Paul van Schaik

Paul van Schaik
Teesside University · School of Social Sciences, Humanities and Law

PhD

About

208
Publications
85,568
Reads
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4,500
Citations
Introduction
Behavioural science/psychology/cybersecurity/energy use, psychological modes/methods, user experience, technology acceptance, statistical data analysis, R, domestic energy use, domestic demand-side-response/DSR/demand response, user experience in social housing

Publications

Publications (208)
Article
To produce graduates with strong knowledge and skills in the application of evidence into healthcare practice, it is imperative that all undergraduate health and social care students are taught, in an efficient manner, the processes involved in applying evidence into practice. The two main concepts that are linked to the application of evidence int...
Article
Background Nurses' ability to apply evidence effectively in practice is a critical factor in delivering high-quality patient care. Evidence-based practice (EBP) is recognised as the gold standard for the delivery of safe and effective person-centred care. However, decades following its inception, nurses continue to encounter difficulties in impleme...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Research indicates that both observed and imagined actions can be represented in the brain as two parallel sensorimotor representations. One proposal is that higher order cognitive processes would align these two hypothetical action simulations. Methods We investigated this hypothesis using an automatic imitation paradigm, with functi...
Article
Recent decision‐making research provides empirical evidence that human risk preferences are constructed “on the fly” during risk elicitation, influenced by the decision‐making context and the method of risk elicitation (Kusev et al., 2020). In this article, we explore the lability of human risk preferences and argue that the most recent choices gui...
Article
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Aim The Chief Medical Officer of England writes an annual social-norms-feedback letter to the highest antibiotic-prescribing GP practices. We investigated whether sending a social-norms-feedback letter to practices whose prescribing was increasing would reduce prescribing. Subject and methods We conducted a two-armed randomised controlled trial am...
Article
In preparation for unavoidable collisions, autonomous vehicle (AV) manufacturers could program their cars with utilitarian ethical algorithms that maximize the number of lives saved during a crash. However, recent research employing hypothetical AV crash scenarios reveals that people are not willing to purchase a utilitarian AV despite judging them...
Article
Background: Late diagnosis of HIV, hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) remains relatively common in the UK and many people who present late have missed opportunities for testing in primary care. The objective was to assess the effectiveness and acceptance of a prototype application (BBV_TP1), embedded in a primary care electronic health record...
Article
Background In response to the heightened emphasis on incorporating the best available evidence into healthcare decision-making, healthcare training institutions have been actively incorporating Evidence-Based Practice (EBP), and/or Evidence-Informed Practice (EIP) competencies into undergraduate healthcare curricula. However, there is a gap in the...
Article
Full-text available
Offering lower-energy food swaps to customers of online supermarkets could help to decrease energy (kcal) purchased and consumed. However, acceptance rates of such food swaps tend to be low. This study aimed to see whether framing lower-energy food swaps in terms of cost savings or social norms could improve likelihood of acceptance relative to fra...
Article
Children's packed lunches contain more sugar than school-provided meals. Interventions to improve the provision of healthier packed lunches have modest effects on lunch contents. This cluster randomised controlled trial tested an intervention to encourage healthier provision of packed lunches by parents of primary school children in Derby. Schools...
Method
Systematic review protocol: PROSPERO 2020 CRD42020196500 Available from: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?RecordID=196500
Article
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Background Older people with chronic musculoskeletal pain are at risk of falls. This study aimed to investigate the effects of exergaming on pain and postural control in older people with chronic musculoskeletal pain. Secondary outcomes were technology acceptance, flow experience, perceived physical exertion, expended mental effort and heart rate....
Article
Background: Food hypersensitivity is often self-diagnosed, and research into barriers to help-seeking is scarce. Aims: This study in the United Kingdom sought to establish the relationship between health beliefs, health anxiety, and diagnostic type (medically diagnosed vs. self-diagnosed) in individuals with food hypersensitivity, and qualitatively...
Article
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Aim The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate and synthesize published and unpublished literature on the effectiveness of a diverse range of exercise programs on back shape/posture, balance, falling and fear of falling in older people with hyperkyphosis. Objectives The objective of this systematic review is to determine the effects of diffe...
Article
The United Kingdom and the Netherlands exhibit similar levels of heavy episodic drinking but different drinking patterns among youths. This study aimed to assess the impact of country of residence on heavy episodic drinking among 293 British and Dutch youths, accounting for other behavioral determinants. Participants completed online questionnaires...
Preprint
Full-text available
On the 23rd March 2020, the UK entered a period of lockdown in the face of a deadly pandemic. While some were unable to work from home, many organisations were forced to move their activities online. Here, we discuss the technologies they used, from a privacy and security perspective. We also mention the communication failures that have exacerbated...
Article
Full-text available
The primary aim of the current study was to test the effect of the presentation design of a test alert system on healthcare workers’ (HCWs’) decision-making regarding blood-borne virus (BBV) testing. The secondary aim was to determine HCWs’ acceptance of the system. An online survey used a within-subjects research design with four design factors as...
Chapter
Full-text available
The clinical assessment of spinal deformities often involves the assessment of posture and back shape together with the associated mobility of the spine, pelvis and rib cage. Currently, there is a wide range of posture and back shape assessment tools available for clinical use. The choice varies from conventional approach to advanced structured lig...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background : Previous studies of exergaming for older people have reported mixed findings, but, overall, there is a broad indication of potential benefit. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of exergaming, comparing the Interactive Rehabilitation and Exercise System (IREX®) with traditional gym-based exercise with no virtual stimuli...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Older people with chronic musculoskeletal pain are at risk of falls. This study aimed to investigate the effects of exergaming on pain and postural control in older people with chronic musculoskeletal pain. Secondary outcomes were technology acceptance, flow experience, perceived physical exertion, expended mental effort and heart rate....
Article
Risk perception is an important driver of netizens’ (Internet users’) cybersecurity behaviours, with a number of factors influencing its formation. It has been argued that the affect heuristic can be a source of variation in generic risk perception. However, a major shortcoming of the supporting research evidence for this assertion is that the cent...
Article
Full-text available
In the last decade, a number of studies in the behavioral sciences, particularly in psychology and economics, have explored the complexity of individual risk behavior and its underlying factors. Most previous studies have examined the influences of various socio-economic, cognitive, biological and psychological factors on human decision-making, how...
Article
Understanding human behavior from the perspective of normative and descriptive theories depends on human agents having stable and coherent decision-making preferences. Both utility theory (expected rational behavior; von Neumann & Morgenstern, 1947) and prospect theory, with its certainty equivalent (CE) method (expected irrational behavior; Tversk...
Article
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Background: In recent years, the availability of publicly available data related to public health has significantly increased. These data have substantial potential to develop public health policy; however, this requires meaningful and insightful analysis. Our aim is to demonstrate how data analysis techniques can be used to address the issues of...
Article
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Patients’ involvement in decision-making regarding their own health care is considered to be of great importance. However, their information needs are frequently reported to be unfulfilled. Few studies have investigated the knowledge, information and support needs of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients and their families. Furthermore, pr...
Article
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Background and Purpose The traditional herbal supplements Panax ginseng and Ginkgo biloba are self‐medicated by members of the general public and prescribed by healthcare professionals in some EU countries for numerous health complaints. Clinical evidence is mixed and mechanisms of action are not fully understood. There is clinical interest into th...
Article
In order to evaluate and facilitate the provision of health information online, we must first understand how it is perceived by those who use it. Two important considerations in research on patients’ information use in online healthcare provider choice are the need for a conceptual framework for studying information types and methods for studying i...
Article
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Background There is a lack of evidence-based quantitative clinical methods to adequately assess posture. Our team developed a clinical photographic posture assessment tool (CPPAT) and implemented this tool in clinical practice to standardize posture assessment. The objectives were to determine the level of acceptance of the CPPAT and to document pr...
Article
This study examined the impact of fear appeal messages on user cognitions, attitudes, behavioural attentions and precautionary behaviour regarding online information-sharing to protect against the threat of phishing attacks. A pre-test post-test design was used in which 768 Internet users filled out an online questionnaire. Participants were groupe...
Article
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This article discusses the design and implementation of a new programming tool for Greek novices as a means to improve introductory programing instruction in Greece. We implemented Koios, a new highly interactive and visual programming tool for Greek novices, based on the body of research in the field of psychology of programming. The main contribu...
Article
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to test the protection motivation theory (PMT) in the context of fear appeal interventions to reduce the threat of phishing attacks. In addition, it was tested to what extent the model relations are equivalent across fear appeal conditions and across time. Design/methodology/approach A pre-test post-test design...
Poster
Previous decision-making research has investigated factors that influence moral utilitarian choice involving human life including: personal involvement (Greene et al., 2001), accessibility to utilitarian information (Kusev et al., 2016), utility content (Gold et al., 2013), and utility ratio (Martin & Kusev, 2016). However, no experimental studies...
Poster
Full-text available
Objective: Despite sexual consent negotiation being an integral component of sexual violence, it is largely unexplored 1) among young adolescents who are just beginning to have intimate relationships and 2) in relation to non-coital sexual behaviour (e.g. kissing) that is likely to be more salient among younger adolescents than other forms of sexua...
Article
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Customers’ behaviour plays an important role in combatting online-banking fraud. This study develops a model of precautionary online behaviour in the domain of online banking, based on protection motivation theory and other behavioural models. The model was tested with questionnaire data of 1200 users of online banking services in the Netherlands....
Poster
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This PhD project aims to: • Develop and test a model of shared decision-making for communities to allocate resources to projects and services. • Address the needs and inequalities in health and wellbeing by empowering citizens and creating a positive information-sharing relationship with the HWB and local authority.
Presentation
Full-text available
Recent neuroimaging studies show the involvement of motor and motor-related cortical areas in the brain is significantly greater for motor imagery during action observation (AOMI), compared to the more traditional use of either independent action observation (AO) or motor imagery (MI). Here we report AOMI training effects in a complex cup-stacking...
Article
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When attempting to predict future events, people commonly rely on historical data. One psychological characteristic of judgmental forecasting of time series, established by research, is that when people make forecasts from series they tend to underestimate future values for upward trends and overestimate them for downward ones, so-called ‘trend-dam...
Article
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Programmable surround lighting has the potential to enhance user-experience of media content, but there is a lack of research demonstrating this. Building on existing work in user-experience and Kurosu's framework for user-experience design and evaluation, we developed a method for testing people's experience of video content with added programmabl...
Article
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A quantitative behavioural online study examined a set of hazards that correspond with security-and privacy settings of the major global online social network (Facebook). These settings concern access to a user's account and access to the user's shared information (both security) as well as regulation of the user's information-sharing and user's re...
Article
Full-text available
A quantitative behavioural online study examined a set of hazards that correspond with security-and privacy settings of the major global online social network (Facebook). These settings concern access to a user's account and access to the user's shared information (both security) as well as regulation of the user's information-sharing and user's re...
Article
Background: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and social constructions of Thai massage (TM) and Swedish massage (SM) for patients experiencing fatigue or depleted energy. Method: Twenty participants were randomised to receive three once-weekly TM treatments and three once-weekly SM treatments, with crossover after three massages....
Article
Full-text available
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to compare three social cognitive models in their ability to explain intentions of precautionary online behaviour. The models are: protection motivation theory (PMT), the reasoned action approach (RAA) and an integrated model comprising variables of these models. Design/methodology/approach Data were collected...
Article
Full-text available
A quantitative empirical online study examined a set of 16 security hazards on the Internet and two comparisons in 436 UK- and US students, measuring perceptions of risk and other risk dimensions. First, perceived risk was highest for identity theft, keylogger, cyber-bullying and social engineering. Second, consistent with existing theory, signific...
Article
A quantitative empirical online study examined a set of 16 security hazards on the Internet and two comparisons in 436 UK- and US students, measuring perceptions of risk and other risk dimensions. First, perceived risk was highest for identity theft, keylogger, cyber-bullying and social engineering. Second, consistent with existing theory, signific...
Article
Full-text available
Background High-Fidelity Simulation (HFS) has great potential to improve decision-making in clinical practice. Previous studies have found HFS promotes self-confidence, but its effectiveness in clinical practice has not been established. The aim of this research is to establish if HFS facilitates learning that informs decision-making skills in clin...
Article
Full-text available
Financial risky decisions and evaluations pervade many human everyday activities. Scientific research in such decision-making typically explores the influence of socio-economic and cognitive factors on financial behavior. However, very little research has explored the holistic influence of contextual, emotional, and hormonal factors on preferences...
Article
The degree of familiarity with threats is considered as a predictor of Internet attitudes and security behaviors. Cross-sectional data were collected from 323 student participants about their familiarity about 16 different Internet threats. All participants were presented with definitions of threats and then asked to state how familiar they were wi...
Article
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Recent research suggests that psychological needs such as competence and relatedness are involved in users' experience with technology and are related to the perception of a product's hedonic and pragmatic quality. This line of research, however, predominately focuses on positive leisure experiences, and it is unclear whether need fulfillment plays...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The increasing availability of motion-sensing Internet-enabled products is currently shaping the direction of user-experience research. Based on a framework of subjective well-being, and an extended person-artefact-task model, the primary objective of this study was to explore the relationship between in situ product movements and user-experience....
Article
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Background The use of exergaming is a potential alternative to traditional methods of balance training, which can be repetitive and somewhat monotonous. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of exergaming using XBOX Kinect™ versus traditional gym-based exercise with no virtual stimuli (TGB) on postural control, technology acceptance,...
Article
Whereas the majority of previous research conducted on animal abuse has been in environments where animal abuse is rarely evidenced, the current study investigated the ramifications of animal abuse in an environment wherein the national culture creates an ethos of the "social acceptability" of animal abuse in society. Two survey studies were conduc...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We used a survey design to compare three social cognitive models in their ability to explain intentions of precautionary online behaviour. The models were protection motivation theory (PMT), the reasoned action approach (RAA) and an integrated model comprising variables of these models. Data from 1,200 Dutch users of online banking were analysed wi...
Article
Full-text available
Is it acceptable and moral to sacrifice a few people's lives to save many others? Research on moral dilemmas in psychology, experimental philosophy, and neuropsychology has shown that respondents judge utilitarian personal moral actions (footbridge dilemma) as less appropriate than equivalent utilitarian impersonal moral actions (trolley dilemma)....
Article
Magnitude-based inference offers a theoretically justified and practically useful approach in any behavioural research that involves statistical inference. This approach supports two important types of inference: mechanistic inference and practical inference to support real-world decision-making. Therefore, this approach is especially suitable for...
Article
Full-text available
Magnitude-based inference offers a theoretically justified and practically useful approach in any behavioural research that involves statistical inference. This approach supports two important types of inference: mechanistic inference and practical inference to support real-world decision-making. Therefore, this approach is especially suitable for...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Magnitude-based inference offers a theoretically justified and practically useful approach in any behavioural research that involves statistical inference. This approach supports two important types of inference: mechanistic inference and practical inference to support real-world decision-making. Therefore, this approach is especially suitable for...