Paul M Plotsky

Paul M Plotsky
Emory University | EU · Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences

PhD

About

183
Publications
45,606
Reads
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33,476
Citations
Citations since 2016
4 Research Items
5918 Citations
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201620172018201920202021202202004006008001,0001,200
201620172018201920202021202202004006008001,0001,200
Introduction
Paul M Plotsky is currently retired. Prior to retirement, Paul worked in the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Department of Psychology, the Department of Cell Biology, and the Yerkes National Primate Research Center at Emory University. His research was focussed research in the areas of Neuroscience, Biological Psychology and Developmental Psychology with an emphasis on the effects an adverse perinatal and early childhood environment on susceptibility and resilience to physical and/or mental diseases throughout life as well as potential protective behavioral or pharmacological interventions.
Additional affiliations
July 2016 - present
Emory University School of Medicine
Position
  • Professor Emeritus
Description
  • Retired
June 1998 - August 1998
Max-Planck-Institut für Psychiatrie
August 1992 - June 2016
Emory University
Position
  • GSK Professor
Education
September 1976 - August 1981
Emory University
Field of study
  • Physiology, Neuroendocrinology, Neuroscience
August 1970 - June 1974
University of Kansas
Field of study
  • Biology, Psychology, Chemistry

Publications

Publications (183)
Article
This chapter discusses the effects of glucocorticoids on the brain in relation to the ontogeny, and regulation of the hypothalamicpituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and its associated neurocircuitry. In addition, long-term consequences of fetal and neonatal stress are reviewed. The ability to respond to actual and perceived threats is critical to surviva...
Article
Introduction: Activation of the locus coeruleus-noradrenergic (LC-NA) system during awakening is associated with an increase in plasma corticosterone and cardiovascular tone. These studies evaluate the role of the LC in this corticosterone and cardiovascular response. Methods: Male rats, on day 0, were treated IP with either DSP4 (50 mg/ kg body...
Article
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The mouse has become the most common mammalian animal model used in biomedical research. However, laboratory techniques used previously in rats and other larger animals to sample blood had to be adapted in mice due to their lower mouse plasma volume. Sampling is further confounded by the variability in plasma hormone and metabolite concentrations t...
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The oxytocin (OXT) system is functionally linked to the HPA axis in a reciprocal and complex manner. Certain stressors are known to cause the simultaneous release of OXT and adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) followed by corticosterone (CORT). Furthermore, brain OXT attenuates ACTH and CORT responses. Although there are some indications of CORT in...
Article
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Pendrin (Slc26a4) is a Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchanger expressed in renal intercalated cells and mediates renal Cl(-) absorption. With pendrin gene ablation blood pressure and vascular volume fall, which increases plasma renin concentration. However, serum aldosterone does not significantly increase in pendrin null mice, suggesting that pendrin regulates...
Book
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This interdisciplinary book offers a unique exploration of the formative effects of children's early life experiences, with an emphasis on interactions among neurodevelopmental, behavioral, and cultural dynamics. The authors draw on insights from psychobiological, clinical, and cross-cultural comparative research that maps the robustness of these d...
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The mammalian startle response consists of a rapid extension and then flexion of a series of muscles in response to an abrupt stimulus that is usually auditory but may be somatosensory, vestibular, or visual. As a simple, stimulus-controlled behavior, the mammalian startle response has been used to investigate the neuroanatomical and cellular basis...
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Early experience is associated with long-term behavioral, neuroendocrinological, cognitive, and central nervous system (CNS) changes in rodents, guinea pigs, and primates. The specific effects of positive or negative stimuli during the neonatal period are believed to be dependent on the genetic background of the individual, developmental status of...
Article
A recent breakthrough in developmental biology is recognition that development is a dance between nature and nurture. Once the focus turned from debates pitting nature against nurture to understanding how the two necessarily work together, whole new avenues of research opened up. In consequence, many previously intractable puzzles have been answere...
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Anxiety disorders, depression and animal models of vulnerability to a depression-like syndrome have been associated with dysregulation of serotonergic systems in the brain. To evaluate the effects of early life experience, adverse experiences during adulthood, and potential interactions between these factors on serotonin transporter (slc6a4) mRNA e...
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Anxiety disorders, depression and animal models of vulnerability to a depression-like syndrome have been associated with dysregulation of brain serotonergic systems. These effects could result from genetic influences, adverse early life experiences (ELE), or acute stressful life events, all of which can alter serotonergic neurotransmission and have...
Article
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Individuals exposed to psychological stressors may experience a long-term resetting of behavioral and neuroendocrine aspects of their "stress response" so that they either hyper or hypo-respond to subsequent stressors. These effects of psychological or traumatic stressors may be mimicked in rats using the resident-intruder model of social defeat. T...
Article
Cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CA/CPR) increase the risk for affective disorders in human survivors. Postischemic anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors have been documented in animal models of CA/CPR; however, the stability of post-CA/CPR anxiety-like behavior over time and the underlying physiologic mechanisms remain unknown. T...
Article
In this study we addressed whether certain behavioural measures, endocrine levels and specific stress-related proteins exhibit long-term alterations in adult rats following repeated postnatal maternal separation. Rats were subjected to daily maternal separation for 15 min (HMS15) or 180 min (HMS180) from postnatal day 2-14. Adult HMS180 animals wer...
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Maternal separation/handling (MS/H) is an animal model of early life stress that causes profound neurochemical and behavioral alterations in pups that persist into adulthood. Many recent studies have used the MS/H model to study changes in drug effects in adulthood that are linked to behavioral treatments and stressors in the perinatal period. The...
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Developmental exposure to oxytocin (OT) or oxytocin antagonists (OTAs) has been shown to cause long-lasting and often sexually dimorphic effects on social behaviors in prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster). Because regulation of social behavior in monogamous mammals involves central receptors for OT, arginine vasopressin (AVP), and dopamine, we exam...
Article
Introduction: an overview Primary functions of norepinephrine during brain development Catecholamines are essential to normal neuronal development and thus can be detected from early ontogenesis onwards. The cellular environment influences which type of neurotransmitter (e.g. adrenergic or cholinergic) a neuron will produce. Glucocorticoids, for ex...
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Experimental environmental enrichment (EE) is usually applied in adulthood or immediately after weaning, with robust effects on physiology and behaviour. To investigate the effects of EE earlier in life, female rats were maintained under moderate enrichment during pregnancy and, together with their pups, during lactation until weaning. A separate g...
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We evaluated the effect of ketamine-xylazine-acepromazine anesthesia (31.25, 6.25, and 1.25 mg/kg subcutaneously, respectively) on postsurgical recovery in male Sprague-Dawley (Crl:SD) rats undergoing laparotomy with and without the postoperative analgesic ketorolac. Recovery was determined by changes in body weight (BW) and water intake. The time...
Article
In a series of studies on the long-term consequences of neonatal rearing, we compared hypothalamic and extrahypothalamic central corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) systems in male rats reared under conditions of animal facility rearing, nonhandling (HMS0), handling with brief maternal separation for 15 min (HMS15), or handling with moderate mater...
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In rodents, maternal pup interactions play an important role in programming the stress responsiveness of the adult organism. The aims of this study were 1) to determine the effect of different neonatal rearing conditions on acute and delayed stress-induced visceral sensitivity as well as on other measures of stress sensitivity of the adult animal;...
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This study investigated the effects of acute and chronic restraint stress during the third week of pregnancy on placental 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11beta-HSD2) activity in rats. Acute exposure to stress on gestational day 20 immediately up-regulated placental 11beta-HSD2 activity by 160%, while chronic stress from day 14 to day 1...
Article
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Burgeoning evidence supports a preeminent role for early- and late-life stressors in the development of physio- and psychopathology. Handling-maternal separation (HMS) in neonatal Long Evans hooded rats leads to stable phenotypes ranging from resilient to vulnerable to later stressor exposure. Handling with 180 min of maternal separation yields a p...
Article
Early adverse experiences represent risk factors for the development of anxiety and mood disorders. Studies in nonhuman primates have largely focused on the impact of protracted maternal and social deprivation, but such intense manipulations also result in severe social and emotional deficits very difficult to remediate. This study attempts to mode...
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Early life experience can have prolonged effects on neuroendocrine, autonomic, and behavioral responses to stress. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of early life experience on behavior during social defeat, as well as on associated functional cellular responses in serotonergic and non-serotonergic neurons within the dorsal...
Article
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This study tests the hypothesis that maternal depression during pregnancy predicts temperament in offspring aged 6 m to 5 y. Previous studies have shown that maternal depression is related to negative affect and that certain temperament factors, such as negative affect and behavioral inhibition, in children predict affective disorders. Here, matern...
Article
Certain adverse events in childhood, such as loss of a parent or sexual abuse, are associated with an increased vulnerability to develop depression later in life. Prolonged, daily maternal separation of rat pups induces several behavioral, endocrine and neurochemical changes similar to those observed in human depression. Because dysfunction of brai...
Article
Almost four decades of intensive research have sought to elucidate the neurobiological bases of depression. Epidemiological studies have revealed that both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the risk for depression. Adverse early-life experiences influence neurobiological systems within genetic limits, leading to the neurobiological an...
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Neonatal maternal separation of rat pups has been shown to produce long-term increases in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responsiveness, elevated levels of hypothalamic corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) mRNA in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), and enhanced anxiety-like behavior. These effects appear to be at least parti...
Article
Maternally separated rats exhibit exaggerated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal responses to an acute stressor but normal diurnal trough functioning. We hypothesized that maternally separated rats experience adequate proactive glucocorticoid negative feedback but deficient "reactive" negative feedback, contributing to prolonged hypothalamic-pituitary-...
Article
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To model aspects of trait anxiety/depression, Wistar rats were bred for extremes in either hyper (HAB)- or hypo(LAB)-anxiety as measured on the elevated plus-maze and in a variety of additional behavioral tests. Similar to psychiatric patients, HAB rats prefer passive stress-coping strategies, indicative of depression-like behavior, show hyper-reac...
Article
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Receptors for corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) are members of a family of G protein-coupled receptors ("Family B") that respond to a variety of structurally dissimilar releasing factors, neuropeptides, and hormones (including secretin, growth hormone-releasing factor, calcitonin, parathyroid hormone, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polyp...
Article
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The ability to obtain repeated, low-stress blood samples from adult rats enables the design of complex experiments in which time course information or evaluation of repeated treatments is necessary. Furthermore, it reduces the number of animals necessary to acquire such information and, thus, facilitates compliance with the animal use 3Rs (reductio...
Article
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To expand and accelerate research on mood disorders, the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) developed a project to formulate a strategic research plan for mood disorder research. One of the areas selected for review concerns the development and natural history of these disorders. The NIMH convened a multidisciplinary Workgroup of scientists...
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Neonatal maternal separation of rat pups leads to a stable stress hyper-responsive phenotype characterized by increased basal levels of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) mRNA in the hypothalamic and extra-hypothalamic nuclei, increased hypothalamic CRF release, and enhanced adrenocorticotrophin hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone (CORT) responses...
Article
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Postnatal maternal separation increases hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) gene expression and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and behavioral responses to stress. We report here that environmental enrichment during the peripubertal period completely reverses the effects of maternal separation on both HPA and behavioral responses...
Article
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Early neonatal environmental factors appear to have powerful and long-lasting influences on an organism's physiology and behavior. Long-Evans male rats separated from their dam for 3 h daily over the first 2 weeks of life (maternally separated, MS rats) when tested as adults exhibit exaggerated behavioral and neuroendocrine responses to stress comp...
Article
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Acute stress has profound effects on serotonergic activity, but it is not known whether alterations in the serotonin system can predispose individuals to exaggerated stress responses. We examined the regulation of 5-HT(1B) and 5-HT(1A) mRNA in two rodent models of differential sensitivity to stress: congenital learned helplessness (cLH) and handlin...
Article
Lactation in mammals is accompanied by a marked decrease in stress responsiveness that we previously attributed, in part, to a reduction in noradrenergic (NA) innervation of hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) neurons controlling neuroendocrine stress responses. In the present study, we compared in-vivo PVN catecholamine secretion by microdi...
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This study investigated the combined effect of neonatal maternal separation and acute psychological stress on pain responses in adult rats. Long-Evans dams and their male pups were reared under two conditions: 1) 180 min daily maternal separation (MS180) on postnatal days 2-14 or 2) no handling or separation (NH). At 2 mo of age, visceromotor respo...
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We have shown that exposure of rats to neonatal handling/maternal separation results in mossy fiber axon hypoplasia in field CA3 of the hippocampus. To better understand the molecular basis of this neuroanatomical alteration, the present study examined three developmentally regulated protein kinase C substrate mRNAs that are highly expressed in hip...
Article
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This study was based on the findings of a high comorbidity among anxiety and depression as well as with alcohol abuse. To evaluate first exposure alcohol preference in a rodent model of moderate neonatal maternal separation. Rat pups were exposed to either normal animal facility rearing (AFR) or 15 min (HMS15) or 180 min (HMS180) of maternal separa...
Article
Full-text available
Increasing evidence supports the view that the interaction of perinatal exposure to adversity with individual genetic liabilities may increase an individual's vulnerability to the expression of psycho- and physiopathology throughout life. The early environment appears to program some aspects of neurobiological development and, in turn, behavioral,...
Article
Full-text available
Rationale: This study was based on the findings of a high comorbidity among anxiety and depression as well as with alcohol abuse. Objective: To evaluate first exposure alcohol preference in a rodent model of moderate neonatal maternal separation. Methods: Rat pups were exposed to either normal animal facility rearing (AFR) or 15min (HMS15) or 180mi...