Paul Matthew Salmon

Paul Matthew Salmon
University of the Sunshine Coast | USC · Centre for Human Factors and Sociotechnical Systems

PhD Human Factors

About

440
Publications
145,519
Reads
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11,266
Citations
Citations since 2016
250 Research Items
8455 Citations
201620172018201920202021202205001,0001,500
201620172018201920202021202205001,0001,500
201620172018201920202021202205001,0001,500
201620172018201920202021202205001,0001,500
Additional affiliations
October 2012 - March 2016
University of the Sunshine Coast
Position
  • Professor, Centre Director

Publications

Publications (440)
Article
In healthcare practice, state-of-the-art safety science methods are overlooked in favour of established methods. Bridging this ‘research-practice’ gap is critical to support safe, high-quality healthcare; however, it is not clear whether contemporary methods work as intended when used by practitioners. This study aimed to assess the criterion-refer...
Article
Work-related violence in hospitals is a growing problem that has significant personal, societal, and economic costs and adversely impacts the quality of patient care. The complex and multi-factorial nature of the issue is such that it is extremely difficult to understand and manage, and interventions have had varying levels of success. Systems thin...
Article
Cyclist crash and near miss incidents remain poorly understood. Further, cycling incidents are underreported and there is a lack of sufficient data to support effective prevention. The aim of this study is to introduce and report on the initial dataset from a novel cycling specific incident reporting and learning system, the Cyclist Reporting of In...
Article
The next generation of artificial intelligence, known as Artificial General Intelligence (AGI), could either revolutionise or destroy humanity. Human Factors and Ergonomics (HFE) has a critical role to play in the design of safe and ethical AGI; however, there is little evidence that HFE is contributing to development programs. This paper presents...
Article
Automation is already on our roads, and advanced automated vehicles are anticipated to become a common feature in road transport systems in the near future. While this represents a new era for road systems, automation has existed in other transport systems for decades. The aim of this paper was to analyse accidents involving automated technologies...
Article
Brain-computer interfaces (BCI) are an emerging technology that can read the brain signals of users, derive behavioral intentions, and manifest them in the control of electronic technologies. While there are potentially great benefits of this technology, there may also be risks associated with their use. However, it is not clear if these risks are...
Article
The systems thinking tenets were developed based on a synthesis of contemporary accident causation theory, models and approaches and encapsulate 15 features of complex systems that interact to create both safety and adverse events. Whilst initial testing provided supportive evidence, the tenets have not yet been subject to formal validation. This a...
Article
Formal risk assessment is a component of safety management relating to hazardous manual tasks (HMT). Systems thinking approaches are currently gaining interest for supporting safety management. Existing HMT risk assessment methods have been found to be limited in their ability to identify risks across the whole work system; however, systems thinkin...
Article
Maritime incidents occurring during pilotage are of international concern. Maritime pilots control most pilotage operations worldwide, yet despite the safety criticality of their role, research examining pilot decision-making processes during these complex and dynamic operations is scarce. This article describes the findings from two studies that u...
Article
Introduction Incident reporting and learning systems are a fundamental component of safety management. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a novel incident reporting system specific to the Australian Led Outdoor Activity (LOA) sector. The Understanding and Preventing Led Outdoor Accidents Data System (UPLOADS), is a recently introduced system...
Article
Full-text available
Active participation in the outdoors is beneficial for health and wellbeing. However, the impact of extreme weather, particularly heat, on safe participation is causing concern for organisations who lead these activities. Local mitigation strategies and acute management of heat- and sun-related illness (HSRI) are generally well understood by resear...
Article
Incident reporting systems are a fundamental component of safety management, however, most systems used in practice are not aligned with contemporary accident causation models. This article presents an analysis of a National Incident Dataset (NID) for adverse incidents occurring in the Australian Led Outdoor Activity (LOA) sector. The aim was to in...
Article
A large component of Neville Stanton's work has focused on situation awareness in domains such as defence, transport, and process control. A significant contribution has been to initiate a shift from considering individual human operator situation awareness to considering the situation awareness of human and non-human teams, organisations, and even...
Article
There is a growing body of road safety research that seeks to identify crash contributory factors beyond road users, their vehicles, and the immediate road environment. Although cyclist safety represents a critical research area, this ‘systems thinking’ approach has received less attention in bicycle crash analysis. This article presents the findin...
Article
This state of the science review brings together the disparate literature of effective strategies for enhancing and accelerating team performance. The review evaluates and synthesises models and proposes recommended avenues for future research. The two major models of the Input-Mediator-Output-Input (IMOI) framework and the Big Five dimensions of t...
Article
Systems-based methods such as AcciMap, STAMP-CAST and more recently AcciNet, are used to uncover the multifactorial cause of accidents within complex systems to support the development of new safety interventions. Despite this, there has been a lack of research that has formally examined the reliability and validity of systems-based accident analys...
Article
Purpose: The broad aim of sport-science research is to enhance the performance of coaches and athletes. Despite decades of such research, it is well documented that sport-science research lacks empirical evidence, and critics have questioned its scientific methods. Moreover, many have pointed to a research-practice gap, whereby the work undertaken...
Article
Full-text available
Artificial General intelligence (AGI) offers enormous benefits for humanity, yet it also poses great risk. The aim of this systematic review was to summarise the peer reviewed literature on the risks associated with AGI. The review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Sixteen articles...
Article
Musculoskeletal disorders caused by hazardous manual handling (HMH) create a significant burden on society and detriment to the daily activities of the injured person. It is widely accepted in safety science that systems thinking is the most suitable approach to safety management, but its adoption in the HMH context remains unclear. The aim of this...
Article
There is growing interest in the use of systems-based risk assessment methods in Human Factors and Ergonomics (HFE). The purpose of this study was to test the intra-rater reliability and criterion-referenced concurrent validity of three systems-based risk assessment approaches: (i) the Systems-Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA) method; (ii) the Even...
Article
Advanced technologies now threaten to surpass human intelligence. This watershed will radically impact the ways we currently play, view, and even understand sport. Artificial intelligence(AI) is progressing rapidly, and it remains a matter of time until the impact on sport is fully realized. Currently in sport, AI is a tool used to assist humans wi...
Article
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This paper reviews the key perspectives on human error and analyses the core theories and methods developed and applied over the last 60 years. These theories and methods have sought to improve our understanding of what human error is, and how and why it occurs, to facilitate the prediction of errors and use these insights to support safer work and...
Article
Cryptocurrencies are receiving significant attention owing to their volatility, affiliation with criminal activities and perceived role in money laundering. Traditional anti-money laundering enforcement techniques are proving ineffective due to a lack of a body of knowledge about the cryptocurrency system and the continued use of traditional approa...
Article
Full-text available
Collisions between road users (drivers, cyclists, motorcyclists, pedestrians) and trains at rail level crossings (RLXs) remain an intractable issue. This systematic review aimed to determine what is known regarding the factors influencing risk at RLXs, with a focus on understanding the causal relationships across the entire sociotechnical system. A...
Article
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) pandemic has had a dramatic impact on the way in which the community interacts within public spaces. Consequently, the design of these urban environments requires new approaches. It is our view that Human Factors and Ergonomics approaches can be used to provide these insights. This article explores the opport...
Chapter
The analysis of near miss incidents is recognized as an important component of safety management. The aim of this study is to present a systems analysis of near miss incidents in the Australian Led Outdoor Activity (LOA) sector. This study utilized the LOA specific incident reporting and learning system, Understanding and Preventing Led Outdoor Act...
Chapter
People experience the world around them in vastly different ways through a diverse range of sensory inputs and outputs. The purpose of this research was to explore a sociotechnical systems approach to support sensory urban design and establish an archetype model for public space design and evaluation. The research involved the construction of a Wor...
Chapter
Automated shuttles are currently being trialed as a new transport solution however to date there has been a lack of studies investigating how other road users interact with these new types of vehicles. The aim of this study was to understand the situation awareness (SA) of road users (driver, cyclist, motorcyclist, pedestrian) interacting with an a...
Chapter
Full-text available
There is growing interest in the use of systems-based risk assessment (RA) methods in human factors and ergonomics (HFE). Despite this, there has been a lack of formal reliability and validity testing undertaken to determine whether systems-based RA methods have the capacity to reliably and accurately identify potential risks within complex systems...
Article
Following strict “lockdown” restrictions designed to control the spread of the COVID‐19 virus, many jurisdictions are now engaged in a process of easing restrictions in an attempt to stimulate economic and social activity while continuing to suppress virus transmission. This is challenging and complex, and in several regions, new outbreaks have eme...
Article
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Communication failure within health care teams is a major cause of patient harm across health care settings. Factors which contribute to communication failure include actual or perceived ‘power’. Whilst a great deal of ergonomics research has focussed on teamwork in health care, the role of power in relation to measurable patient safety and perform...
Article
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Collisions between trains and road vehicles at rail level crossings remain an intractable transport safety issue. This paper describes the application of Rasmussen’s ecological interface design (EID) principles to the development of a novel ‘passive’ rail level crossing prototype design and its evaluation using two driving simulator studies. Study...
Article
The Patient Handling Injuries Review of Systems (PHIRES) Toolkit was developed to address a gap in the investigative processes that inform the review and revision of control measures in the prevention of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) from patient handling (see Newnam & colleagues, 2020). The PHIRES Toolkit is underpinned by a system-thinking app...
Article
There is increasing interest in applying systems Human Factors and Ergonomics (HFE) methods in sport. Risk assessment (RA) methods can be used identify risks which may impact the performance of individual athletes, teams, and overall sports systems; however, they have not yet been tested in sport. This study sets out to apply and compare three syst...
Article
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Determining the connectivity of team members in sport provides important information on team functioning. In soccer, teams that are highly connected via passing have been shown to be more successful compared to teams less connected via passing. In addition to passing connectivity, players are connected with each other via intra-team communication (...
Article
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The suspension of major sporting competitions due to the global COVID-19 pandemic had a substantial negative impact on the sporting industry. As such, a successful and sustainable return to sport will require extensive modifications to the current operations of sporting organizations. In this article we argue that methods from the realm of sociotec...
Article
Full-text available
The next generation of artificial intelligence, known as artificial general intelligence (AGI) could either revolutionize or destroy humanity. As the discipline which focuses on enhancing human health and wellbeing, human factors and ergonomics (HFE) has a crucial role to play in the conception, design, and operation of AGI systems. Despite this, t...
Article
Full-text available
The quest to explain and understand the cause of accidents is both ever-present and ongoing amongst the safety science community. In an attempt to advance the theory and science of accident causation, researchers have recently formalised a set of ‘15 systems thinking tenets’ that cover the conditions and characteristics of work systems that are bel...
Article
This article describes a study in which a popular systems analysis method was used to inform the design of a safety standard. Specifically, Work Domain Analysis was used to analyze and reorganise the structure of a safety standard for organisations providing adventure activities in Australia. Work Domain Analysis allowed for the identification of s...
Article
There is increasing interest in applying systems Human Factors and Ergonomics (HFE) methods in sport. The Networked Hazard Analysis and Risk Management System (Net-HARMS) is a recently developed risk assessment (RA) approach that draws on systems HFE methods to identify risks across overall work systems. What makes Net-HARMS unique is its capacity...
Article
Adverse incidents during Led Outdoor Activities (LOA) remains an ongoing concern worldwide. This paper provides a systems analysis of adverse incidents in the Australian Led Outdoor Activity (LOA) sector between 2018-2019. Incidents were reported by 18 LOA organisations via the LOA specific Understanding and Preventing Led Outdoor Accident Data Sys...
Article
Automation is an integral part of modern aviation operations. However, the discipline of human factors has long acknowledged its limitations and called for improved design. The aim of this study was to analyse automation-related incidents and accidents in aviation to identify recurring contributory factors. Sixteen investigation reports for inciden...
Article
This article examines safety leadership during regular safety‐related tasks conducted across a mining work system. Applying a systems‐thinking methodology, a modified version of the critical decision method (CDM) interview technique was used to examine decision‐making and behavior in association with five safety‐related tasks executed across the wo...
Article
The changing nature of work and society, and a proliferation of complex global challenges, is increasing the need for systems Human Factors and Ergonomics (HFE). The discipline is well equipped to respond, but there remain a number of longstanding issues preventing systems HFE from realizing its full impact. There is a research–practice gap, a lack...
Article
Full-text available
The common cause hypothesis, as applied here, proposes that similar networks of influencing factors may contribute to both adverse outcomes and near misses. This hypothesis has not been evaluated using a systems-thinking perspective. The aims of this study are to evaluate whether networks of contributory and protective factors exist within aviation...
Article
It is widely acknowledged that work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are created by a complex network of factors. However, it is questionable if this knowledge has been effectively translated into practice, especially concerning incident investigations. This is partly attributed to the lack of a tailored, systems thinking approach for inves...
Article
Full-text available
Darknet marketplaces have emerged as a facilitator of identity crime and trading. This study aimed to (1) understand the entities and control and feedback mechanisms that influence identity crime prevention and occurrence on the darknet in the Australian system and to (2) comprehensively identify the implications of control failures across all syst...
Article
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Objective This paper presents the Binary-Based Model (BBM), a new approach to Human Factors (HF) method selection. The BBM helps practitioners select the most appropriate HF methodology in relation to the complexity within the target system. Background There are over 200 HF methods available to the practitioner and little guidance to help choose b...
Article
Crashes at intersections represent an important road safety problem. Interactions between different road user types, such as between vehicles and vulnerable road users, are a particular concern. It has been suggested driver-centric road design plays a role in crashes. A multi-road user evaluation of three novel intersection designs is described. Th...
Article
Introduction Talent identification and development programmes that retain and develop athletes are integral to the sporting success of National Governing Bodies in football. Currently, player attributes are studied in isolation without considering the complexity of interacting components of football performance. The current study applied a systems...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
An increasingly urbanised world population requires the redevelopment of existing urban areas. This 'urban redevelopment' provides an opportunity to optimise the existing use and future delivery of water and energy services. However, current approaches to determine the ideal location and type of redevelopment are challenged by the complexity of wor...
Article
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Legislation mandating minimum distances for motorists passing cyclists is seen by advocates as a straightforward way to increase the perceived safety of cycling and thus remove a prominent barrier to the uptake of cycling. The evidence, however, is not as clear. The alternative to compliance-based enforcement via Minimum Passing Distance Laws (MPDL...
Article
Effective emergency response to any disaster is predicated on successful multi-agency coordination, which in turn relies on agencies to understand ‘what is going on’, generally known as Situation Awareness (SA). SA can be viewed from an individual, team or a systems perspective. Research in other safety critical environments and multi-team systems...
Article
System dynamics is a computational modelling method that is used to understand the dynamic interactions influencing behaviour in complex systems. In this article we argue that the method provides a useful tool for ergonomists wishing to model the behaviour of complex systems. We present a system dynamics model that simulates the behaviour of a drin...
Article
The introduction of fully autonomous vehicles is approaching. This warrants a re-consideration of road crash liability, given drivers will have diminished control. This study, underpinned by attribution theory, investigated blame attribution to different road transport system actors following crashes involving manually driven, semi-autonomous and f...
Article
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How humans will adapt and respond to the introduction of autonomous vehicles (AVs) is uncertain. This study used an agent-based model to explore how AVs, human-operated vehicles, and cyclists might interact based on the introduction of flawlessly performing AVs. Results showed that, although no conflicts occurred between cyclists and AVs, those amo...
Article
Full-text available
As AcciMap is now arguably the most popular accident analysis method in the peer-reviewed literature, there are key learnings to be taken from reviewing and synthesising published AcciMap analyses. In particular, the extent to which the network of contributory factors underpinning accidents is consistent across safety critical domains. This study r...
Article
Introduction This article presents a detailed systems analysis of injury incidents from 35 Australian led outdoor activity organisations between 2014 to 2017. Method Injury incident reports were collected using a specific led outdoor activity incident reporting system known as UPLOADS (Understanding and Preventing Led Outdoor Accidents Data System...
Article
Full-text available
Unlike aviation, maritime and rail, road traffic collision investigation currently does not have a national investigatory body in the UK. Yet the numbers of people killed and seriously injured on the roads is far in excess of those other domains. The research presented in this paper is part of a larger project investigating the development of a roa...
Article
Although there is a substantial body of literature describing the factors that contribute to musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) in the workplace, much of this research has focused on individual component failures, ignoring the factors influencing behaviour and decision-making. This gap in knowledge presents a challenge for practitioners wishing to und...
Article
Treatment access remains low for people with eating disorders. In addressing the complexity inherent in this challenge, this article introduces systems thinking and argues that it could provide new insights. Systems thinking views behavior as an emergent property of a system and considers the relationships between technical, organizational, and soc...
Article
Like many other sports, football is increasingly being described as a complex system. To date, however, there has been little explanation of complexity beyond the team level, and no formal examination of the extent to which the known characteristics of complex systems are present in football. This commentary reviews known characteristics of complex...
Article
Full-text available
The validity of methods is an ongoing issue in ergonomics. Inconsistent definitions and approaches to evaluation exacerbate this challenge. In this study, the construct and criterion-referenced validity of a new near miss reporting form was evaluated to determine the extent to which it comprehensively captures near miss incidents and is aligned wit...
Article
Full-text available
There is increasing interest in the adoption of a complex systems thinking approach when attempting to understand and optimize sports performance. Despite this, few studies have attempted to model elite sports organizations. The aim of this study was to use methods from the Cognitive Work Analysis (CWA) framework to develop a model of an elite netb...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this paper is explore, the Actor Map and AcciMap methods as applied to the Uber collision with a pedestrian. This approach moves the foci of study away from the immediate events surrounding the driver, to show decisions taken in the broader system created the circumstances necessary for the accident to occur.
Article
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The Human Factors Analysis & Classification System (HFACS) is arguably the most popular accident analysis method within Human Factors and Ergonomics. This literature review examines and reports on peer reviewed studies that have applied HFACS to analyse and understand the cause of accidents in a diverse set of domains. Four databases (PubMed, Scien...