the research issues and topics...
Article
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This article reports on a survey of 241 Master of Arts programs in TESOL (MATESOL) in 16 countries serving as a snapshot of second language teacher education in 2014. After an initial screening by a set of criteria, these programs were first identified, and their course offerings, among other criteria, such as entrance and capstone requirements, we...
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The language-related challenges affecting international university students' adaptation to a new host environment have been extensively explored in English-speaking countries. However, few studies have been performed in non English-speaking countries or regions, and even fewer have investigated these challenges from the perspective of learner auton...
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A considerable amount of research has been performed on the English writing of native Cantonese speaking students from mainstream school settings in Hong Kong. However, there have been few studies on the English writing of their deaf counterparts. The present exploratory study investigates the English writing of deaf learners who use Hong Kong Sign...
Article
This paper highlights a series of measures deemphasizing English in high-stakes tests that recently have been, or shortly will be implemented in various parts of mainland China. It is contended here that these measures may be leading towards the marginalization of English via negative washback into secondary-school classrooms and students' self-lea...
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Transitioning from school to university is a major development for learners, often accompanied by difficulties. When overseas students arrive at university for the first time these challenges are multiplied. It is suggested, however, that these difficulties can be mitigated to a certain extent via the use of online social networks. The present stud...
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The writing prompts in high-stakes tests have become an issue of concern due to their possible effect on test takers’ writing performance and potential washback on writing pedagogy. In the present study, the prompts (n = 120) from three of these tests, TOEFL, IELTS and TEM4 (a language test in China), were investigated for two elements – their spec...
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Although research in the field of language teaching and learning has appeared to enhance classroom pedagogy, I argue here that these advances have had a relatively small impact on actual foreign language learning. Unlike in most school subjects, the recipients of language pedagogy, i.e. the students, arrive in the classroom with several predetermin...
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It is generally acknowledged that counterargumentation is a key factor contributing to the persuasiveness of argumentative essays; however, recent research has revealed that students tend to neglect alternative viewpoints when responding to argumentative writing prompts. This study examines how the washback effect of a high-stakes test is associate...
Article
Submissions to conferences can provide rich material for analysing characteristics and trends within a conference’s history and that of similar conferences, as well as the associated field at large. The present study uses data gathered over 30 years from a language teachers’ conference in Japan (JALT National) to expound upon patterns related to (1...
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The use of anti-plagiarism services has grown very quickly in recent years to the point where over half of American universities now have a license. The most popular of these services, Turnitin, claims that it is licensed in 126 countries and available in 10 languages suggesting that the service is becoming widely used around the world. In order to...
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The current shift from a pen-and-paper environment to a digital one in which multiple electronic tools and resources assist the writer in both generating ideas and transforming them into words and sentences may represent a significant transition in the way we compose. Such a shift has implications for the cognitive processes used by student authors...
Article
The current model of public broadcasting advocates includes content for marginalised and minority communities. This paper discussing the role of public radio focuses on the relationship between an English language channel (RTHK Radio 3) and the South Asian community in Hong Kong. The paper identifies South Asians, as well as Caucasians, who use Eng...
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Following 20 years teaching at a Japanese university, I found myself working at an overseas institution where the level of academic rigor, and staff and student assessment are remarkably higher, and the decision-making significantly more efficient. By contrasting my former Japanese university with the institution where I am presently employed, I co...
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Theories on community participation in ecotourism development advocate obtaining maximum levels of both community control and benefit to achieve sustainable tourism. This paper explores issues in community-based ecotourism development in a small, remote community in western Mongolia. It assesses the community's desire to develop ecotourism, their u...
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Studies on second language (L2) learners writing in English have found that composing is a recursive process requiring planning, formulating and revising. Of particular note among the many studies that have explored the composing processes of L2 writers are two characteristics: 1) They examine the composing processes of writers in real-time while t...
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With the JALT Journal having entered its fourth decade, this retrospective of the first 30 volumes surveys some aspects of papers published in the journal, including characteristics regarding research methodology, research focus, and pedagogical level, as well as several other factors. Results of the review of 297 articles revealed that the publica...
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The role of culture in TEFL has received considerable attention in the past twenty years. While few researchers doubt its importance, how, and to what extent culture should be part of the TEFL curriculum remains unresolved. The present study investigates native English speaking teachers' views on the role of culture in TEFL. Twenty-eight university...
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This study argues that L2 writing pedagogy needs to give more recognition to the impact emerging from new technological tools and online resources. While shifts in approaches from product to process to genre are well documented in the literature, little research has appreciated the collective influence generated by advances in technology. It is sug...
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Recent research has remarked upon the widespread use of Internet sources by undergraduate students in support of their written ideas. Results of this research indicate there is a tendency for some students to cite sources whose content meets their expedient needs, while ignoring standards of rigor typically required for academic citation. Despite t...
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In a recent article in ESP, Matsuda and Tardy (2007) investigate the role of voice in academic writing via a simulated blind manuscript review process. Based on their findings, they claim that voice does play a role in such writing, and call for further research into the issue of the reader’s construction of authorial identity. Matsuda and Tardy’s...
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The Web has become a vast and appealing source of information for undergraduate students writing academic papers. While some online resources are comparable in quality to the materials housed in a library, newly accessible, Web-specific genres, such as interest groups, often undermine traditional expectations of scholarly authority, rigor, and obje...
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While the use of a search engine to find secondary sources is now a commonplace practice among undergraduate writers, recent studies show that students' online searches often lead to materials that are wholly or partially unsuitable for academic purposes. Accordingly, this project set out to determine whether using a more specialized search engine,...
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Insights from corpus linguistics have come to be seen as having a significant impact in second language pedagogy. Learner corpora, or collections of texts spoken or written by non-native speakers (NNS) of a language, are now being used for the purposes of enhancing language teaching. Specifically, by comparing the corpus of NNS with native speakers...
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The steady increase in the use of Web sites as sources in undergraduate research-based papers has raised concerns about the suitability of these reference materials for citation and about the ability of undergraduates to distinguish between appropriate and inappropriate sources in academic writing. While informal means of evaluating Web sites are i...
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This paper introduces the Website Acceptability Tiered Checklist (WATCH), a preliminary version of a multi-trait scale that could be used by instructors and students to assess the quality of websites chosen as source materials in students’ research papers in a Humanities program. The scale includes bands for assessing: (i) the authority and reputat...
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Commonplace images from abroad of Japanese people and language hold that the Japanese are highly ritualized, harmony-seeking, and somewhat humorless. While the ritualized nature of Japanese communication is hardly contentious, and few would argue about the importance of harmony, this study attempts to describe and analyze a particular aspect of Jap...
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This study examined 68 Web sources selected by 19 second-language (L2) students while preparing to write research papers. Students submitted an annotated bibliography consisting of ten sources from print or electronic media. Each Web source was classified according to type (e.g., news or advocacy). Of the 68 sites, 29 were considered conventional,...
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Steven Ross's (2005) recent paper empirically measuring the efficacy of formative assessment compared to the summative variety found that the former produced positive effects on some aspects of language learning. In this critique, it is contended that Ross's study is flawed because his two groups of learners, one receiving summative assessment and...
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As scholars increasingly view the World Wide Web (the Web) as a legitimate research resource in academic writing, questions remain regarding how Web sources, as new media, influence the writing of second and foreign language (L2) learners. Via a 17-item questionnaire and an analysis of the references to 243 Web sources in the essays of 43 Japanese...
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Using the World Wide Web (hereinafter the ‘Web’) has become an increasingly viable way to source information in academic writing. However, the Web is a fundamentally different type of resource from conventional sources such as books and journals. This paper argues that there is a need among learners for a heightened critical awareness of web-source...
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In recent years, the Internet, or more specifically, the World Wide Web, has become an important source for research information retrieval. However, the WWW, which allows anyone with computer access to upload a web page for public viewing, has a fundamentally different nature than traditional research sources such as a library whose contents receiv...
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This paper contends that the L2 literature yields little empirical evidence of a relationship between the features associated with L1 voice and the quality of L2 academic writing. In fact, some of these features may be of little consequence in certain L2 writing contexts. Writing samples requiring learners to argue in favor of or against an aspect...
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The issue of voice, authorial identity, or authorial presence in L2 writing has recently received considerable attention from second language researchers. Much of this research has concluded that voice is an integral part of writing and that it should, therefore, become an essential component of second language writing pedagogy. With a particular f...
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The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
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L2 writing scholars have recently debated the appropriateness of using cultural constructs to enhance the teaching of English. An important aspect of writing, critical thinking, has received considerable attention. Some have suggested that Asians, including Japanese, do not display critical thought in their writing in English. Other researchers cla...

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