Paul Sorum

Paul Sorum
Albany Medical College | AMC · Department of Medicine

About

144
Publications
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Introduction
Skills and Expertise

Publications

Publications (144)
Article
Background In Romania, the passage from a culture in which healthcare were freely available to a culture in which people must contribute financially, at least in part, has generated controversies among the population. We examined and mapped the views of people living in Romania regarding social security's health insurance programs. Methods A conve...
Article
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Purpose We examined the way people assess hospitalized patients’ quality of life from what they immediately observe when entering the patient’s room, from what they learn by conversing with the patient, and from what they know about the patient’s social life. Methods A sample of 474 adults (among them 7 physicians, 57 nurses, and 42 nurse’s aides)...
Article
The views on the acceptability of physician-assisted suicide of lay people in a Latin American country, Colombia, have been examined. In July 2019–January 2020, 134 lay people in Bogota judged the acceptability of physician-assisted suicide in 48 realistic scenarios composed of all combinations of four factors: (a) the patient's age, (b) the level...
Article
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The study examined French people’s positions regarding the right to parenthood of same-sex couples and singles. A convenience sample of 256 participants aged 18–82 were presented with 24 realistic stories that were composed according to a two-factor within-subject design: (a) relational contexts (married or non-married heterosexual couples, married...
Article
The objective of this study was to carry out a detailed mapping of the different personal positions of French nurses concerning the practice of hypnotherapy. Factorial design was used to assess the impact of 4 situational factors: type of postoperative care and degree of pain associated with it (chemotherapy, wound cleansing and bandaging, or body...
Article
Background: French laypeople's views on xenotransplantation were examined. Methods: A convenience sample of 224 adults (among them, 37 nurses) judged of the acceptability of xenotransplantation in 50 realistic scenarios composed of various combinations of 4 factors: 1. the type of graft (eg, pig cardiac valve), 2. the level of urgency (eg, criti...
Chapter
Pain is common in cancer patients, but continues to be poorly controlled. It is important, therefore, to understand why. Survey-based studies, performed in a wide variety of countries around the world, have found multiple barriers to adequate treatment of cancer pain, but have highlighted the inadequate knowledge of many clinicians of how to treat...
Article
Objectives To examine the views of non-clinical health care workers (NCHW) and lay people in Guinea on NCHWs’ moral obligation to work during epidemics. Methods NCHWs ( N = 227) and lay people ( N = 253) were presented with theoretical vignettes of NCHWs who refused to work during a virulent epidemic and invited to rate the extent to which such de...
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During the 2014–2016 Ebola epidemic in West Africa, some communities reacted hostilely to the implementation of quarantine measures. This study's aim was to examine the views of lay people in Guinea on the acceptability of community quarantine. From June to August 2016, 302 adults indicated the acceptability of quarantine in 36 scenarios varying as...
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Background Inappropriate use of antibiotics is a worldwide issue. In order to help public health institutions and each particular physician to change patterns of consumption among patients, it is important to understand better the reasons why people accept to take or refuse to take the antibiotic drugs. This study explored the motives people give f...
Article
Background: Romanian laypeople's and health professionals' views on living organ donation were examined. Methods: From July 2015 to May 2016, 263 adults (among them 31 physicians and 20 nurses) judged the acceptability of living organ donation in 42 realistic scenarios composed of varying levels of 6 factors: 1. type of organ, 2. whether it coul...
Conference Paper
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Within-subject designs (WSDs) remain unappreciated in psychology although many experimental tactics can reduce or eliminate the demand and order effects that WSDs tend to create. Comparative studies conducted in the Information Integration Theory (IIT) framework have shown that patterns of results observed using WSDs can largely be replicated using...
Article
Background French laypeople's views on living organ donation (LOD) were examined. Methods From 2010 to 2014, 327 adults (including 21 nurses) judged the acceptability of LOD in 60 realistic scenarios composed of all combinations of 5 factors: 1. type of organ; 2. whether it could have been obtained from a cadaver; 3. donor-recipient relationship;...
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This study examined the views of parents living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and healthcare providers in Togo, on the appropriateness of HIV-infected fathers disclosing their serostatus to their sons. In early 2016, 177 PLWHA (95 mothers and 82 fathers) and 123 healthcare providers (20 physicians, 24 nurses, 41 nurse’s aides, 13 health counsellors, and 25...
Article
The views of laypeople and professionals (nurses, occupational therapists, psychologists, and physicians) on the capacity to make informed decisions of elderly people with depression or dementia were examined. Participants were presented with vignettes created by varying the levels of three factors: (a) the type of decision (e.g., agreeing to surge...
Article
Aim To examine the views of Guinean lay people and healthcare providers (HCPs) regarding the acceptability of HCPs’ refusal to provide care to Ebola patients. Method From October to December 2015, lay people (n=252) and HCPs (n=220) in Conakry, Guinea, were presented with 54 sample case scenarios depicting a HCP who refuses to provide care to Ebol...
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Full-text available
Background: Cancer patients suffer in part because some health professionals prescribe or administer amounts of analgesics, namely opioids, which are too small or too widely spaced to be fully effective. Patients' reluctance to use opioids for pain treatment is often mentioned as a reason not to apply the official guidelines, but very few studies...
Article
Aim: We explored the positions of nurses working in hospitals regarding the acceptability of refusing to give a repeat dose of painkiller to a postoperative patient who requested it. These positions were compared with that of lay people, physicians, and other health professionals. Design and methods: Factorial design was used to assess the impac...
Article
Knowing the way children and adolescents assess the risk of disease transmission is important because this kind of knowledge may allow health caregivers to better communicate with them. We had 587 students in Spain and France aged 7–16 judge the risk of disease transmission in 28 scenarios of students visiting a sick friend. The scenarios were comp...
Article
We present, in a synthetic way, some of the main findings from ten studies that were conducted in the field of ethics in politics, using the Functional Measurement framework. These studies were about (a) Angolan and Mozambican people's views about the legitimacy of military-humanitarian interventions, (b) French people's perspectives regarding the...
Article
French positions regarding nonhuman animal experimentation were examined. A total of 163 participants were presented with 72 vignettes depicting an experimental protocol. They were composed according to a five-factor design: (a) the fate of the animal (e.g., was sacrificed for the purpose of further analyses), (b) environment in which the animal wa...
Article
The aims of the present study were to map French laypersons’ views regarding the acceptability of maternal surrogacy and to delineate the circumstances under which surrogacy is considered, by different groups of people, as especially problematic. Participants (N = 236) were presented with a number of scenarios depicting the circumstances in which a...
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To characterize the perception of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in Guinea, we administered, from November 2014 to February 2015, a questionnaire to a convenience sample of 200 lay people in Conakry and a group of 8 physicians. We found widespread misconceptions among lay people, including that praying to God can protect against EVD, that traditional he...
Article
Objective: to find out what is the range of French lay people’s positions concerning assisted reproductive technology. Background: Legislation and religious positions regarding assisted reproductive technology (ART) vary considerably from one country to another and from one religious tradition to another. The few studies of people’s opinions, mostl...
Article
In anticipation of a future HIV vaccine, we mapped the different personal positions regarding HIV vaccination of people in Togo. In early 2014, 363 adults indicated their willingness to receive a future HIV vaccine under different conditions varying as a function of five factors: perceived susceptibility to HIV, vaccine effectiveness, perceived sev...
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Whether physicians or other caregivers should intervene to end terminally-ill patients’ lives has always been controversial. In euthanasia, physicians intervene directly and purposely to end pa-tients’ lives whereas in physician-assisted suicide (PAS) physicians provide patients with the means to end their lives by themselves. Studies examining the...
Article
Objective To map the acceptability to parents in Togo of infant vaccination against malaria. Methods From July to October 2014, a study of 209 parents of infants in Togo was conducted to assess their willingness to have their infants vaccinated against malaria. Participants were exposed to 48 vignettes, designed using the main constructs of health...
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Parents frequently bring their children to general or pediatric emergency departments (EDs), even though many of these visits are judged by others to be “nonurgent” and inappropriate. This study examined the motives behind parents’ decisions to take their children to a pediatric emergency department (PED). At a PED in Toulouse, France, 497 parents...
Article
The objective of this study was to map people's positions regarding the breaking of bad news to patients. One hundred forty adults who had in the past received bad medical news or whose elderly relatives had in the past received bad news, 25 nurses, and 28 nurse's aides indicated the acceptability of physicians' conduct in 72 vignettes of giving ba...
Article
This study examined the extent to which people think that the government is directly implicated each time an addictive substance user’s health deteriorates. Eighty stories were composed according to a five within-subject orthogonal design: (a) scientific evidence available, (b) time since first concerns with substance dangerousness, (c) personal su...
Article
What to tell children when their mother's life is seriously endangered is a largely unstudied issue. We had 255 lay persons in France judge the appropriateness of the parents' behaviour in 48 scenarios of parents dealing with this problem. The scenarios comprised according to a four within-subject orthogonal design: child's age (4, 6, 8 or 10 years...
Article
The aim of this study was to map Togolese people's positions regarding the breaking of bad news to elderly patients. Two hundred eleven participants who had in the past received bad medical news were presented with 72 vignettes depicting communication of bad news to elderly female patients and asked to indicate the acceptability of the physician's...
Article
We made an inventory of the reasons for inhabitants of Benin to be reluctant to undergo the amputation of a limb. A robust six-factor structure of motives was found: Change in Appearance, Lack of Information, Fear of Hospitals and Medical Staff, Loss of Others' Consideration and Affection, Denial of Necessity, and Spiritual and Religious Concerns....
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We examined the views of lay people and health professionals in France about involuntary treatment of residents in nursing homes. Participants (101 lay people, 20 nurses, 20 psychologists, and 10 physicians) were presented with a series of stories created by varying the levels of five factors: type of behavioral problem encountered (e.g., night-wan...
Article
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a genetic disease resulting from the inheritance from both parents of a mutant hemoglobin gene. Its occurrence can, at best, be prevented, and its daily life consequences can, at least, be limited. As the mutant gene is recessive, it should be useful for people living in countries where SCD is endemic to know their own...
Article
Background Are people's views on abortion as polarised as is suggested by the 'marches for life' that regularly take place in Paris and other capitals? Objective To map French people's positions regarding the acceptability of induced abortion. Methods One hundred and fifty-nine participants were presented with stories composed according to a three...
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The views of Chilean and French adults concerning breaking confidentiality about illicit drug consumption were examined and compared. Twelve Chilean psychologists, 143 Chilean adults, and 100 French adults were presented with a series of 64 vignettes of a psychologist told by her young client that he is using illicit drugs. They were composed accor...
Article
The impact of current legislation on French people's views regarding the perceived acceptability of physician-assisted suicide (PAS) was assessed. A total of 221 lay people and 101 health professionals judged the acceptability of PAS in 24 scenarios composed of all combinations of four factors: the patient's country of residence (the Netherlands or...
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The views of French, Portuguese, and Spanish people on end-of-life decisions were compared. Two hundred seventy-seven adults from Barcelona, Oporto, and Toulouse judged the acceptability of life-ending procedures in 42 scenarios composed of all combinations of 3 factors: the patient's age (30 or 80 years), the patient's life expectancy (days, weeks...
Article
Although the number of blood donors has been rapidly increasing in Togo since 2003, it is nevertheless insufficient to cover the demand. To increase needed blood donation in Togo, it is necessary to understand why most people are reluctant to do it. A sample of 400 adult volunteers in Lomé, mostly university educated, rated, on a scale of 0-10, the...
Article
In France, physician-assisted suicide is illegal. It is not known, however, to what extent and under what circumstances French lay people and health professionals think that physicians who provide patients with the means to end their lives should be punished. Ninety-four participants, using a continuous 'level of punishment' scale, judged the exten...
Article
The views of minors and adults concerning breaking confidentiality about illicit drug consumption were examined and compared. Ninety-seven adolescents aged 15–16 (minors), 76 adolescents aged 17–18 (quasi-adults), and 88 adults aged 19–75 were presented with a series of 64 vignettes of a psychologist told by her young male client that he is using i...
Article
French people’s positions regarding actual and potential drug policies were examined. Adults (N = 225) aged 18–81 were presented with 28 vignettes that were composed according to a three within-subject orthogonal factor design: (a) demand for drugs in the country, (b) information campaigns regarding their dangerousness, and (c) current state policy...
Article
To study the views on the acceptability of physician-assisted-suicide (PAS) of lay people and health professionals in an African country, Togo. In February-June 2012, 312 lay people and 198 health professionals (75 physicians, 60 nurses and 63 health counsellors) in Togo judged the acceptability of PAS in 36 concrete scenarios composed of all combi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The views of young Turkish people on the acceptability of physician- assisted suicide (PAS) in the case of patients suffering from intractable pain or in a state of complete dependence were examined. Ninety-nine participants aged 18-25 were presented with scenarios depicting different situations in which a patient, who suffered from an illness that...
Article
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Aim: To explore the views in non-Western cultures about ending the lives of damaged newborns. Method: 254 university students from India and 150 from Kuwait rated the acceptability of ending the lives of newborns with genetic defects in 54 vignettes consisting of all combinations of four factors: gestational age (term or 7 months); severity of g...
Article
The study examined how nurses, student nurses, and nurse's aides judge patients' level of pain from five indicators: facial grimacing , maintenance of abnormal body position, restriction of movement, complaints about pain, and signs of possible depression. In Toulouse, France, 214 participants were presented with 48 vignettes describing an elderly...
Data
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Aim To explore the views in non-Western cultures about ending the lives of damaged newborns. Method 254 university students from India and 150 from Kuwait rated the acceptability of ending the lives of newborns with genetic defects in 54 vignettes consisting of all combinations of four factors: gestational age (term or 7 months); severity of geneti...
Chapter
We examined how people combine the components of a medical message-the likelihood of an adverse event or disease, the time horizon associated with this likelihood, and the patient's personal time frame-in estimating their health risk. When the response scale provided to participants was a verbal one (expressed in terms of "chances"), each of these...
Article
Background Bad health news is difficult to communicate, especially when parents must give bad news to their children. Methods We had 170 lay persons, 33 nurses and six physicians in Toulouse, France, judge the appropriateness of the parents' behaviour in 64 scenarios of parents dealing with this problem. The scenarios were composed according to a f...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of people's ideas in Benin about the common affliction of sickle cell disease (SCD). A questionnaire asking for the degree of agreement with 111 statements about SCD was given in 2011 to 6 physicians (the gold standard) and 178 lay people living in Cotonou, Benin. A misconception was defined as a...
Article
Full-text available
The acceptability by people in India of physician-assisted suicide was examined. Two hundred ninety-three Indian university students judged acceptability of PAS in 36 scenarios composed of all combinations of four factors: (a) the patient's age, (b) the level of incurability of the illness, (c) the type of suffering, and (d) the extent to which the...
Article
The way Cambodian patients and health professionals judge the priority of HIV-infected patients in relation to the allocation of antiretroviral drugs was examined. Participants were either HIV-infected patients attending the HIV/AIDS Care and Support Centre for People Living with HIV/AIDS in Phnom Penh (29 females and 21 males) or members of the st...
Article
The aim was to examine the factors involved in people's willingness to make a living organ donation. A convenience sample of 200 people in southern France rated willingness to be a living donor in 48 scenarios consisting of all combinations of five factors: recipient's identity (close family member and city resident); donor's surgical risk (little...
Article
The acceptability by people in India of physician-assisted suicide was examined. Two hundred ninety-three Indian university students judged acceptability of PAS in 36 scenarios composed of all combinations of four factors: (a) the patient's age, (b) the level of incurability of the illness, (c) the type of suffering, and (d) the extent to which the...
Article
We present, in a synthetic way, some of the main findings from five studies that were conducted in the field of empirical bioethics, using the Functional Measurement framework. These studies were about (a) the rationing of rare treatments, (b) adolescents' abortions, (c) end-of-life decision-making regarding damaged neonates, (d) end-of-life decisi...
Article
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To understand how lay people and health professionals in France judge the acceptability of hospitalizing a psychiatric patient against his will. 123 lay people, 20 nurses, 5 psychologists, and 6 physicians judged the acceptability of involuntary hospitalization in each of 36 scenarios consisting of all combination of 4 factors: patient's adherence...
Article
The objective of this study was to ascertain how patients judge the acceptability of physicians' communication of bad news. Two hundred forty-five adults, who had in the past received bad medical news, indicated the acceptability of physicians' conduct in 48 vignettes of giving bad news to patients. Vignettes were all combinations of five factors:...
Article
Full-text available
To examine the conditions under which lay people and health professionals living in Chile and France find it acceptable for a physician to break confidentiality to protect the spouse of a patient with a sexually transmitted disease (STD), 207 lay persons and healthcare professionals indicated the acceptability of breaking confidentiality in 48 scen...
Article
To study the views of people in a largely Muslim country, Kuwait, of the acceptability of a life-ending action such as physician-assisted suicide (PAS). 330 Kuwaiti university students judged the acceptability of PAS in 36 scenarios composed of all combinations of four factors: the patient's age (35, 60 or 85 years); the level of incurability of th...
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Full-text available
Euthanasia is performed on occasion, even on newborns, but is highly controversial, and it is prohibited by law and condemned by medical ethics in most countries. To characterise and compare the judgments of lay persons, nurses, and physicians of the acceptability of actively ending the life of a damaged newborn. Convenience samples of 237 lay pers...
Article
Full-text available
To evaluate a pharmacy student service focused on patient coronary heart disease (CHD) risk assessment. Fourth-year pharmacy students offered a CHD risk assessment service at 5 physicians' offices as part of ambulatory care advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE). Patient acceptance of the service was assessed using a satisfaction survey instr...
Conference Paper
Using Functional Measurement (Anderson, 2008), Frileux, Lelièvre, Muñoz Sastre, Mullet, and Sorum (2003) examined the joint impact of several key factors on lay people´s judgments of the acceptability of physicians´ interventions to end patients´ lives. The level of acceptability was high, and the information integration rule that best described th...
Article
Lay persons' judgements of the acceptability of the not uncommon practice of ending the life of a damaged neonate have not been studied. A convenience sample of 1635 lay people in France rated how acceptable it would be for a physician to end a neonate's life-by withholding care, withdrawing care, or active euthanasia-in 54 scenarios in which the n...