Paul Wesley Schultz

Paul Wesley Schultz
California State University, San Marcos | CSUSM

About

123
Publications
227,876
Reads
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20,629
Citations
Introduction
Wesley Schultz currently works at California State University, San Marcos. Wes does research in Social Psychology and Environmental Psychology.

Publications

Publications (123)
Article
Mentoring relationships can be important for promoting the success and persistence of undergraduates, particularly for students from historically underrepresented groups in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines. While mentoring is often cited as important for attracting and retaining students from underrepresented gro...
Article
We conducted two field experiments to promote summer electricity conservation among low-to-moderate income households that do not pay for energy. Both experiments were conducted during summer months when electricity use increases, and both focused on reducing use of air-conditioning. Study 1 delivered face-to-face communications that provided norma...
Article
Full-text available
Many regions around the world experience both chronic and intermittent needs for residents to reduce their water consumption. Recent advances in water metering infrastructure offer opportunities to provide customers with detailed feedback about their consumption, but research in behavioral science suggests that feedback by itself is not enough to m...
Article
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Managing demand for energy is becoming increasingly important for efforts to shift toward more sustainable lifestyles. Managing demand for energy involves changes in human behaviour, and can be achieved through more efficient uses of technology, and through conservation. Feedback is often cited as a critical tool to promote energy conservation and...
Article
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The hypothesis that experiencing extreme weather events can affect environmental concerns have long been discussed, yet rarely investigated. In a unique before and after design, 122 residents in Florida USA answered survey questions before and after experiencing hurricane Irma in September, 2017. After experiencing Irma, Floridians reported higher...
Article
Persuasive communication campaigns are often used to promote proenvironmental actions, even though their effectiveness has been mixed. Previous research has tested cognitive-based models in explaining proenvironmental choice, but few studies have examined the potential impact of emotional dimensions. This experimental study tests the persuasive eff...
Chapter
This chapter focuses on social norms and people's tendency to conform to pro‐environmental behaviour. It explains what social norms are, how they influence (environmental) behaviour, and when. Social norms are rules and standards that are understood by members of a group, and that guide and/or constrain human behaviour without the force of laws. Al...
Article
Advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) allows for hour‐by‐hour monitoring of water usage and has created new opportunities to communicate with customers. This article summarizes the results from a large‐scale deployment of an AMI system with more than 85,000 residential customers. Households were provided with access to a secure customer online por...
Article
Cambridge Core - Social Psychology - Applied Social Psychology - edited by Linda Steg
Article
Full-text available
African Americans, Latinos, and Native Americans are historically underrepresented minorities (URMs) among science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) degree earners. Viewed from a perspective of social influence, this pattern suggests that URMs do not integrate into the STEM academic community at the same rate as non-URM students. Est...
Article
The influence of social norms on behavior has been a longstanding storyline within social psychology. Our 2007 Psychological Science publication presented a new rendition of this classic telling. The reported field experiment showed that social norms could be leveraged to promote residential energy conservation, but importantly, the descriptive nor...
Article
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New data highlight the importance of undergraduate research experiences (UREs) for keeping underrepresented science students on the pathway to a scientific career. We used a large-scale, 10-year, longitudinal, multi-institutional, propensity-score-matched research design to compare the academic performance and persistence in science of students who...
Article
The current article explores the impact of mindfulness on belief in climate change and the mediating effect of connectedness with nature in this relationship. Belief in climate change was assessed both explicitly (using a self-report questionnaire) and implicitly (using an Implicit Association Test [IAT]). A total of 103 university students were re...
Article
Normative information has shown success in promoting proenvironmental behavior. Research suggests that its influence is largely underdetected, with recipients widely underestimating its impact. Consequently, behavioral changes induced by normative information should be perceived as intrinsically motivated. This hypothesis was tested with a commitme...
Article
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Concerns for environmental issues are important drivers of sustainable and pro-environmental behaviors, and can be differentiated between those with a self-enhancing (egoistic) vs. self-transcendent (biospheric) psychological foundation. Yet to date, the dominant approach for promoting pro-environmental behavior has focused on highlighting the bene...
Article
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Smart home technologies offer exciting opportunities to promote more efficient uses of energy. For instance, programmable thermostats, centralized lighting controls, and rooftop solar panels all have potential for energy conservation and efficiency. However, these technologies alone will not guarantee energy savings. Whereas previous research on sm...
Article
From a social psychological perspective, addressing the threats of climate change involves not only education, which imparts objective facts upon a passive individual, but also a socializing process. The Tripartite Integration Model of Social Influence (TIMSI) provides a theoretical framework that connects acquiring climate change knowledge with in...
Article
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Supplemental Instruction (SI) is a well-recognized model of academic assistance with a history of empirical evidence demonstrating increases in student grades and decreases in failure rates across many higher education institutions. However, as college students become more accustomed to learning in online venues, what is not known is whether an SI...
Article
Mentoring, particularly same-gender and same-race mentoring, is increasingly seen as a powerful method to attract and retain more women and racial minorities into science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education and careers. This study examines elements of a mentoring dyad relationship (i.e., demographic and perceived similarity o...
Article
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When implementing environmental education and interventions to promote one pro-environmental behavior, it is seldom asked if and how non-target pro-environmental behaviors are affected. The spillover effect proposes that engaging in one behavior affects the probability of engagement or disengaging in a second behavior. Therefore, the positive spill...
Article
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Personal and political action on climate change is traditionally thought to be motivated by people accepting its reality and importance. However, convincing the public that climate change is real faces powerful ideological obstacles 1–4 , and climate change is slipping in public importance in many countries 5,6. Here we investigate a diierent appro...
Chapter
In environmental psychology, theories are used to make predictions about human behavior in relation to environmental issues. In this chapter, we discuss three research designs often used in environmental psychological research to test these hypotheses. We discuss the key features of experimental studies, quasi-experimental studies, and correlationa...
Article
The way individuals relate to the natural environment is culturally patterned. In this article we review and discuss cross-cultural differences and similarities in a number of important domains including environmental concern, environmental risk perception, and pro-environmental behaviour. Three possible psychological universals (future thinking, s...
Article
Full-text available
Personal and political action on climate change is traditionally thought to be motivated by people accepting its reality and importance. However, convincing the public that climate change is real faces powerful ideological obstacles1–4, and climate change is slipping in public importance in many countries5,6. Here we investigate a di�erent approach...
Article
Stereotypes influence academic interests, performance, and ultimately career goals. The long-standing National Institutes of Health Research Initiative for Scientific Enhancement (RISE) training program has been shown to be effective at retaining underrepresented minorities in science. We argue that programs such as RISE may alter the experience an...
Article
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People in industrialized countries may be losing their connection with nature. The Get to Know Program (Get to Know) is a multi-faceted program aimed at encouraging direct connection with nature through a variety of activities (observations of wildlife, hiking, creative arts, and special events), specifically among youth. Three studies assessed the...
Conference Paper
The mission of the Personalized Energy Reduction Cyber-physical System (PERCS) is to create new possibilities for improving building operating efficiency, enhancing grid reliability, avoiding costly power interruptions, and mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. PERCS proposes to achieve these outcomes by engaging building occupants as partners in a...
Article
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Recent technological advancements in lighting have produced light bulbs that are dramatically more efficient than the traditional incandescent bulb. Yet despite these benefits, the marketplace has been slow to adopt these newer and more efficient bulbs. To help facilitate this change, the Environmental Protection Agency’s ENERGY STAR program conduc...
Article
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Smart grid systems aim to provide a more stable and adaptable electricity infrastructure, and to maximize energy efficiency. Grid-linked technologies vary widely in form and function, but generally share common potentials: to reduce energy consumption via efficiency and/or curtailment, to shift use to off-peak times of day, and to enable distribute...
Article
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This article examines the role of social norms messages in promoting water conservation. A field experiment is reported in which residents were provided with personalized feedback about their water consumption, coupled with normative information about similar households in their neighborhood. Normative information was provided either through a web-...
Article
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Many psychological processes unfold over time, necessitating longitudinal research designs. Longitudinal research poses a host of methodological challenges, foremost of which is participant attrition. Building on Dillman's work, we provide a review of how social influence and relationship research informs retention strategies in longitudinal studie...
Article
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Achieving a sustainable future will require that people do things differently. Community-based social marketing (CBSM) provides a framework for fostering sustainable behavior, and the approach is being increasingly utilized across a range of domains including energy conservation, recycling, reducing water consumption, promoting sustainable seafood...
Article
It is widely agreed that humans must reduce their environmental impact. We propose that an improved understanding of our evolved human nature can help to improve programs and policies to address environmental problems. Combining evolutionary and social psychological approaches, we argue that environmental problems are often caused or exacerbated by...
Article
Environmental problems have their origins in human behavior, and as a result, any solution to environmental issues will require changes in behavior. While many disciplines in the social and behavioral sciences offer important perspectives on the behaviors linked with environmental problems, the study of the individual brings a focus on cognitive, s...
Article
Full-text available
Reports an error in "Sustaining optimal motivation: A longitudinal analysis of interventions to broaden participation of underrepresented students in STEM" by Paul R. Hernandez, P. Wesley Schultz, Mica Estrada, Anna Woodcock and Randie C. Chance (Journal of Educational Psychology, 2013[Feb], Vol 105[1], 89-107). In the article “Sustaining optimal m...
Article
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The goal of this research was to test the role of contextually implied descriptive social norms in promoting energy conservation, and the norm–salience consequences of posted messages. In Experiment 1, the norm in a campus computer laboratory was manipulated (all unused computers/monitors turned on or off) as well as activation of the norm (small s...
Article
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It has been suggested that a positive human–nature relationship is essential for countering today’s environmental problems. Prior environmental education research has focused largely on knowledge or attitudinal outcomes, and few studies have examined the ability of environmental education programmes to promote connectedness with nature. Therefore,...
Article
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The underrepresentation of racial minorities and women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines is a national concern. Goal theory provides a useful framework from which to understand issues of underrepresentation. We followed a large sample of high-achieving African American and Latino undergraduates in STEM discipli...
Article
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This article reports the results from a large-scale study of littering behavior. Findings are reported from coded observations of the littering behavior among 9,757 individuals at 130 outdoor public locations in the United States. The focus was on littering behavior of any item, but a separate sample is also reported on the littering behavior of on...
Article
Full-text available
Stereotype threat impairs performance across many domains. Despite a wealth of research, the long-term consequences of chronic stereotype threat have received little empirical attention. Beyond the immediate impact on performance, the experience of chronic stereotype threat is hypothesized to lead to domain disidentification and eventual domain aba...
Article
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This research investigates how participation in college-based science-training programs increases student intention to pursue a scientific career. Using identity theory, we delineate three levels of social structure and conceptualize science-training programs as proximate social structures. Results from a sample of 892 undergraduate science student...
Article
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Prior research has shown a tendency for environmental problems to be rated as more severe at the global level than at the local level. The present paper reports re-analyses of a large cross-cultural dataset (Study 1, k = 22, N = 3,277) and new cross-cultural data (Study 2, k = 8, N = 1,131) examining the prevalence of this spatial bias in the rated...
Article
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Three studies are reported that examine the effects of valence on connectedness with nature. In Study 1, results showed that the implicit association test (IAT) effect is robust to the valence of the stimuli. Participants showed stronger self-nature than self-built associations, regardless of whether the stimuli were positively or negatively valenc...
Article
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The Environmental Motives Scale (EMS) was developed to measure an individual's concerns about environmental issues. The measure provides subscale scores for egoistic, social-altruistic, and biospheric concerns. Prior studies have shown a good fit for the 3-factor structure, but the measure has yet to be used with children. In this paper we report t...
Book
Behavior change is central to the pursuit of sustainability. This book details how to use community-based social marketing to motivate environmental protection behaviors as diverse as water and energy efficiency, alternative transportation, and watershed protection. With case studies of innovative programs from around the world, including the Unite...
Article
Full-text available
The study of social influence is central to social psychology and to understanding group processes and intergroup relations. Social influence research covers a broad range of topics, from persuasion and attitude change, to compliance and conformity, to collective action and social change. This Special Issue presents eleven empirical articles that r...
Article
Social influence researchers have identified normative social influence as an effective behavioral strategy for addressing global climate change. However, strategies alone are useless if they are not adopted by energy outreach and education experts. In the present study we were interested in understanding and changing energy experts’ perceptions of...
Method
Full-text available
An observational protocol for coding littering behavior. This protocol was used in our 2013 E&B publication, and for other research aimed at understanding and quantifying littering behavior.
Article
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Across 14 different outdoor settings in 8 states, the authors interviewed 102 disposers to examine how littering behavior is affected by environmental factors, social norms, demographic characteristics, and self-reported motivations. Observations revealed that 25% of all disposals were littered, and the most commonly littered item was cigarette but...
Article
For more than 40 years, there has been a concerted national effort to promote diversity among the scientific research community. Yet given the persistent national-level disparity in educational achievements of students from various ethnic and racial groups, the efficacy of these programs has come into question. The current study reports results fro...
Article
Reports an error in "Toward a model of social influence that explains minority student integration into the scientific community" by Mica Estrada-Hollenbeck, Anna Woodcock, Paul R. Hernandez and P. Wesley Schultz (Journal of Educational Psychology, np). The name of the author Mica Estrada-Hollenbeck should have read Mica Estrada. All versions of th...
Article
Full-text available
Students from several ethnic minority groups are underrepresented in the sciences, such that minority students more frequently drop out of the scientific career path than non-minority students. Viewed from a perspective of social influence, this pattern suggests that minority students do not integrate into the scientific community at the same rate...
Article
Recent psychological research has examined the beliefs that individuals hold about their relationship with the natural world. This article builds on the previous literature on connectedness with nature and we introduce a new game version of the Implicit Association Test (IAT), known as FlexiTwins. The game is intended to facilitate research using t...
Article
In Southern California, white croaker caught within proximity to the Palos Verdes Shelf Superfund Site have been found to be contaminated with such high levels of dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane and polychlorinated biphenyls that fish consumption advisories recommend that this fish should not be consumed. In response to this risk, the U.S. Enviro...
Article
Full-text available
There is a rich body of psychological research that has examined the motivational bases of pro-environmental behavior. In essence, why is it that individuals engage in behaviors that are beneficial to the natural environment? One commonly-used approach for understanding pro-environmental behavior is to treat it as a specific form of prosocial behav...
Article
Recent studies have suggested that crime-prevention strategies tend to interact with characteristics of the community in such a way that what works in one community might not work in another. In this article, we extend this finding to fear of crime and residents' perceptions of crime using a Focus Theory of Normative Conduct framework. Data are rep...
Article
Full-text available
We set forth an argument for the integration of social science research with natural science and engineering research in major research infrastructure investments addressing water science. A program of integrated observation of water resources offers great opportunities to address several environmental “grand challenges” identified by the National...