Paul Oakley

Paul Oakley

DC, MSc

About

126
Publications
79,211
Reads
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784
Citations
Citations since 2016
91 Research Items
723 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022050100150
2016201720182019202020212022050100150
2016201720182019202020212022050100150
2016201720182019202020212022050100150
Education
September 2021 - April 2024
York University
Field of study
  • Kinesiology & Health Sciences
September 2000 - October 2003
Palmer College of Chiropractic
Field of study
  • Chiropractic
September 1998 - April 2000
Queen's University
Field of study
  • Biomechanics

Publications

Publications (126)
Article
Full-text available
There is substantial evidence for normal relationships between spine and postural parameters, as measured from radiographs of standing patients. Sagittal balance, cervical lordosis, thoracic kyphosis, lumbar lordosis, pelvic tilt, and the more complex understanding of the interrelations between these essential components of normal stance have evolv...
Article
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[Purpose] To present the successful structural improvement in cervical lordosis in a patient suffering from cervicogenic headache having cervical kyphosis. [Participant and Methods] A 26 year old female presented with the primary complaint of headache. Radiography demonstrated a cervical kyphosis. Chiropractic BioPhysics® methods were used to resto...
Article
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Fears over radiation have created irrational pressures to dissuade radiography use within chiropractic. Recently, the regulatory body for chiropractors practicing in British Columbia, Canada, the College of Chiropractors of British Columbia (CCBC), contracted Pierre Côté to review the clinical use of X-rays within the chiropractic profession. A "ra...
Article
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Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility and effect of a multimodal pro-gram for the management of chronic nonspecific neck pain CNSNP with the addition of a 3D adjustable posture corrective orthotic (PCO), with a focus on patient recruitment and retention. This report describes a prospective, randomized controlled pilot s...
Article
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Purpose] To characterize the case report evidence of Chiropractic BioPhysics ® (CBP ®) technique methods applied to increase cervical lordosis and improve forward head posture. [Methods] The CBP Non-profit website as well as PubMed and Index to Chiropractic literature were searched for case reports/series documenting the increase of cervical lordos...
Article
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Objective: To characterize case report evidence of Chiropractic BioPhysics® (CBP®) technique methods applied to increase lumbar lordosis in patients with defined radiographic hypolordosis. Methods: The CBP NonProfit website and Pubmed and Index to Chiropractic literature databases were searched for case reports/series documenting lumbar lordosis ch...
Article
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Objective: To examine the evidence of Chiropractic BioPhysics® (CBP®) technique methods in pediatric case reports describing the improvement of the cervical lordotic curve and concomitant effects on pain and presenting condition. Methods: We searched the CBP NonProfit website as well as Pubmed and the Index to Chiropractic literature for clinical c...
Article
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[Purpose] To demonstrate the reduction of lumbar hyperlordosis, sacral base angle and anterior thoracic translation posture in an 11-year-old female. [Participant and Methods] A pediatric patient presented with lumbar hyperlordosis and underwent Chiropractic BioPhysics® treatment protocols to reduce her spinal deformity and correlated symptoms. Sym...
Article
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[Purpose] A case series is featured demonstrating reduction of curvature in three adult patients who presented with a mild to moderate severity of a uniquely high thoracic curvature clinical presentation. [Participants and Methods] Three adult patients who presented with an upper thoracic scoliosis deformity of mild to moderate severity underwent C...
Chapter
Full-text available
Chiropractic Biophysics® (CBP®) technique is a full-spine and posture correcting method that incorporates mathematical principles into a unique approach to treat spinal disorders. It considers that the identification of postural rotations and translations of human postures are first evaluated and compared to the radiographic assessment of the spine...
Article
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Objective: To characterize the evidence of CBP® technique methods in the reduction of lateral thoracic (pseudo-scoliosis) translation postures and its effect on pain, disability and quality of life. Methods: The CBP NonProfit website as well as Pubmed and Index to Chiropractic literature were searched for clinical studies on the reduction of latera...
Article
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Objective: To characterize the evidence of CBP® technique methods in the reduction of lateral head translation postures and its effect on pain, disability and quality of life. Methods: The CBP NonProfit website as well as Pubmed and Index to Chiropractic literature were searched for clinical studies describing reduction of lateral head translation...
Article
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Objective: We discuss the management of cooperative cervical total disc replacement and Chiropractic BioPhysics® interventions pre-and post-operatively aimed at restoring physiologic cervical lordosis. Clinical Features: A 38-year-old woman had neck pain radiating into her right shoulder and scapula coupled with paresthesia to the first and second...
Article
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[Purpose] To present the case of a dramatic improvement in the cervical lordosis and relief from chronic headaches and neck pain in a pediatric having a recent neck trauma. [Participant and Methods] A 10 year old male presented with recent neck trauma, neck pain and pre-existing chronic headaches. Cervical range of motion was limited with pain. X-r...
Article
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Objective: To discuss the successful reduction of lateral coronal spine displacements (global coronal imbalance) in 5 older patients with degenerative disc disease. Clinical Features: Five patients, with coronal imbalance and various pain, disability, and quality of life impairments, were treated using CBP© protocols. Intervention and Outcome: Trea...
Article
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Purpose] To systematically review the literature on the use of cervical extension traction methods for increasing cervical lordosis in those with hypolordosis and cervical spine disorders. [Methods] Literature searches for controlled clinical trials were performed in Pubmed, PEDro, Cochrane, and ICL databases. Search terms included iterations relat...
Article
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A subset of victims who experience concussion suffer from persistent symptoms spanning months to years post-injury, termed post-concussion syndrome (PCS). Problematically, there is lack of consensus for the treatment of PCS. Concussion injury involves a neurometabolic cascade leading to oxidative stress and neuroinflammation which parallels the oxi...
Article
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Objective: To compare medical radiologists' subjective qualitative commentary on cervical spine alignment to the images' actual quantitative and objective mensuration. Methods: One-hundred-and-eight consecutive lateral cervical x-ray radiology reports were reviewed for commentary about cervical alignment. The radiographs were digitized and quantifi...
Article
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There are pressures to avoid use of radiological imaging throughout all healthcare due to the notion that all radiation is carcinogenic. This perception stems from the long-standing use of the linear no-threshold (LNT) assumption of risk associated with radiation exposures. This societal perception has led to relentless efforts to avoid and reduce...
Article
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There is a faction within the chiropractic profession passionately advocating against the routine use of X-rays in the diagnosis, treatment and management of patients with spinal disorders (aka subluxation). These activists reiterate common false statements such as "there is no evidence" for biomechanical spine assessment by X-ray, "there are no gu...
Chapter
Full-text available
Increasingly, there is more attention being directed to the role that full spine sagittal alignment plays in causing or exacerbating a variety of musculoskeletal disorders. Similarly, spinal displacements, termed subluxation, are thought to cause dysfunctions in the entire neuromusculoskeletal system that may lead to altered neurophysiological func...
Article
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Purpose] To report on the reduction of a double lumbar spine spondylolisthesis by use of Chiropractic BioPhysics ® technique. [Participant and Methods] A 57 year-old male presented with severe chronic low back pains and sciatica. After playing hockey for 50 years, he was unable to continue and was forced to retire. Lumbar radiography showed an L3 r...
Article
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Purpose] To present the case of the relief of idiopathic dizziness and the reduction of neck pains and headache by the improvement in cervical alignment using Chiropractic BioPhysics ® technique. [Participant and Methods] A 57 year old female presented with 30 years of chronic dizziness, neck pains and headache. Multiple testing ruled out known cau...
Article
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Objective: To discuss the correction of multiple retrolistheses in a patient with back pain. Clinical Features: A 32-year old male sought care for recurrent back pain. He had reduced lumbar spine range of motion without neurologic involvement. Radiographic analysis showed multilevel pathologic retrolistheses from L1-2 to L4-5, as well as congenital...
Article
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I n t r o d u c t i o n The cervical lordosis represents normal anatomy and is a requisite for having a full range of motion, optimized joint loading, protection of the cord and nerve roots, and the preservation of upright horizontal gaze. (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6) Traditionally, the cervical lordosis was thought to evolve after birth, during early develo...
Article
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Recently, the American Chiropractic Association (ACA) joined the Choosing Wisely initiative which encourages participating societies to identify 5-10 tests, treatments or procedures that are perceived as commonly overutilized within their healthcare discipline. The goal is to educate patients and doctors of specific practices to question and limit...
Article
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All too often the family physician, orthopedic surgeon, dentist or chiropractor is met with radiophobic concerns about X-ray imaging in the clinical setting. These concerns, however, are unwarranted fears based on common but ill-informed and perpetuated ideology versus current understanding of the effects of low-dose radiation exposures. Themes of...
Article
Full-text available
Radiographic imaging for scoliosis screening, diagnosis, treatment, and management is the gold standard assessment tool. Scoliosis patients receive many repeat radiographs, typically 10-25 and as many as 40-50, equating to a maximum 50 mGy of cumulative exposure. It is argued this amount of radiation exposure is not carcinogenic to scoliosis patien...
Article
Full-text available
[Purpose] To systematically review controlled trial evidence for the use of lumbar extension traction by Chiropractic BioPhysics® methods for the purpose of increasing lumbar lordosis in those with hypolordosis and low back disorders. [Methods] Literature searches were performed in Pubmed, PEDro, CINAHL, Cochrane, and ICL databases. Search terms in...
Article
Full-text available
In this article we summarize the arguments against the use of the ‘ALARA’ (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) radiation protection principle [1]. Initially used in the nuclear energy sector, it was quickly implemented into the healthcare sector to caution doctors, radiologists and healthcare personnel to use radiological imaging judiciously because o...
Article
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ALARA is the acronym for “As Low As Reasonably Achievable.” It is a radiation protection concept borne from the linear no-threshold (LNT) hypothesis. There are no valid data today supporting the use of LNT in the low-dose range, so dose as a surrogate for risk in radiological imaging is not appropriate, and therefore, the use of the ALARA concept i...
Article
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Since the 1980s, increased utilization of medical radiology, primarily computed tomography, has doubled medically sourced radiation exposures. Ensuing fear-mongering media headlines of iatrogenic cancers from these essential medical diagnostic tools has led the public and medical professionals alike to display escalating radiophobia. Problematicall...
Article
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Objective: To discuss dramatic reduction of severe anterior sagittal balance and overall posture in an elderly woman with chronic low back pain and sciatica Clinical Features: An 87-year old female had low back pain and sciatica for 30 years. She had poor posture, limited flexibility and many positive orthopedic tests. Radiography quantified the g...
Article
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Objective: To present a case of the alleviation of chronic headaches and neck pain following a multimodal rehabilitation program aimed at improving the cervical lordosis by mirror image exercises, adjustments, and cervical extension traction as part of Chiropractic BioPhysics® technique. Clinical Features: A 29-year old female suffered from late w...
Article
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Objective: To describe the successful treatment of a patient with trigeminal neuralgia treated by the correction of craniocervical posture by Chiropractic Biophysics® technique methods. Clinical Features: A 64-year-old male developed trigeminal neuralgia following a dental procedure. He had failed to get lasting relief after several prior dental tr...
Chapter
Full-text available
Low back and neck pain disorders are among the leading causes for work loss, suffering, and health care expenditures throughout the industrialized world. It has been extensively demonstrated that sagittal plane alignment of the cervical and lumbar spines impacts human health and well-being. Today there are reliable and predictable means through the...
Article
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[Purpose] To present the dramatic improvement of sagittal posture in a young male with Scheuermann’s disease suffering from pain ailments as treated by Chiropractic BioPhysics® technique. [Participant and Methods] An 18 year old reported low back pain and headaches for several years. Full spine radiographic assessment revealed pronounced thoracic h...
Article
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Objective: To present the successful resolution of cervicogenic radiculopathy, neck pain, headache and vertigo in a patient presenting with vertebral subluxation, lateral head translation and forward head posture. Clinical Features: A 49-year-old male suffered from recent neck pain and upper extremity radiculopathy. Assessment revealed subluxation...
Article
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Purpose] To present the reduction of both lumbar spine hyperlordosis and anterior sagittal balance in a symptomatic patient as treated by Chiropractic BioPhysics ® technique. [Participant and Methods] A 46 year old reported with low back and hip pains for six years. Oswestry disability index scored 28%. Radiographic assessment revealed pronounced a...
Article
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Purpose] To present the structural improvement of an excessive junctional thoracolumbar kyphosis and related biomechanical parameters in an adolescent. [Participant and Methods] A 16 year old female presented with chronic back pains. Radiographic assessment revealed excessive posterior sagittal balance and thoracolumbar kyphosis and reduced lumbar...
Article
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A recent paper by Hazel Jenkins and colleagues attempts to present ‘Current evidence for spinal X-ray use in the chiropractic profession.’ Unfortunately, the review represents an author opinion, ‘red flag only’ guideline consistent with the practice of medicine, not chiropractic. In detail, we critically analyze the inappropriate and extensive use...
Article
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Objective: To discuss the reduction of lateral head translation pseudo-scoliosis in a patient with chronic craniocervical symptoms including cervical dystonia. Clinical Features: A 59-year-old female had cervical dystonia and cervical scoliosis. Examination showed symptoms consistent with dystonia including involuntary neck contractions, neck pain,...
Article
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Objective: To discuss a patient with increased thoracic spine kyphosis and improved exertional dyspnea who received Chiropractic BioPhysics® corrective treatments. Clinical Features: An 18-year old male had back pain and exertional dyspnea. Radiographic assessment revealed a significant reduction in thoracic spine curve. Straight back syndrome is t...
Article
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Objective: To describe the improvement in postural parameters in a 7-year old boy with back pains, nocturnal enuresis, and sinusitis. Clinical Features: A 7-year old boy had multiple health problems despite receiving previous treatment for poor posture. Radiographic assessment of posture revealed a cervical hypolordosis, lumbar hyperlordosis, and p...
Article
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X-rays have been the gold standard for diagnosis, evaluation, and management of spinal scoliosis for decades as other assessment methods are indirect, too expensive, or not practical in practice. The average scoliosis patient will receive 10 to 25 spinal X-rays over several years equating to a maximum estimated dose of 10 to 25 mGy. Some patients,...
Article
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Objective: To discuss a case where complete resolution of carpal tunnel syndrome occurred following improvement in cervical spine lordosis and reduction of a lateral head translation posture. Clinical Features: A 29-year old male had previously diagnosed carpal tunnel syndrome. Radiographic assessment showed an upper cervical spine kyphosis and a...
Article
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[Purpose] To demonstrate the reduction of symptoms related to Parkinson’s disease by improvement in posture. [Participant and Methods] A 59-year-old male patient presented with a prior diagnosis of Parkinson’s. Symptoms included a resting right hand tremor, intermittent ‘freezing episodes’ with gait, mild ataxia with shuffling on toes and bradykine...
Article
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[Purpose] There is a paucity of high-quality data pertaining to the conservative management of adult spinal deformity, particularly Scheuermann’s kyphosis. Long-term follow-up data for both treated and untreated Scheuermann’s patients is also lacking. Given that changes in sagittal balance are associated with increased morbidity, and that these cha...
Article
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Objective: Thoracic hyperkyphosis is a serious postural health disorder that is associated with many health conditions including morbidity and mortality. Methods: We reviewed all clinical evidence for the treatment of hyperkyphosis by Chiropractic BioPhysics® technique methods. Seven peer-reviewed papers were located that included 4 case reports, 2...
Article
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[Purpose] To present the case of the dramatic relief of low back pain, leg pain and disability in an older female with osteoarthritis, lumbar spinal stenosis and hypolordosis of the cervical and lumbar spine. [Participant and Methods] A 66-year-old female presented with chronic low back pain, right leg pain, numbness and weakness. Despite being rec...
Article
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Objective: To describe the treatment of an adolescent male with chronic neck pain, headaches, and cervical kyphosis following a motor vehicle collision (MVC) injury. Clinical Features: A 13-year-old male involved in a rear-impact MVC developed chronic neck pain, headache, and dizziness. The patient was diagnosed with cervical strain/sprain injury a...
Article
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[Purpose] To present the case of a total reduction of pseudoscoliosis spinal deformity in an adult female suffering from recurrent back pains. [Participant and Methods] A 29 year old female suffering from recurrent back pains was diagnosed with lateral thoracic translation posture; aka pseudoscoliosis. The patient was initially given 12 treatments...