Paul J Silvia

Paul J Silvia
University of North Carolina at Greensboro | UNCG · Department of Psychology

PhD

About

360
Publications
451,348
Reads
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20,686
Citations
Introduction
Hello, I basically NEVER log in or check ResearchGate. Please send me an e-mail to my work e-mail address (p_silvia AT uncg DOT edu) if you have questions or would like a copy of an article. Remember: less Facebook, Twitter, and ResearchGate, more working on our articles. :)
Additional affiliations
August 2002 - present
August 1996 - August 2001
University of Kansas

Publications

Publications (360)
Article
Full-text available
Experience-sampling research involves trade-offs between the number of questions asked per signal, the number of signals per day, and the number of days. By combining planned missing-data designs and multilevel latent variable modeling, we show how to reduce the items per signal without reducing the number of items. After illustrating different des...
Article
Full-text available
Divergent thinking is central to the study of individual differences in creativity, but the traditional scoring systems (assigning points for infrequent responses and summing the points) face well-known problems. After critically reviewing past scoring methods, this article describes a new approach to assessing divergent thinking and appraises its...
Article
Full-text available
Relative to other emotions, interest is poorly understood. On the basis of theories of appraisal process and structure, it was predicted that interest consists of appraisals of novelty (factors related to unfamiliarity and complexity) and appraisals of coping potential (the ability to understand the new, complex thing). Four experiments, using in v...
Preprint
Personality and individual differences play a role in art-viewing experiences but can be difficult to study in gallery and museum environments. The present study explored how personality is reflected in encounters with art using a virtual art gallery tool that allows participants to visit researcher-designed art galleries. An online sample of n = 2...
Article
Full-text available
Ambivalence has a prominent role in the historical formulations of schizotypy and schizophrenia, as well as borderline personality disorder. However, it has been overlooked by our current diagnostic nomenclature. The Schizotypal Ambivalence Scale (SAS) is a 19-item self-report scale developed to examine ambivalence relevant to schizotypy and schizo...
Preprint
Full-text available
Throughout history, visual art has helped people feel connected to each other, experience a deep sense of belonging to their communities, and enhance their own well-being. In recent years, many museums have increased their digital presence to engage with the public in new ways, including curating unique virtual experiences. The present research exa...
Article
Full-text available
Most research on factors related to physical child abuse risk rely heavily on direct self-report measures, which is a methodological strategy susceptible to participant response distortions. Such methodological reliance obfuscates the interpretations rendered about the risk factors predictive of child abuse. Efforts to develop alternative indirect...
Article
To expand the tools available to arts researchers in psychology, we present the Open Gallery for Arts Research (OGAR), a free, open-source tool for studying visitor behavior within an online gallery environment. OGAR is highly extensible, allowing researchers to modify the environment to test different hypotheses, and it affords assessing a wide ra...
Article
Full-text available
Research has documented a variety of factors—including stress, attributions, and anger—that may increase parents’ risk for child maltreatment, but most of this research is based on low-risk, community samples of parents’ perceptions about themselves and their children. Moreover, par-ents are usually asked to provide self-reports wherein they summar...
Article
Full-text available
The 20-item Self-reflection and Insight Scale (SRIS) is a widely used measure of individual differences in self-focused attention and private self-consciousness. In the present research, we examined the validity of a 12-item short form of the SRIS, which was recently developed based on item response theory models. Measures related to mental health...
Preprint
Full-text available
Studies of everyday creativity suggest that some people are like creative omnivores, dabbling in a broad range of creative pursuits, but others are like picky eaters, focusing on a single creative passion. A week-long experience sampling study examined the breadth vs depth of 125 university students’ everyday creative activities. Several times a da...
Article
Background The affective states most strongly associated with nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) remain poorly understood, particularly among veterans. This study used ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to examine relationships between affect ratings and NSSI urges and behaviors among veterans with NSSI disorder. Methods Participants (N = 40) compl...
Article
Although humor is a universal feature of human communication, people vary widely in how they create and use humor. Guided by a broader model of creative self-beliefs, we developed the Humor Efficacy and Identity Short Scales (HEISS), a pair of 4-item scales measuring humor self-efficacy (“I can” beliefs reflecting confidence about one's ability to...
Article
Full-text available
Myths about creativity keep contributing to its mysterious aura despite our increasing scientific understanding of this complex phenomenon. This study examined the prevalence of known creativity myths across six countries from diverse cultural backgrounds and explored why some people believe in them more than others. Results revealed persistent, wi...
Article
Self-report scales are popular tools for measuring anhedonic experiences and motivational deficits, but how well do they reflect clinically significant anhedonia? Seventy-eight adults participated in face-to-face structured diagnostic interviews: 22 showed clinically significant anhedonia, and 18 met criteria for depression. Analyses of effect size...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Covid-19 pandemic contributed to enormous strain on parents’ abilities to parent their children, which could contribute to an elevated risk for maltreatment. Linked to the economic burden ushered in by the pandemic, strained parents may engage in harsh parenting that could increase the likelihood of child maltreatment. The current study examine...
Article
Full-text available
Mental control of musical imagery consists of two components: initiation—did you start it on purpose?—and management—did you alter, sustain, or end the experience after it began? The present research examined these two components of mental control using both behavioral lab-based musical imagery tasks and self-reports of mental control in daily life...
Preprint
Mind wandering assessment relies heavily on the thought probe technique as a reliable and valid method to assess momentary task-unrelated thought (TUT), but there is little guidance available to help researchers decide how many probes to include within a task. Too few probes may lead to unreliable measurement, but too many probes might artificially...
Article
Given the scope and adverse clinical consequences of child abuse, assessment of salient etiological factors can lend critical insights needed for abuse prevention. Increasingly, dual-processing models have been applied to aggression, which postulate that parallel automatic and conscious processes can evoke aggressive behavior, implicating both affe...
Preprint
The 20-item Self-reflection and Insight Scale (SRIS) is a widely used measure of individual differences in self-focused attention and private self-consciousness. In the present research, we examined the validity of a 12-item short form of the SRIS, which was recently developed based on item response theory models. Measures related to mental health...
Preprint
Self-report scales are popular tools for measuring anhedonic experiences and motivational deficits, but how well do they reflect clinically significant anhedonia? Seventy-eight adults participated in face-to-face structured diagnostic interviews: 22 showed clinically significant anhedonia, and 18 met criteria for depression. Analyses of effect size...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated what academic traits, attitudes, and habits predict individual differences in task-unrelated thought (TUT) during lectures, and whether this TUT propensity mediates associations between academic individual differences and course outcomes (final grade and situational interest evoked by material). Undergraduates (N = 851) from...
Article
Full-text available
The psychology of art and aesthetics has a long-standing interest in how low-level features, such as symmetry, curvature, and color, affect people’s aesthetic experience. Recent research in this tradition suggests that people find glossy, shiny objects and materials more attractive than flat, matte ones. The present experiment sought to replicate a...
Article
Full-text available
Research on effort and motivation commonly assesses how the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system affects the cardiovascular system. The cardiac pre-ejection period (PEP), assessed via impedance cardiography, is a common outcome, but assessing PEP requires identifying subtle points on cardiac waveforms. The present research examined th...
Article
Background : Expanding on research that has identified nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) as a strong predictor of suicide risk, the present study examined NSSI disorder (NSSID) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) as unique contributors to lifetime suicide attempts. To our knowledge, the present study represents the first exploration of these ass...
Article
In seven studies (n = 1,133), adults tried to create funny ideas and then rated the funniness of their responses, which were also independently rated by judges. In contrast to the common “funnier than average” effect found for global self-ratings, people were relatively modest and self-critical about their specific ideas. Extraversion (r = .12 [.07...
Article
Full-text available
People visit museums with differing motivations. We use Falk’s visitor identity model to examine visitors’ motivation to visit an art museum. We assess (1) the prevalence of different motivation types; (2) how visit motivations and outcomes relate to visit satisfaction and length; and (3) the relation between visit motivations and fulfillment of ex...
Article
Full-text available
The Aesthetic Fluency Scale is a commonly used measure of people’s art knowledge. This scale was initially developed for museum visitors, but its usage has expanded to other populations, including non-arts students. The present research used an Item Response Theory approach to better understand the scale’s functioning in two samples—artistically en...
Article
Right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) has well-known links with humor appreciation, such as enjoying jokes that target deviant groups, but less is known about RWA and creative humor production—coming up with funny ideas oneself. A sample of 186 young adults completed a measure of RWA, the HEXACO-100, and 3 humor production tasks that involved writing f...
Article
Full-text available
Research on everyday creativity—the “little c” creative activities people do in their everyday lives—commonly uses self-report scales to assess people’s engagement in different activities. The present research presents a detailed psychometric analysis of the Biographical Inventory of Creative Behaviors (BICB), a 34-item yes/no checklist of common c...
Article
Full-text available
The human ability for self-consciousness—the capacity to reflect on oneself and to think about one’s thoughts, experiences, and actions—is central to understanding personality and motivation. The present research examined the psychometric properties of the Self-reflection and Insight Scale (SRIS), a prominent self-report scale for measuring individ...
Article
Full-text available
The present research examined the varieties of poor metaphors to gain insight into complex cognitive processes involved in generating creative ones. Drawing upon two prior studies as well as a new sample, adults’ open-ended responses to different metaphor prompts were categorized. Poor metaphors fell into two broad clusters. Non-metaphors—responses...
Article
Full-text available
Increasing research efforts are focused on explaining the cognitive bases of creativity. However, it remains unclear when and how cognitive factors such as intelligence and executive function uniquely contribute to performance on creative thinking tasks. Although a relationship between fluid intelligence (Gf) and creative cognition has been well-do...
Article
Generating creative ideas involves flexibly combining concepts stored in memory. Although memory provides a foundation for creative thought, existing associations can also constrain idea generation by acting as a source of interference, particularly when salient and unoriginal information becomes activated. Overcoming fixating effects of salient as...
Article
In the large literature on creativity and mental illness, relatively few studies have explored anhedonia—impairments in anticipating, seeking, and experiencing rewards. This project explored self‐reported creativity in a sample of adults who differed in depressive anhedonia, determined via face‐to‐face structured clinical interviews. Participants c...
Preprint
Full-text available
Mental control of musical imagery consists of two components: initiation—did you start it on purpose?—and management—did you alter, sustain, or end the experience after it began?. The present research examined these two components of mental control using both behavioral lab-based musical imagery tasks and self-reports of mental control in daily lif...
Article
Are intelligence and creativity distinct abilities, or do they rely on the same cognitive and neural systems? We sought to quantify the extent to which intelligence and creative cognition overlap in brain and behavior by combining machine learning of fMRI data and latent variable modeling of cognitive ability data in a sample of young adults (N = 1...
Preprint
Full-text available
People visit museums with differing motivations. We use Falk’s visitor identity model to examine visitors’ motivation to visit an art museum. We assess (1) the prevalence of different motivation types; (2) how visit motivations and outcomes relate to visit satisfaction and length; and (3) the relation between visit motivations and fulfillment of ex...
Preprint
Given the scope and adverse clinical consequences of child abuse, assessment of salient etiological factors can lend critical insights needed for abuse prevention. Increasingly, dual-processing models have been applied to aggression which postulate that parallel automatic and conscious processes can evoke aggressive behavior, implicating both affec...
Article
Major depressive disorder (MDD) has extensive ties to motivation, including impaired response time (RT) performance. Average RT, however, conflates response speed and variability, so RT differences can be complex. Because recent studies have shown inconsistent effects of MDD on RT variability, the present research sought to unpack RT performance wi...
Article
Background Clarifying the pathways leading parents to engage in parent-child aggression (PCA) would benefit child abuse prevention efforts during the perinatal period. Objective The present investigation empirically tested whether a social information processing (SIP) model could predict PCA risk from factors assessed in new mothers and fathers....
Article
Deficits in self-regulation and motivation are central to depression. Using motivational intensity theory (Brehm & Self, 1989), the present research examined how depressive anhedonia influences effort during a piece-rate appetitive task. In piece-rate tasks, people can work at their own pace and are rewarded for each correct response, so they can g...
Preprint
Full-text available
The Aesthetic Fluency Scale is a commonly used measure of people’s art knowledge. This scale was initially developed for museum visitors, but its usage has expanded to other populations, including non-arts students. The present research used an Item Response Theory approach to better understand the scale’s functioning in two samples—artistically en...
Preprint
The psychology of art and aesthetics has a long-standing interest in how low-level features, such as symmetry, curvature, and color, affect people’s aesthetic experience. Recent research in this tradition suggests that people find glossy, shiny objects and materials more attractive than flat, matte ones. The present experiment sought to replicate a...
Preprint
Right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) has well-known links with humor appreciation, such as enjoying jokes that target deviant groups, but less is known about RWA and creative humor production—coming up with funny ideas oneself. A sample of 186 young adults completed a measure of RWA, the HEXACO-100, and 3 humor production tasks that involved writing f...
Preprint
In the large literature on creativity and mental illness, relatively few studies have explored anhedonia—impairments in anticipating, seeking, and experiencing rewards. This project explored self-reported creativity in a sample of adults who differed in depressive anhedonia, determined via face-to-face structured clinical interviews. Participants c...
Preprint
Major depressive disorder (MDD) has extensive ties to motivation, including impaired response time (RT) performance. Average RT, however, conflates response speed and variability, so RT differences can be complex. Because recent studies have shown inconsistent effects of MDD on RT variability, the present research sought to unpack RT performance wi...
Article
Full-text available
Mental control of musical imagery is a complex but understudied process that consists of two components: initiation—whether the musical imagery experience began voluntarily or involuntarily—and management—whether instances of control occur after the experience has begun (e.g., changing the song). The present research examined these two components u...
Article
Full-text available
The worst performance rule (WPR) is a robust empirical finding reflecting that people’s worst task performance shows numerically stronger correlations with cognitive ability than their average or best performance. However, recent meta-analytic work has proposed this be renamed the “not-best performance” rule because mean and worst performance seem...
Article
The primary aim of the study was to examine whether dimensions of perfectionism—socially prescribed perfectionism (SPP) and self-oriented perfectionism (SOP)—were related to causal attributions, and to what extent event-specific attributions about social interactions were related to mood. Experience sampling methodology was used to examine event-sp...
Preprint
This study investigated the academic traits and habits that predict individual differences in mind-wandering during lectures, and whether this mind-wandering propensity mediates the associations between academic traits and course outcomes (final grade and situational interest in the material). Undergraduates (N=851) from 10 psychology classes at tw...
Article
The study of trait curiosity sorts into two approaches. One looks downward by unpacking and differentiating trait curiosity, with an emphasis on its facets, kinds, and parts. Another looks upward by locating trait curiosity within the larger structure of global personality traits. This article reviews research that looks upward by locating curiosit...
Article
Full-text available
This article reviews the causal implications of latent variable and psychometric network models for the validation of personality trait questionnaires. These models imply different data generating mechanisms that have important consequences for the validity and validation of questionnaires. From this review, we formalize a framework for assessing t...
Article
Full-text available
Cognitive and neuroimaging evidence suggests that episodic and semantic memory—memory for autobiographical events and conceptual meaning, respectively—support different facets of creative thinking, with a growing number of studies reporting activation of brain regions within the default network during performance on creative thinking tasks. The pre...
Preprint
The worst performance rule (WPR) is a robust empirical finding reflecting that people’s worst task performance shows stronger relations to cognitive ability compared to their average or best performance. However, recent meta-analytic work has proposed this be renamed the “not-best-performance” rule because mean and worst performance seem to predict...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Research suggests that social disconnection is one pathway that explains why perfectionists have higher negative mental health outcomes. However, thus far research has not examined the role that perfectionists’ expectations about their social world plays in explaining social disconnection. The current study examined whether negative e...
Preprint
Full-text available
This article reviews the causal implications of latent variable and psychometric network models for the validation of personality trait questionnaires. These models imply different data generating mechanisms that have important consequences for the validity and validation of questionnaires. From this review, we formalize a framework for assessing t...
Preprint
Full-text available
Are intelligence and creativity distinct abilities, or do they rely on the same cognitive and neural systems? We sought to quantify the extent to which intelligence and creative cognition overlap in brain and behavior by combining machine learning of fMRI data and latent variable modeling of cognitive ability data in a sample of young adults (N = 1...
Article
Full-text available
We offer the first systematic quantitative meta-analysis on sex differences in humor production ability. We included studies where participants created humor output that was assessed for funniness by independent raters. Our meta-analysis includes 36 effect sizes from 28 studies published between 1976 and 2018 (N = 5057, 67% women). Twenty of the 36...
Article
Full-text available
Open people show greater interest in situations that are complex, novel, and difficult to understand-situations that may also be experienced as confusing. Here we investigate the possibility that openness/intellect is centrally characterized by more positive relations between interest and confusion. Interest and confusion are key states experienced...
Preprint
Functional neuroimaging research has recently begun to explore cognitive mechanisms of creativity that underlie the interactions between large-scale brain networks—specifically regions of the executive control (ECN) and default (DN) networks. Increased ECN-DN coupling has been shown to occur when participants are required to overcome conceptual int...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Given the costly outcomes associated with the physical abuse and harsh discipline of children, identifying pathways leading parents to engage in parent-child aggression (PCA) are critical to prevention and intervention efforts. One model that attempts to identify the processes involved in increasing parents' risk is an adaptation of Soc...